The Implementation of the Navajo Language and Culture Mandates

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Title X is the education section of the Navajo Nation Tribal Code which. was amended in 2005 by the 20th Navajo Nation Council which among other. mandates stipulates that Navajo language and culture be taught to students at all. predominantly Navajo student populated schools The focal points of Title X. were the amendments outlining the enactment of Navajo language and culture. into the Navajo school curricula The purpose of this study was to determine to. what extent the educational mandate of the Navajo Sovereignty in Education Act. of 2005 also known as the Title 10 Amendment has been accepted and. implemented in the predominantly Navajo schools, One contract grant partial 7th through 8th grade charter school and two. Bureau of Indian Education contract grant schools K through 6 and K through 8. were chosen because the Title X education amendment is at the phase where the. focus is on contract grant schools only Forty seven educators within these. schools responded to the Navajo Nation Education Standards with Navajo. Specifics survey published by the Division of Education Office of Din Culture. Language and Community Service asking how they implemented the Navajo. language and culture segments of the Title X amendment Of the 15 standards. nine questions had to do with the teaching of the culture and language The data. were then entered into Survey Monkey for compilation and presentation of the. The survey of educators in these three schools showed that after a decade. since the mandates had become law most educators felt that they were not fully. implemented nor had they even been slightly implemented. To three dear and wonderful people, First my parents Mr Norman Cody and Mrs Leona Margaret Cody. who have always insisted that we their children Learn the white man s ways. My father used to say Learn their language, It is embarrassing to not know what they are saying. They say something and laugh and you just laugh along with them. Who knows They could be laughing at you,My mother modeled tenacity and patience. Both instilled in me my language and my culture which is the real me. no matter how high I climb the mainstream western educational ladder. These attributes may have helped me in my endeavor. To my eldest sister Betty Cody Ray,who would ask each time we saw one another.
how I was doing on my doctoral studies, I am only sorry none of these immensely supportive and important people. who molded and supported me lived to see me graduate. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, As a rule a doctoral candidate picks a dissertation chair Dr Dee Spencer. came to the fore to be my dissertation chair and I looked no further She hung. with me through thick and thin my ups and downs and always with diligence. professionalism and the Navajo cheer Yeego My special thanks and gratitude. to Dr Robert Koerperich Superintendent of the Holbrook School District who. suggested my topic to Dr Carmelia Becenti educator on the Navajo Nation who. was adamant via text email and an occasional phone call that I stay on task and. to Dr Leland Leonard a Din tribal member and colleague whom I cannot say. enough about who was supportive from the time we were students together an. individual who went the extra mile by giving me invaluable support and advice. practically to the day of my dissertation defense One can say this is my team. I also want to thank the community people of Greasewood Kinlichee and. Wide Ruins who approved my request to do research at the schools their children. attended Likewise I want to thank the school board administrators and the staff. of Greasewood Springs Community School Kin Dah ichii Olta and Wide Ruins. Community School who permitted me on their premises to conduct research I. would never have accomplished my goals without them. TABLE OF CONTENTS,LIST OF TABLES viii,1 INTRODUCTION 1. Background of the Study 2,Purpose of the Study 6,The Impact of Arizona Laws on Title 10 16. Arizona Learns 16,Arizona Reads 17,Proposition 203 English for Children 18.
Significance of the Study 20,Limitations of the Study 21. Delimitations 21,Glossary Definitions of Acronyms 21. Schools for Navajo Students 22,Federal Support for Indians Maintaining Their. Language and Culture 27,Organization of the Study 28. 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 30,History of Navajo Education 32.
Treaty of 1868 With the United States of America 32. CHAPTER Page,Education Acts and Resolutions Leading up to the. Title X Amendment 34,The Merriam Report 35,The Navajo Nation Title X Education Amendment 36. Support for the Title 10 Amendment and Indigenous,Languages 38. Department of Din Education 40,Federal Government Support for Creation of Tribal. Education Departments 41,No Child Left Behind Act 20 USC 7455 42.
History of the Title X Amendment 43, National Organizations as Allies to the Navajo Nation 44. 3 METHODS 45,Research Methods 45,Demographics 48,Study Design 49. Population and Sample 49,Data Collection Procedures 50. Data Analysis 50,4 FINDINGS RESULTS OF THE STUDY 51. Din Language and Culture in School s Goals and Objectives 52. CHAPTER Page, Parent Elder and Community Member Participation in.
Decision Making 54,Student Learning of Din Language and Culture 55. Use of Locally Developed Instructional Materials 56. Din Language Place Names Throughout the School 57,In Service Offered to School Staff 58. Library Instructional Media Center Collection 59,Counseling Staff s Knowledge of the Community 60. School Has Cultural Activities for Children 61,Summary 62. 5 SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 63,Restatement of the Problem 63.
Results of the Study 63,Recommendations for Further Research 64. Conclusions 65,REFERENCES 66,A EXECUTIVE ORDER 71,B SCHOOLS AND STAFFING SURVEY 73. C EMAIL TO PARTICIPANTS 75,D IRB LETTER 77,LIST OF TABLES. Table Page, 1 Characteristics of Three Navajo Nation Schools 52. 2 Responses to Question 2 Standard 1 53,3 Responses to Question 3 Standard 2 54.
4 Responses to Question 4 Standard 3 55,5 Responses to Question 5 Standard 4 56. 6 Responses to Question 6 Standard 5 57,7 Responses to Question 7 Standard 6 58. 8 Responses to Question 8 Standard 10 59,9 Responses to Question 9 Standard 11 60. 10 Responses to Question 10 Standard 12 61,11 Results of Standards Being Combined 62. INTRODUCTION, I am 4 4 Din born and raised on the Navajo reservation in northern.
