The Quality of Forensic Child Interviewing in Child Sexual

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J Police Crim Psych 2020 35 170 181 171, memory retrieval and social influence for example eliciting et al 2015 For this reason we have used certain prin. freely recalled narratives following the child as witness train ciples of the NICHD Protocol i e coding of different. of thoughts and avoiding suggestive questions Poole 2016 types of questions in the current studies. A substantial body of research has resulted in improve The NICHD protocol is an evidence based protocol for. ments in forensic child interviews Lamb et al 2008 Perona interviewing alleged CSA victims Benia et al 2015 The. et al 2005 Poole 2016 Open prompts e g Tell me what NICHD Protocol has been shown to elicit detailed Cyr and. happened have repeatedly been shown to elicit more accu Lamb 2009 Lamb et al 2003 and accurate Otgaar et al. rate and less contaminated information than focused questions 2018a 2018b information from children The NICHD. e g What did he wear Hershkowitz 2001 Lamb et al Protocol incorporates scientific knowledge on the develop. 2008 Furthermore responses to open prompts are at least mental capabilities of children e g memory functioning dis. three to five times more informative in terms of eliciting fo closure of abuse and creates conditions for maximizing chil. rensically relevant details than responses to more focused dren s productivity and the likelihood of accurate statements. questions Lamb et al 2008 Poole 2016 Sternberg et al regarding experiences of abuse Ahern et al 2015 La Rooy. 2001a 2001b Sternberg et al 1996 et al 2015 The NICHD Protocol provides interviewers with. a clear structure guiding them through each phase of the in. Child Investigative Interviewing terview and helping them to avoid poor questioning strategies. that might lead to contamination or memory distortions Lamb. Experts in the field of child interviewing developed child et al 2007 The main focus of the NICHD Protocol is to guide. friendly interview protocols integrating findings from con interviewers towards using open prompts that have been. trolled laboratory experiments and field based research to as found to encourage children to provide more accurate testimo. sist interviewers in obtaining accurate statements Lamb et al nies than when other types of questions are used Furthermore. 2008 La Rooy et al 2015 A clear advantage of using a the NICHD Protocol stresses that other types of specific and. standard protocol is to promote a practical procedure that em or focused questions e g Where did you meet the man. ploys a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach which option posing Did he wear a black or blue coat should be. might reduce the number of child interviews avoid distress used only when free recall is exhausted in response to open. in children and improve the quality of children s testimonies prompts These focused questions should be used in tandem. Cheung and Boutte Queen 2010 Some examples of proto again with open prompts Another important feature of the. cols are the cognitive interview Fisher and Geiselman 1992 NICHD Protocol is that it starts with a rapport building phase. the memorandum of good practice Davies and Westcott narrative and episodic memory training both of which facili. 1999 the step wise interview Yuille et al 1993 the Ten tate episodic memory retrieval Saywitz et al 2015. Step investigative interview Lyon 2005 and the National Recent findings on CSA forensic interviews reveal that the. Institute of Child Health and Development NICHD inter use of the NICHD Protocol increases the likelihood that al. view protocol Lamb et al 2008 leged victims make accurate allegations of abuse including. These interview protocols except the Cognitive Interview cases of intra familial abuse Ahern et al 2014 Hershkowitz. were specifically designed for use with children They high et al 2014 La Rooy et al 2015 Moreover Pipe et al 2013. light the importance of creating a child friendly investigative demonstrated that protocol interviews were more likely to. setting Conversational practices with a child can be used to yield charges filed and guilty verdicts than non protocol inter. achieve various goals such as to enhance retrieval and accu views but see also Pichler et al 2019 Furthermore Gagnon. rate reporting of information about experienced events Lamb and Cyr 2017 examined preschool children aged 3 to 5 years. et al 2008 to maximize the amount and quality of the infor old who disclosed an episode of sexual abuse They analyzed. mation while minimizing contamination of that information the NICHD Protocol transcripts and found that these tran. and to minimize the impact of the investigation on the child scripts contained more details when open prompts were used. Yuille et al 2009 compared to specific and or focused questions However the. The abovementioned protocols have several compo NICHD Protocol by itself does not ensure interview quality. nents in common as they are structured and guide in Ongoing feedback about how interviews are conducted is a. terviewers through a set of interview phases For exam crucial necessity of the NICHD Protocol interview training. ple a general structure was proposed in the Lamb et al 2002 La Rooy et al 2015. Memorandum of Good Practices by using rapport build. ing asking for a free narrative and focusing on open Child Investigative Interviewing in Indonesia. ended questions Davies and Westcott 1999 Although, many child interview protocols are similarly structured The scientifically based NICHD Protocol has not been intro. the NICHD interview protocol is the most widely duced into police training programs in Indonesia Currently. researched forensic child interview protocol Benia Indonesian investigators are assigned to a Children and. 172 J Police Crim Psych 2020 35 170 181, Women s police unit after completing basic and general police factors such as who they are with They often have an. training Specific training is provided regarding how to inves innate desire to please authority figures In child. tigate cases involving women and children and relevant as interviewing contexts children might say yes very often. pects of the law e g the Child Protection Law UU No 17 to please adults Kanagawa et al 2001 Reporting CSA. 2016 and the Domestic Violence Law UU No 23 2004 to authorities in a non Western collectivistic culture is. Although it is generally agreed that child investigative perceived as a harmful decision because of shame and. interviewing is a complex skill Powell et al 2016 special the need to save face Xie et al 2017 Rumble et al. ized training in this area is not currently available for 2018 found that victims in Indonesia seldom disclose. Indonesian police investigators incidents rarely seek support and consider CSA a private. Police investigators at the Children and Women Unit who issue Moreover if parents or children decide to report to. are mandated to conduct forensic interviews are aware of the the police they meet an authority and a power