UNESCO Series on Journalism Education Free

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UNESCO Series,on Journalism Education, Published in 2012 by the United Nations Educational. Scientific and Cultural Organization,7 place de Fontenoy 75352 Paris 07 SP. UNESCO 2012,All rights reserved,ISBN 978 92 3 001089 8. Cover design by Anne Barcat, The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout this publication do not. imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status. of any country territory city or area or of its authorities or concerning the delimitation of its fron. tiers or boundaries, The ideas and opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors they are not neces.
sarily those of UNESCO and do not commit the Organization. Typeset and printed by UNESCO,Printed in France,Table of Contents. Foreword Presenting The Global,Investigative Journalism Casebook. Introduction,Chapter One Chapter Six,Filed but not forgotten p 11 Following the money. 3 8 frauds and offshore funds p 149,Chapter Two 2 6 C. The ground beneath our feet 2 6,investigating social phenomena p 27.
6 1 Chapter Seven,4 3 Traffickers and tyrants p 171. 3 8 3 4 71,3 2 E 3 75,Chapter Three 5,Can this planet be saved. Investigating the environment p 67,A Chapter Eight. 3 8 When the game is fixed,3 3 7A investigating sport p 201. Chapter Four 0 1 1,Who s in charge here Investigating.
the crisis of governance p 93,2 7 B Chapter Nine,A The war on terror p 229. 2 6 0 C AA 6 3 8,Chapter Five,The local face of globalisation p 119. Foreword Presenting,The Global Investigative,Journalism Casebook. he role that media can play as a watchdog is indispensable for democracy and it is. for this reason that UNESCO fully supports initiatives to strengthen investigative. journalism throughout the world Investigative journalism signifies the unveiling. of matters that are concealed either deliberately by someone in a position of power or. accidentally behind a mass of facts and circumstances and the analysis and exposure of. all relevant facts to the public In this way investigative journalism crucially contributes. to freedom of expression and freedom of information which lie at the heart of UNESCO s. Following the successful launch of Story Based Inquiry A Manual for Investigative. Journalists UNESCO 2009 which has been adopted by many journalism programmes. in the Arab States Asia the United States of America and the Russian Federation we are. pleased to present The Global Investigative Journalism Casebook. Designed with users in mind the Casebook serves as a complementary material for. training purposes It will also enable and enhance the exchange of good practices and. networking in investigative journalism throughout the world The Casebook contains. more than 20 recent investigative stories from nearly every region of the world covering. a wide variety of topical subjects and of special interest to UNESCO such as freedom. of information good governance social and legal issues the environment health and. gender to name but a few each followed by an explanation of how the authors conduc. ted their research and the writing of the piece Many of the authors belong to the Global. Investigative Journalism Network and their stories exemplify the cutting edge techniques. and high standards developed within this network, I would like to take this opportunity to thank Mr Mark Lee Hunter and all those who. contributed to the Casebook We believe this knowledge resource serves as an ideal. complement to the training manual providing a valuable learning opportunity for jour. nalists and media professionals as well as for journalism trainers and educators It will. also be used by UNESCO field offices to conduct journalism training on investigative. At a time of a widening communications ecosystem journalism today needs to clearly. show its key value add to the public interest In this light credible investigative stories. like the kind promoted in this book are increasingly pivotal to public confirmation of the. continuing importance of professional journalistic work in the coming years. Introduction,Why this book exists,and how to use it.
1 Putting how over why, When I brought investigators to my journalism class at the Institut fran ais de Presse. masters students often turned into children They would marvel at these strange heroes. who uncovered secrets and dared to make enemies They would ask things like Were. you scared Finally I told them Stop admiring these people so much It s a way of telling. yourself that you can t be like them Stop asking why they do the job and start asking how. so you can do it too, This was unfair of me in one specific way The why of investigative reporting can t be. taken for granted I tell people that we do the job to change the world and ourselves But. the world doesn t always do what we prove it should do It just goes on being what it was. That leaves only one reason we can count on for motivation We try to leave a true record. of what we were what we did how we lived or died In the process we say to the people. who lived the stories we tell Yes it happened and no it wasn t just or fair I said that to a. man I was writing about once in so many words and I also said My story will prove you. were right but it won t fix your life He said So He had lost hope but he was glad to. have company To our mutual amazement when the story was published he got his career. back But that was the part I couldn t promise and neither can you The only promise you. can surely keep is to tell the story, Is that enough Perhaps not But if you don t believe that telling the true story matters. The Global Investigative Journalism Casebook, whether or not you get a material result you should do something else with your life. Either you think telling that is a meaningful thing to do or you don t If you don t nothing. anyone might say will convince you That s fine because nothing you might say can. convince me otherwise either This book exists to help you tell such stories. Preface Why this book exists and how to use it,2 How to use this book.
