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TALES OF EROTIC SUFFERING ROMANCE IN SIDNEY AND SHAKESPEARE. DARLENE CIRAULO,B A The University of California at Berkeley 1990. M A The University of Georgia 1994, A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of The University of Georgia in Partial. Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree,DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY. ATHENS GEORGIA,Darlene Ciraulo,All Rights Reserved. TALES OF EROTIC SUFFERING ROMANCE IN SIDNEY AND SHAKESPEARE. DARLENE CIRAULO,Major Professor Christy Desmet,Committee Coburn Freer.
Frances Teague,Electronic Version Approved,Maureen Grasso. Dean of the Graduate School,The University of Georgia. August 2003,DEDICATION,For my mother and father,Mary Janelle Melvin. Donald Joesph Ciraulo,ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, Like the romance heroes and heroines who are the subject of this study this. dissertation has been a journey of discovery adversity adventure and finally triumph. Along the perilous way there have been many people who have made the long awaited. end possible First I would like to thank with affection my dissertation director Dr. Christy Desmet for her guidance and support during these many years of research and. writing She has successfully navigated me through Scylla and Charybdis I would also. like to extend this gratitude to committee members Dr Frances Teague and Dr Coburn. Freer whose knowledge and scholarship have been an inspiration Finally I wish to. thank Dr Emma Smith for her kindness and intellectual stimulus throughout this project. I have encountered a huge network of assistance and encouragement during this. writing adventure Dr Elizabeth Kraft Dr Judith Shaw the UGA at Oxford staff. especially Christine Albright Sylvia Henneberg Kyanh Tonnu Greg Timmons Tricia. McElroy Nicole Reynolds Bill Cole Andrew Burke Leigh Anne Marcellin and Marisa. Pagnattaro have all seen me through difficult times Matt Kozusko and Kalpen Trivedi. have been instrumental friends in helping me format the dissertation Angelico Michelle. Blue Barns and Sammy have been with me in spirit, My mom dad and sister Dina have been my foundation of unconditional.
understanding and love My extended family has provided much needed support as well. I want to thank most of all my husband Andrew for his companionship and belief that. this project would come to fruition,TABLE OF CONTENTS. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v,1 Introduction Tales of Erotic Suffering 1. 2 Love Chastity and Woman s Erotic Power Greek Romance in Elizabethan. and Jacobean Context 20, 3 Sir Philip Sidney and Female Heroism Erotic Suffering in the. New Arcadia 68,4 Romantic Symmetry in Shakespeare s Pericles 110. 5 The casting forth to crows thy baby daughter Female Suffering and Child. Abandonment in Shakespeare s The Winter s Tale 159. 6 The Comedy of Romantic Suffering Imogen in Shakespeare s. Cymbeline 206,7 Conclusion 251,BIBLIOGRAPHY 258,Introduction Tales of Erotic Suffering.
Not only was the influence of romance deep it was wide and intricate too. for romance literature was a diverse and complex stream of verse and. prose the product of five changing centuries and of half a dozen European. countries of varying culture and civilisation E C Pettet Shakespeare. and the Romance Tradition, E C Pettet s account of romance literature in Elizabethan England points to the. difficulty of isolating any one romance tradition in the early modern period Despite the. confluence of influence the many rivulets that make up the stream Pettet narrows the. scope of interest down to four categories medieval chivalric Italian epic Petrarchan. poetry and Continental novels and novella Although the subgroups of romance are. distinct in their own right they can all be categorized under the over arching umbrella of. sexual love As Pettet succinctly states Above all else romance literature was a. literature of love and love making 1 The Renaissance found the literature of sexual love. in different modes of romance writing In particular a vital reserve of stock material and. romantic focus came from a specific genre of romance the Greek prose romances of the. Roman Imperial period While Pettet does not include the Greek genre as a subgroup of. romance these ancient stories of erotic suffering lie at the heart of Sidney s New Arcadia. and Shakespearean romance More than any other Elizabethan or Jacobean writers these. authors engaged vigorously with the Greek romance paradigm. Why did Renaissance writers such as Sidney and Shakespeare look specifically to. the Greek romance model of sexual love The romances of the Hellenistic era brought to. the early Christian world a heterosexual paradigm of amatory relations According to. Michel Foucault this paradigm shift created a new erotics unlike the old ideal one. that glorified love between men and boys the new ideal extolled erotic passion between a. man and woman 2 This new erotics carried with it an ethic of chastity The passion. between the young romance hero and heroine is fulfilled in matrimony and this marital. joining is based on the necessary factor of parental consent The Greek romances are. often referred to as ideal by modern critics because the protagonists usually uphold the. virtues of fidelity and chastity 3 As such these stories of mutual love enjoyed a. resurgence of popularity in the Renaissance when humanist scholars began to translate. the Greek texts into Latin and the vernacular In the Elizabethan and Jacobean period the. newly translated stories provided an ideal model of erotic desire there is a hero and. heroine who meet and fall in love they suffer ordeals of separation and loyalty through. their trials the lovers remain true and are finally brought together often in celebration or. in marriage, One of the divergent forms that Greek romance took in the Middle Ages was the. genre of hagiography or saints lives 4 These popular stories often describe the various. forms of torture and torment that medieval martyrs endured for religious faith their. allegiance to the suffering body of Christ The hagiographical narratives usually depict. men and women who view suffering as a condition of devotion to religious piety As. Judith Perkins states to be a Christian was to suffer 5 Like the Greek romance heroine. the virgin martyr is subjected to near rapes but is always able to defend her chastity and. defy enemies For instance the story