The Role of Critical Thinking in Reader Perceptions of

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Krusemark CRITICAL THINKING IN COMIC BOOKS, THE ROLE OF CRITICAL THINKING IN READER PERCEPTIONS OF. LEADERSHIP IN COMIC BOOKS,Introduction, Comic book characters and stories are becoming increasingly present in. popular media formats such as video games television and film In addition. comic books are continuing to be used in educational settings as learning tools. Numerous organizations and websites provide materials and curriculum for. educators to use and to implement comic books in their classrooms As the use of. comics in education continues to increase educators need more research that. supports the use of comics for specific outcomes Furthermore continued research. on the educational benefits of comic books can help educators use the medium to. address specific problems seen within their own classrooms In a Lapp DeVere. Wolsey Fisher and Frey study 2011 2012 they determined that teachers agreed. that comics can be useful in the classroom but a deficiency existed with how to. integrate them appropriately into curriculum In addition educators may be. hesitant to use comics in the classroom because of bias about comics credibility. and because teacher training includes verbal narratives as the only legitimate. cultural material worth studying Duncan Smith 2013 p 279. What do comic books have to do with leadership and critical thinking. skills Few studies specifically address how readers use critical thinking when. reading comics Yet comics may be useful to help address the current problem. identified in this study This study sought to take a specific problem within the. educational realm in this case leadership and critical thinking skills and. understand how comic books could address or possibly improve the concerns. Leadership behaviors have the potential to be more ethical moral and efficient. for individuals who form their leadership perceptions using a critical thinking. process Flores et al 2012 Stedman 2009 Furthermore employers see higher. educational institutions as responsible for teaching critical thinking skills Casner. Lotto Benner 2006 Yet traditional techniques for teaching critical thinking. rarely contribute to learning outcomes Lizzio Wilson 2007 p 278 and. may be ineffective Barbuto 2000 Burbach et al 2004 Lizzio Wilson 2007. Paul 2005 Unfortunately some studies indicated that undergraduate students. cannot effectively use critical thinking and graduate deficient in critical thinking. ability Burbach Matkin Fritz 2004 Flores et al 2012 Paul 2005 As a. result more research is needed to understand how critical thinking can be applied. to leadership teaching Jenkins Cutchens 2011, How comics might address or improve critical thinking and leadership is. not well known but comics offer specific traits that may be of use for educators. who want to address leadership and critical thinking concerns For example. fiction is seen as being beneficial for leadership learning Fraiberg 2010. Badarraco 2006 and the comics medium is theorized to improve reader critical. Published by DigitalCommons University of Nebraska Lincoln 1. SANE journal Sequential Art Narrative in Education Vol 2 Iss 1 Art 7. thinking Rapp 2011 Thus the purpose of this study was to explore the role of. critical thinking in reader perceptions of leadership in comics and to make. recommendations for the use of comics in the classroom for critical thinking. improvement and engagement Qualitative interviews with readers of The. Walking Dead were conducted using grounded theory to determine the process. readers use to perceive leadership in The Walking Dead Semistructured. interviews were analyzed for the presence of critical thinking using Facione et. al s 1995 definition of critical thinking dispositions Data were collected. through an online survey and email interviews with participants. The use of critical thinking to perceive leadership had a duel purpose in. this study First research suggests that leadership and critical thinking are needed. yet lacking skills in college graduates Thus the researcher could explore how. comics may be useful for both of these deficient skills Second and more. importantly when exploring critical thinking in participants the researcher. needed each participant to address the same phenomenon In this case the. application of a critical thinking process was used to perceive leadership which. aided in consistent rating of critical thinking because each participant was. discussing leadership in his or her interview responses. Comics in the Classroom for Critical Thinking A Review and Rationale. Comics might not be the first avenue people think of when considering. ways to improve critical thinking for the purpose of leadership learning for. college students Ndalianis 2011 explained that in the 1950s before. popularization of comics as adult literature comics were criticized for their adult. content that corrupted youth culture However as American culture became more. embracive of violence and sex in television film and video games the content of. comics became acceptable Ndalianis 2011 Yet despite these changes in the. comics industry incorporating comics fully into the education world seems to be. slow most likely based on its perception of being a low form of popular culture. media Duncan Smith 2013 Ndalianis 2011, Many educators across all levels are increasingly recognizing the value of. comics and other sequential art in the classroom At the collegiate level Short. Randolph Seng and Mckenny 2013 found that a graphic text approach as. opposed to a traditional textbook encouraged readers to engage in a storyline. assess the situation and update their evaluations all while considering content. Gavigan 2010 found that graphic novel reading for a group of academically. struggling eighth grade students increased their motivation to read Dallacqua. 2012 studied a group of fifth grade students and concluded that visual. information from the graphic novels strengthened the students understanding of. literary devices such as point of view themes symbolism allusions morals tone. and mood flashback and foreshadowing Cary 2004 stated that comics are. useful in the multilingual classroom because beginning second language learners. http digitalcommons unl edu sane vol2 iss1 7 2,Krusemark CRITICAL THINKING IN COMIC BOOKS.