The idea for this collection began during a seminar for investigative reporters in Dakar. Senegal where I was teaching from Story Based Inquiry A Manual for Investigative. Journalists my previous 2009 collaboration with UNESCO Participants observed that. they might have a better idea of how to investigate if they had a common understanding. of what a good investigative story looks like Of course I had brought some samples with. me and of course because that is the way trainers and intellectual property rights tend. to function most of those stories were by me or my masters students whose work at. a French public university was public property But they wanted something else and. something more specifically they wanted to know what journalists around the world. were doing Were they facing the same problems of access to information and if so how. were they solving them Were they dealing with publics who paid attention to their work. or did they have to fight for attention How did they organise themselves and how did. they turn their information into stories, This book tries to answer those questions and to satisfy the desire that underlies them. the desire for reporters everywhere to feel that they too can contribute to the renaissance. of investigative journalism This is a movement and anyone who practices investigative. journalism can join Not everyone does there are still practitioners who prefer to follow. their own paths and that s fine Its members are the great majority of contributors to. this book I ll say more about the movement later, My first objective was to gather a broad range of material from within and outside the. Global Investigative Journalism Network GIJN I m proud to be a founding member. that embodies best practice in terms of information gathering and storytelling A second. objective was to persuade our contributors to share their methods of conception research. organisation and composition the foundation blocks of investigative work If you don t. know what you re looking for you re not likely to find it as Edwy Plenel of France said. so beautifully If you don t know where and how to look you won t find much even if. you have the right idea If you can t organise the material you ll make slow and meagre. use of it And if you can t tell a good story who cares about the rest We decided to start. with the print medium because it is the most accessible you only need a notebook and. a pencil and because writing skills transpose into different media very well In other. words if you can write a good story your chances of writing well for video or radio go up. When I sent out a call for material through the GIJN and other journalistic organisa. tions Story based Inquiry was the main international manual that integrates conception. research and writing I was relieved and glad to see that some contributors said that. they are in fact using story based inquiry methods But more important this anthology. confirmed that there are similar methods which don t yet have a name Every contributor. to this book has been forced to confront the issues described in the preceding paragraph. and to find solutions A professional investigative reporter in the 21st century uses a. method That may sound self evident but I can assure you that it was not always the. dominant practice in the decades following Watergate This is a step change because it. means that unlike previous generations of investigators this generation can transmit its. knowledge to its successors in a clear codified way. The afterwords to every article in the casebook set that knowledge out I may be wrong. but I can t think of any other collection of investigative work that contains so much current. tradecraft I ve known some of the contributors for years but I didn t know how they were. doing this stuff I sought this material by sending our contributors a questionnaire that. asked them to make explicit in detail certain aspects of their working methods I gladly. admit that I adapted the questionnaire in part from the annual awards application form. of the US based organisation Investigative Reporters and Editors IRE which I ve had. occasion to fill out myself But I also asked contributors for information that IRE doesn t. ask for in particular how they organise their findings and how they write. I ve taught thousands of journalists by now and I never met one who could not make a. discovery on his or her own But I ve seen plenty who were incapable of keeping track of. their data and turning it into a great story Beginners think this job is all about finding. secrets and the rest takes care of itself Sick laugh Pros like the ones in this collection. know that it s about managing the logistics and finishing the job The contributors here. will tell you how they did that, Each article in this anthology is also preceded by a brief introduction that evokes what. for me are its key elements the reasons that I wanted to use it here. In general I wanted stories that would exemplify different approaches in terms of research. and writing as well as different genres of investigation In the process of collecting stories. on a couple of occasions I found stories that attacked the same subject for example the. traffic in human beings from the perspective of a project team or an individual effort. and focused on different aspects of the subject Or I found stories that used similar tech. niques such as archival research to strikingly different ends The final selection tries to. make use of those coincidences because to me they show that there are various ways. of doing any subject and one of them will correspond to the passions and resources at. your disposal, In some of these stories I did minor copy editing to correct grammar English may be. a global language but that does not mean it is uniform in usage There are numerous. idioms and I altered them when I could not immediately grasp them I made one other. editorial decision At certain points I removed the names of individuals or companies. named by authors In general I did so when the name involved has no residence outside. The Global Investigative Journalism Casebook, the country of original publication or could not be independently verified or involved acts.
that happened more than a few years ago I do not think that individuals should pay for. their mistakes at least not for mistakes that they ve tried to fix over and over again. I personally removed the name of a former activist of the French Extreme Right from my. website at his request after he contacted me to tell me how his life had changed So. I made the decision to extend the same courtesy to certain individuals or institutions. named in this anthology I also eliminated details such as phone numbers because they. can change too and the wrong person might end up with a criminal s number. There is a long debate in both practitioner and scholarly circles about whether investiga. tive journalism should make use of artistic techniques or whether these same techniques. cheapen the work make it into mere entertainment I decided a long time ago that the. artistic side of storytelling is simply too powerful for serious journalists to ignore instead. they have to perfect it So in my call for contributions I said that our standard for writing. Following the successful launch of Story Based Inquiry A Manual for Investigative Journalists UNESCO 2009 which has been adopted by many journalism programmes in the Arab States Asia the United States of America and the Russian Federation we are pleased to present The Global Investigative Journalism Casebook

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