differen. importance of interviewing children appropriately For exam tial Indonesian society has one of the largest power dis. ple a general guideline was disseminated as a National Police tance cultures Hofstede Insights 2019 In a large power. Head instruction to be used in all Children and Women units distance society parents teach children obedience and. PERKAP No 3 2008 This guideline emphasizes the im older people are both respected and feared Hofstede. portance of creating a child friendly approach in interviews 2011 This cultural phenomenon may interfere with best. with children Next to the general guideline Indonesian police practices in police interviewing of children Thus devel. investigators are trained to use specific focused questions to oping an empathic attitude through building rapport and. obtain forensically relevant information Specifically asking active listening does not come naturally to most. who what where when why and how ques Indonesian police officers. tions is recommended in the guideline of the Indonesian Another reason to be concerned about the quality of. National Police PERKAP No 14 2012 These types of di child forensic interviews is that Indonesia is not without. rective questions are focused prompts which according to highly publicized cases of child sexual abuse in which poor. several research studies actually elicit less relevant informa interviews may have contributed to a miscarriage of justice. tion from alleged CSA victims than open prompts Lamb et al For example the case involving the Jakarta Intercultural. 2008 Lamb et al 2009 School JIS in 2015 Hawley and Smith 2016 Millar. At the moment child forensic interviews are not recorded 2018 concerns a Canadian teacher and an Indonesian. in Indonesia When children are interviewed by police inves teaching assistant convicted for sexually abusing kinder. tigators the questions asked during the interview are recorded garten children based on a dubious account of abuse which. on paper or directly typed into a computer This existing prac included a magic hypnotic stone and secret hidden rooms. tice PERKAP No 14 2012 does not comply with evidence within the JIS They were sentenced to 11 years in prison by. based practices used elsewhere Lamb et al 2009 Powell the Indonesian Supreme Court which overturned their ac. et al 2010 Video or audio recording of child interviews is quittal by the Higher Court The case is highly controversial. advised to supplement children s court room testimony Poole because some experts provided evidence that the children s. 2016 and to secure an accurate record of what was said reports are tainted by biased adults and interviewers using. exactly by the child and the interviewer Although child fo suggestive questions instead of open prompts Hawley and. rensic interviews by Indonesian police are currently not re Smith 2016 The case raised awareness in Indonesia that. corded interview notes from the Indonesian police might pro children should be interviewed using evidence based. vide crucial insights into existing interviewing practices in guidelines The Magic Stone 2015 The current studies. Indonesia are a first step in examining the current quality of. Indonesian forensic child interviewing Given the cultural. The Present Studies differences explained above it is vital to explore the current. child forensic interview practices in Indonesia, The goal of the current studies is to examine the quality of In Study 1 we presented Indonesian police interviewers. child investigative interviewing in Indonesia To date with a CSA case vignette and asked them which questions. most studies examining the quality of child interviewing they would employ in this particular case Appendix In. have been performed in Western educated industrialized Study 2 Indonesian police files of CSA interviews were ex. rich democratic WEIRD societies see Henrich et al amined concerning the types of questions asked In line with. 2010 Non Western countries such as Indonesia have a previous studies Cyr and Lamb 2009 Lamb et al 2009. different culture language and legal system compared to Orbach et al 2000 Sternberg et al 2001a 2001b we predict. most Western countries which may affect the way children ed that in both studies open prompts would be rarely used and. are interviewed For example people in East Asia tend to that directive option posing and suggestive questions would. adjust their attitude and behavior depending on situational be used with higher frequencies. J Police Crim Psych 2020 35 170 181 173,Study 1 Data Coding.
Method All questions from the participants work sheets were trans. lated from Bahasa Indonesia to English by the first author. Participants Subsequently the first author coded the questions according. to the different question types open prompts directive op. Twenty six police interviewers were selected by the head of tion posing and suggestive The first author received training. the Women and Children s Unit a special police unit within in coding questions from the second author who is an experi. the Indonesian Police Criminal Investigation Department that enced NICHD Protocol trainer The question types are derived. handles cases involving children and women They were from the NICHD utterance types Ahern and Lamb 2017. employed in four police districts East Jakarta South Lamb et al 2009 We coded a question as suggestive if the. Jakarta Depok and Tangerang Indonesia Participants were question contains information that was not disclosed from the. selected based on inclusion criteria set by the researchers they start and also strongly communicates the desired response for. had at least 1 year of work experience in the Women and example I heard that someone did something bad to you. Children s Unit and had conducted at least two forensic inter isn t it or Did the perpetrator use violence threat or seduc. views with children during the past month After participating tion when the child had not yet mentioned violence threat. in the present study police interviewers took part in a training or seduction. program in the NICHD Protocol by the first and second. author Interrater Reliability, Participants were 5 male and 21 female police investigators. and their age ranged from 21 to 52 years M 30 08 Twenty five percent of the participants n 6 interview. SD 10 23 and possessed between 1 and 34 years of work questions were randomly selected for coding by the first two. experience as a police investigator M 7 46 SD 8 90 authors to assess interrater agreement Cohen s was 79. Participants had conducted child forensic interviews ranging indicating adequate agreement between raters Cohen 1960. Some examples of proto cols are the cognitive interview Fisher and Geiselman 1992 the memorandum of good practice Davies and Westcott 1999 the step wise interview Yuille et al 1993 the Ten Step investigative interview Lyon 2005 and the National Institute of Child Health and Development NICHD inter view protocol Lamb et al 2008 These interview protocols except the Cognitive

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