The Medical Research Handbook Clinical Research Centre

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The Medical Research Handbook,Planning a Research Project. 2008 Amar Singh HSS Azman Abu Bakar and Sondi Sararaks Kuala Lumpur. Dr Amar Singh HSS, MBBS Mal MRCP UK FRCP Glasg MSc Community Paed Lond. Senior Consultant Paediatrician Community Head,Paediatric Department Ipoh Hospital Perak. Dr Azman Abu Bakar,MBBS Mal MPH Mal PhD Nottingham. Public Health Specialist,Medical Director Serdang Hospital Selangor.
Dr Sondi Sararaks,MBBS Mal MPH Mal,Public Health Specialist. Institute for Health Systems Research Kuala Lumpur. This research handbook has no photocopying restriction but the. authors claim copyright for the contents If reproduced in any form. or elsewhere kindly request permission This handbook is not for sale. and it is used as part of research methodology workshop. Produced by,Clinical Research Centre Perak CRC Perak and. the Institute for Health Systems Research IHSR,ISBN 978 983 42269 8 5. 9 789834 226985, Research is vital to the understanding of problems that affect individuals. communities or health systems It allows for a systematic and scientific assessment. or evaluation of the problem and often provides knowledge that allows for change. to occur change that can improve the quality of health and health care No. organisation or health institution can grow or develop without the use of research. The major problems facing research today is the lack of application of. research findings Conducting research for research sake or the publish or perish. mentality has resulted in a flood of research publications that have little impact on. health the 10 90 gap in medical research only 10 of global research funding is. spent on health problems that affect 90 of the world s population What is required. today is applied research research that impacts the health of the individual and the. community resulting in meaningful improvement in health status. With this in mind we have produced this research handbook We hope it assists. health care professionals to identify important health needs The style. we have used is a step by step approach to preparing a research proposal In addition. we have provided examples and two summaries of completed proposals. This research handbook was initiated by the lead author in 1990 and revised. numerous times since It began as lecture notes and has gradually evolved into a. brief handbook aimed at giving the reader the basic skeleton or components of. research methodology and provides a guide to conducting a research project Much. contents have been developed and revised based on numerous. research training workshops conducted over many years It has currently been. extensively revised and re written with the view to offer a practical handbook to. health professionals interested in conducting research. Although the handbook has a special focus on Health Systems Research HSR the. principles expressed here can be used for Clinical Research Quality Assurance QA. Research Clinical Audit or other forms of research. The authors would be happy to receive feedback and constructive criticism on. improving this handbook Please see contact emails details on the inside of the. back cover, Note This is the first volume of the research handbook and it will be expanded.
subsequently to include Analysing Data Report Writing and Publication. Learning points, It is important to note that research is best learnt by actually conducting a research. project rather than by reading or attending lectures. This handbook is aimed to be used in conjunction with the user doing an actual. research project,Learning points, This handbook has two examples of research proposals in the appendices. Please refer to the relevant parts of the examples to aid your understanding as. you read the various sections of the handbook,The Authors. April 2008,Ac knowl ed gemen t, The authors would like to express their sincere appreciation to Dr Maimunah Abdul. Hamid Director for Institute for Health Systems Research for her support and. encouragement in getting this handbook published, We would like to thank the many researchers who have attended our research.
workshops over the past 15 20 years They have helped to shape the contents of this. handbook and given valuable feedback They allowed us to try out many research. approaches that enriched our repertoire of research methodology data analysis and. how data can be best presented, A special thanks to the authors of two research proposals who allowed us to. reproduce the core summaries of the proposals here as examples. We would also like to thank in advance readers of this book who we hope will. provide critical feedback for its improvement,Con ten ts. Acknowledgement iii,Contents iv,Components of a Research Project. Questions we should ask 1,Outline for Writing a Research Proposal 3. The Introduction 4,COMPONENT 1 Identifying Prioritising Problems 5.
Problem Identification 6,Criteria for Prioritisation 7. Example of Criteria For Selection of problem 8,COMPONENT 2 Problem Statement Analysis 9. Problem analysis chart 10,Writing the problem statement analysis 11. COMPONENT 3 Literature review 12,Vancouver Harvard styles 13. Doing a literature search 14,The OBJECTIVES 17,COMPONENT 4 Objectives 17.
The Method 18,COMPONENT 5 Overview of Research Design 19. COMPONENT 6 Study Type 20,Observational 21,Interventional Trials 23. COMPONENT 7 Ethics in Research 24, Tips for identifying projects that required ethical approval 25. National Medical Research Registry NMRR 25,COMPONENT 8 Variables 26. Why do we need to identify variables 27,Relationship between variables 27.
Defining Variables 28,Scale of measurement 28,Example of a Framework for Defining Variables 29. COMPONENT 9 Sampling 31,Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria 33. Sampling Method 34,How to do Random Sampling 35,Sample Size 36. COMPONENT 10 Techniques for Data collection 37,Techniques 38. Pre testing Pilot 47,Training for data collection 48.
COMPONENT 11 Plan for Data Analysis Interpretation 50. Dummy Tables 51,Pros Cons of Some Statistical Packages 51. COMPONENT 12 Project Management 53,Gantt Chart 54,Monitoring Progress 55. MOH Research Funding Procedure 56,Examples of research proposals 57. Example 1 57,Example 2 69,AppendiCES 79,Different Terms Used In Research 79. Uniform Requirements 80,Some Useful Resources 83,Comp onen ts of a Research Project.