rely on the visuals to help comprehend the story Comics help readers increase. logical predictions or inference abilities while reading because of the visual. support Visual support aids in comprehension which eases prediction Cary. 2004 The non profit organization Reading With Pictures 2014 founded in. 2009 seeks to promote literacy and improve educational outcomes for all. students with the use of comic books in the classroom Comic Books Classroom. a Colorado based non profit organization provides free comic book curriculum to. help improve literacy art skills student achievement and personal awareness. Comicsclassroom a Wikispace site offers numerous resources and educational. material for individuals interested in the use of comics for learning purposes. The growing use of comics in education helps to form a foundation of why. comics might be considered for critical thinking improvement However it is also. important to understand how literature and storytelling affect critical thinking. specifically for leadership perceptions Sidney 1583 2009 considered poetry or. literature as a social function that with its emotional appeal caused praxis rather. than gnosis Poetry Sidney theorized was more successful than other. disciplines especially history and philosophy in leading man to virtue Kinney. 1988 pp 50 51 The ability of literature to lead to leadership awareness as a. virtue is discussed by Badaracco 2006 who determined that fiction can serve as. case studies to enable learners to raise critical questions in personal terms. Badaracco concluded that raising critical questions enables business executives to. reflect on themselves as leaders He argued that fiction can be treated as case. studies and examined in depth as a means to learn about oneself and leadership In. addition Fraiberg 2010 suggested that fiction adds to leadership development. through its ability to embrace the impossible and to confront the idea that not all. problems end with an answer, Comics involve reader critical thinking because of the sequential visual. and verbal nature of the medium May 2012 called this phenomenon engaging. and powerful because the reader has invested his or her own intelligence and. imagination and emotion para 18 McCloud 1993 stated that comics are a. medium that makes the audience a willing and conscious collaborator which. differs from other media because the reader mentally constructs the story. presented in a comic book s panels and gutters p 65 Readers are forced to find. meaning and resonance between the juxtaposed panels McCloud 1993 p 73. Furthermore Cohn 2012 stated that readers not only infer between panels but. also within the panels For example comics writers and illustrators might create a. panel with a star containing the word Pow inside of it to signify the action of a. hit or punch Readers do not see the hit occur but they infer meaning based on the. visual and verbal information presented within the panel Cohn 2012 Therefore. comics as a sequential verbal and visual form involve the reader differently than. verbal only texts Beyond just the delivery of comics Rapp 2011 stated that. Published by DigitalCommons University of Nebraska Lincoln 3. SANE journal Sequential Art Narrative in Education Vol 2 Iss 1 Art 7. reader interaction between a comics adaption and the same story in other media. film or literature encourages readers to review multiple sources on a topic an. important step in any research or methodology process. Rethinking Critical Thinking Pedagogy, The educational properties of comics present several advantageous. qualities for perceiving and perhaps improving critical thinking These. advantages may be useful for considering current techniques in addressing critical. thinking in higher education which many scholars believe is ineffective at. producing good critical thinkers Barbuto 2000 Burbach et al 2004 Lizzio. Wilson 2007 Paul 2005 Flores et al 2012 explained traditional critical. thinking teaching as a method of focusing on memorization and an increased. knowledge base whereas methods that are more fitting to a 21st century society. should focus on perspectives and objective possibilities Peters 2007 suggested a. similar criticism that traditional instruction rarely leads to critical thinking but is. instead a learning how to learn ideal that does not focus on both style and kinds. of thinking and reasoning p 352 Flores et al 2012 suggested the educational. system needs to re evaluate current critical thinking curricula to engage students. emotionally Therefore they recommended that critical thinking teaching should. be implemented in courses outside of just critical thinking specific courses Flores. et al suggested that critical thinking learning may need to include a communal. ideal where learning and teaching is implied as a collective phenomenon not. an individual process p 226 Critical thinking teaching approaches that consider. communal and collective processes may be more fitting to the multimodal forms. of communication that are present in the lives of students in the 21st century. The National Educational Association considers critical thinking as one of. the Four Cs in preparing students for the 21st century placing importance on. technology and student ability to learn in a meaningful context Schwartz and. Rubinstein Avila 2006 state that educators should consider literacy that is. present in the lives of students including multimodal literacy The use of. multimodal texts helps address the New Literacy Studies theoretical framework. which views literacy as a range of social practices affected by social factors. Schwartz Rubinstein Avila 2006 p 42 Karchmer Klein and Harlow Shinas. 2012 stated that a problem with teaching multimodal texts is understanding how. to place them in the K 12 environment regardless they stated In a multimodal. text or space modes cannot be interpreted individually but rather they must read. a connected unit p 61 Kress 2010 defined multimodality as a combination of. words and images Comics as a combination of words and images that must be. read as unit are a multimodal form of reading However student critical thinking. levels cannot be completely determined by pedagogy and instruction For. example Arum and Roska 2010 followed 2 322 college students and determined. that students spend more time socializing or in extracurricular activities than. http digitalcommons unl edu sane vol2 iss1 7 4,Krusemark CRITICAL THINKING IN COMIC BOOKS. pursuing academics Thus although improvement in critical thinking may be. needed the cause of low critical thinking in students cannot be attributed to solely. inefficient pedagogy and teaching Yet at the least a consideration of methods. that use comics may help address the need to include multimodal communication. forms As Yang 2008 discussed comics bridge the gap between the media. students watch and the media they read In addition Duncan and Smith 2013. stated that the increase in comics use in academics addresses the need to teach. different literacies that correspond with the multimodal . comic books are continuing to be used in educational settings as learning tools Numerous organizations and websites provide materials and curriculum for educators to use and to implement comic books in their classrooms As the use of comics in education continues to increase educators need more research that supports the use of comics for specific outcomes Furthermore continued research on

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