Arizona My parents never had formal schooling and thus I came to school not. knowing a word of English My mother was a homemaker and my father was a. native practitioner I attended federal boarding schools from the very day I. enrolled as a student at age five and one half to the day I graduated from high. school I never attended a state public school where I went home on a daily basis. I started school fluent in my language to the extent that a young child can possess. but rich in my culture and traditions, Even though they never had a western education my parents always. emphasized learning of the White man s ways Through the years I never forgot. what they wanted for me and I worked through the various rites of passage on the. journey of western education After graduating from high school and military. service I obtained my Associate of Arts Bachelors and Master s degrees I also. visited other countries such as Mexico and England studying their educational. systems and finally arrived here finishing my doctoral program. I still feel more needs to be said and done in the genre of Indian education. specifically the education of Din students For this reason I chose to pursue a. career in education because I have witnessed the same struggles our Navajo youth. are going through today that I experienced which I describe as a lop sided. education I feel a need to be a part of a process where I might make a difference. not only through motivations but also through innovations as to how Navajo. children are educated, It was six years after I had graduated from high school when I made the. decision to pursue education as a career After my return from military service I. was hired as a teacher s assistant in a junior high language arts class. Immediately I saw that the status quo still existed the European style of teaching. still in place as I remember in all the years I had attended school I strongly feel. that to the greatest extent possible Din students should have Din or bilingual. teachers and school administrators who should also be educated to some degree. in Din language and culture to assure that Navajo traditions are interwoven into. their lessons and infused within those of regular academics. Background of the Study, Since early American history the formal education of the Native. Americans has been in the hands of non natives After the American Civil War. the focus of the American settler was to expand by going west bringing about the. eventual assimilation of the Navajo and other Indian tribes through formal. education The introduction of formal European education in the southwest. occurred before the Civil War and can be traced back to the Catholics and. Franciscans Beck Walters and Francisco 1996 tell us that. Western education and formal schooling were introduced to the Indians by. Roman Catholic priests who were the earliest missionaries to America. The Franciscans mainly of Spanish descent entered the south with. Coronado influencing the peoples of Arizona New Mexico Texas and. California p 146, At that time No consistent attempts to incorporate Indian languages. culture or history were made in the curriculum offered Beck et al 1996. p 147 This is evident because Indian education was influenced by the great. religious awakening which took place in the new nation in the early 1800s. An act was passed in 1819 at the request of President Monroe Indian. Civilization Fund Act which apportioned funds among those societies and. individuals that had been influential in the effort to civilize the Indians In this. way Indian education was turned over to the missionary societies Beck et al. 1996 p 148 Even though the Bureau of Indian Affairs had already been. established as part of the War Department in 1836 it was not until 1849 that it. was moved to the then newly established Department of the Interior. Meanwhile with regard to assimilation to western society Native. American and non Native American researchers have drawn several valid and. reliable conclusions Cultural resiliency is drawn from these spheres which. sustain Navajo individuals in mainstream America HeavyRunner and Marshall. 2003 identified Native American cultural resiliency as spirituality family. strengths elders ceremonial rituals oral traditions tribal identity and support. networks which influence a positive and proactive way a human capacity to. navigate life well p 15, Despite the obvious violations of the constitutional mandate for separation.
of church and state this assimilation through western education continued into the. late 19th century where funds were distributed to various religious denominations. by the federal government to maintain mission schools However public protest. to federal aid to sectarian schools and the unconstitutional nature of the practice. led the U S government to discontinue the practice Beck et al 1996 pp. A noted educator observed, Education on the Navajo Reservation was the weapon used by non. Navajos to teach young people to become Anglos to reject their own. heritage and culture and accept the identity and culture of the dominant. society Certainly during the 50s and most of the 1960s this was the thrust. of many if not most schools enrolling Navajo students Roessel 1979. Thousands of Navajo children were schooled in parochial and boarding. schools Many faced loneliness and depression School officials inhumanely. treated the Navajo children for holding on to their heritage and speaking their own. language Scholars and researchers across the nation have revealed that forcing. Indian students into only European style education caused them to lose their. Indian identity and culture It is this past history of intentional forced assimilation. that compelled Navajo legislatures to initiate this amendment to Title X. Public Law 101 477 Title 1 Native American Languages Act passed on. October 30 1990 was another impetus in the quest for language recognition by. the federal government By now enough research had been done Under findings. Section 102 Number 6 states There is convincing evidence that student. achievement and performance community and school pride and educational. opportunity is clearly and directly tied to respect for and support of the first. language of the child or student Furthermore Number 8 states Acts of. suppression and extermination directed against Native American languages and. cultures are in conflict with the United States policy of self determination for. Native Americans It adds more strength as it goes along Under Declaration of. Policy Section 5 recognizes the right of Indian tribes and other Native American. governing bodies to use the Native American languages as a medium of. instruction in all schools funded by the Secretary of the Interior Cantoni 1996. In particular Leonard 2008 conducted research on Navajo students. The Implementation of the Navajo Language and Culture Mandates of the Title X Education Amendment Navajo Sovereignty in Education Act of 2005 in Navajo Schools by Herman Cody A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Education Approved March 2012 by the Graduate Supervisory Committee Dee Ann Spencer Chair Nicholas Appleton Carmelia Becenti

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