Qu esti o n s we s h ould a s k,Section Components Key questions to ask. 1 Identifying What are the important problems,prioritizing Which of these need research. Proposal Introduction,problems Which one of these problems is most. important to answer, 2 Problem statement Why do we need to do this study. analysis What exactly is the problem,3 Literature review What have other people done.
In what areas is research still required for this,How do we organize and refer to the. literature, 4 Objectives What do we want to include in the study. Objectives, 5 Overview of What is your plan to answer the research. Research Design objectives,6 Study type What is the best way to do it. 7 Ethics in research Any ethical considerations for. Respondents,Researchers,8 Variables What do we want to measure.
How do we measure it,Proposal Methodology,9 Sampling Who do we measure. How many should we measure,How do we select them, 10 Techniques for data What techniques will best answer the. collection pre objective,testing How should we train data collectors. How can we check whether the data,collection technique is the best for our. 11 Plan for data What will we do with the collected data. interpretation,12 Project Who does what when, management What resources do we need Where will the.
resources come from, The 13 Data collection Is the data collection according to plan. actual monitoring, study 14 Data entry Is the data entry according to schedule. Have we ensured the quality of the data, 15 Data analysis Did the findings answer the objectives. interpretation What do the results show,What statistics are required. Utilising 16 Report writing How can we best present the methods. the study results, to make 17 Recommendation How can the findings be used.
clinical and potential What aspect of the results can be used to. health utilisation improve care, policy 18 Dissemination How can we best inform others. changes e g discussions with policy makers,presentations policy brief publications etc. 19 Using study results How can we use the findings to institute. to make changes health change,Learning points, Steps in this schedule are inter related When we complete a step review previous. steps to ensure consistency in planning,Ou t l ine for Wri t ing a Research Prop osal. Please ensure that the following are covered when preparing a research proposal. 1 Title page include,Details Of Department,2 Introduction.
Write this as one cohesive section that includes the following components. Identifying prioritising problems,write this in terms of why this study is chosen. Problem statement analysis,Important to include problem analysis chart. Literature review, this may be incorporated into the introduction if brief or written as a. separate section,3 Objectives,4 Methodology,Overview of Research Design. Study type,Ethical considerations,Techniques for data collection pre testing.
Plan for data analysis interpretation include dummy tables. Project management including Gantt Chart,5 References include all references used. 6 Appendices these include,relevant supplementary documents. T he In troduct ion,This section contains,identifying prioritising problems. problem statement analysis,literature review, Although they are discussed separately here they should. be merged into one write up in the proposal, The introduction sets the stage for the beginning of the.
The researcher uses this section to crystallize the problem. and justify why it is necessary, A manager or research funding agency wants a clearly. outlined argument before funding or approving it, To utilise limited resources to answer the most pressing problem. C OM P ON EN T 1,Iden t if ying Priori t i sing Problems. What are the important problems,Which of these need research. Which one of these problems is most important to answer. Identifying Problems,What are my important problems.
Identify important problems by,1 Dialogue and discussions with. a Managers Colleagues,b Feedback from others,2 Felt needs and working experience. 3 Magnitude severity of issues conditions,4 Joint discussions with colleagues. a Brainstorming,c NGT see below,Differentiate between research and non research. Which of these need research, If any of the following is true for your problem then you don t need to research it.
1 Can the problem be solved by administrative change. 2 Are there already solutions available that can be used. 3 Is the problem due to lack of manpower and resources. 4 Is there data showing that it is not a significant problem. Prioritizing problems, Which one of these problems is most important to answer. 1 Use a scientific method to prioritise e g,a NGT see below. b Delphi see below, 2 Manager s most urgent concern that needs research. Learning points, Eliminate non research problems before prioritizing research problems. Pick the most crucial problem that needs research,Pro b l e m Iden t i fi cat i o n.
Identification of a problem for study can be done in various ways A manager may. commission a study on a problem he she perceives as important Similarly an. individual researcher may choose an area to study This may not reflect the most. important problems in the community in addition difficulties arise when a group of. persons try to select a research project, Some method of agreeing on what problem is important to study is useful One. common method used is the nominal group technique NGT This method allows. every member in a group or organisation to have an equal say in decision making. N o mi n a l Gro u p T ec h n i qu e NGT,Use the NGT to identify problems for study. 1 Appoint a chairperson and rapporteur, 2 Spend 10 minutes in silence thinking of important problems that you have at. work or in the community Focus on problems not solutions a problem is a. perceived gap between what is and what should be, 3 The chairman then lists all the problems on a flip chart in round robin fashion. until all problems are exhausted if time is a limitation allow each member to list. only his her two most important problems No comments are to be made at. this stage, 4 The problems are then open for discussion clarification dispute duplication.
Every member is given an opportunity to express their view and some problems. may be dropped excluded, 5 The group then has a list of problems for possible research. Use NGT to prioritize a research problem for study. 1 The group identifies criteria to prioritise problems. a Limit to 5 important criteria Possible criteria to use their meaning is. b For each criterion specify the scoring system to use e g 1 lowest to 3. highest or 1 lowest to 5 highest, c Each problem s score is independent of the other problems e g you may. Research Clinical Audit or other forms of research The authors would be happy to receive feedback and constructive criticism on improving this handbook Please see contact emails details on the inside of the back cover Note This is the FiRST volumE of the research handbook and it will be expanded

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