of Paul and Thecla recalls the Greek romance. pattern of separation adventure and reunion The legend tells of Thecla s dedication to. Paul s preaching her separation from him attempted assaults on her virginity and. physical punishment for her fidelity to Christ We see that the chaste heroine of. Hellenistic romance evolves into the menaced virgin of the saints lives an aesthetic. vision of Christian piety and humility 6 While there are similarities between the ancient. romance genre and the literature of hagiography the differences between these genres are. significant Lovers in Greek romance suffer adversity in order to remain faithful to an. erotic attachment and their hardships are rewarded in the fulfillment of wedded love The. medieval martyr especially the menaced virgin finds reward in a symbolic and spiritual. marriage to Christ, Another popular form of romance that influenced Elizabethan and Jacobean. writers was of course medieval chivalric romance This genre of romance drew heavily. from the courtly love fine amors tradition as famously set down in Andreas. Capellanus s De Arte Honeste Amandi 13th century For Capellanus the experience of. romantic love followed a codified set of rules Love had the potential to be an ennobling. experience for it encouraged the male lover to perform deeds of knightly virtue. According to John Stevens the aesthetic of courtly love followed a basic pattern a. young man falls hopelessly in love with a beautiful young woman and for her sake is. willing to undergo the most excruciating misery to pay the last farthing of the costs that. she exacts of expects in discipline and derrying do 7 This romantic tradition understood. relations between a man and woman in terms of power the hero performs perilous deeds. in order to please a woman a person who may or may not return the knight lover s. affection Moreover the experience of romantic love in the medieval romance was often. unequal or illicit As C S Lewis argues love in romance of the Middle Ages expressed. itself largely through adultery 8 Unlike the symmetrical attraction that occurs between the. hero and heroine of Greek romance the lovers in medieval romance are represented as. asymmetrical whether on account of an adulterous liaison or unrequited love. This dissertation argues that there are two fundamental reasons why Sidney and. Shakespeare turned to Greek romance as a paradigm of sexual love First the Greek. romance plot of love leading to marriage coincided with an emerging Protestant sexual. ethic of marriage and wedded chastity Second the plot formula of erotic suffering. produced a new model of heroism Unlike the chivalric display of male valor one in. which the hero proves his prowess in martial exploits 9 the Greek romance model of. heroism requires that both the male and female prevail equally in trials of fidelity and. chastity For Sidney this example of virtuous suffering is primarily a prototype for. female heroism It is critically evident that Shakespeare looks back to Sidney s. Elizabethan prose romance in his romance plays As Geoffrey Bullough states. Shakespeare enjoyed prose works of Greene and Lodge and especially Sidney s. Arcadia 10 Shakespeare however brings new material to the Greek romance model by. complicating the pattern of male and female romantic passion while suffering is a. feminine trait for the hero the heroine gains strength from her pain and adversity. Shakespeare modifies the paradigm of the suffering male into a metamorphosed hero who. experiences spiritual penitence, Before turning to an analysis of Greek romance in Sidney and Shakespeare I. would like to show how an early Elizabethan romance play Common Conditions 1576. can be used as a template for looking at the rise of the love leading to marriage plot and. the development of the suffering heroine In this anonymous play named after the Vice. character the central storyline retains all of the essential ingredients of the Greek. romance love plot love at first sight separation of the lovers trials of fidelity and. chastity reunion this play has a particularly unusual ending that will be discussed further. on Overlaid upon the play s romance plot structure are the familiar early Elizabethan. dramatic conventions and character Instead of prose we have heptameter couplets. instead of Fortune the Vice character Common Conditions manipulates the action. instead of priests and priestess there are knights and ladies instead of slaves or lewd. servants low comic characters make merry Notwithstanding its native English flavor. the play recalls in its broadest sense the Greek romance story of Theagenes and. Chariclea It describes the true love of Clarisia a name in tonal quality reminiscent of. Chariclea and Lamphedon a pair of lovers who prove their constancy and fidelity to. each other in the face of adventure and adversity, In Common Conditions the lovers expression of love at first sight illustrates the.
reciprocal nature of the hero and heroine s passion It also prepares the audience for the. lovers mutual fidelity by showing the sudden explosive strength of their shared. sentiment In the hero s soliloquy Lamphedon describes his awakening to true love by. emphasizing the ocular and its role in the creation of desire He states a lady faire. whome I espied this day As I in forest hunting was persuing of the pray Whose bewty. hath bewitched me even mawger Dians chaste To yeeld and be a courtier now unto. dame Venus grace ll 516 20 11 The invocation of the Actaeon Diana myth hints at the. potential threat for men of female sexuality but Lamphedon dispels any notion of danger. or of possessing a base desire of the heroine And this the first time is Alas of her I had. a sight Whose cumly lokes bewty brave hath wrought to me this spight Ha lady. brave would gods through knewest the love I beare to thee ll 532 34 Immediately. following the hero s confession of amour Clarisia mirrors Lamphedon by reiterating an. identical sentiment Comparing the intensity of the passion to the hauke whose rowling. eyes are firs on Partredge fast she declares alone so I through sight of valiant knight. within this forest here Have first my eye untill I die uppon Lamphedon deere Ha. valiant knight whose comly corps hath won my hart for ever Whose sight hath prest. my tender brest that I shal fayl thee never ll 624 29 The couple s instant declaration. of love presages their physical compatibility and unity The verbal mirroring and. repetition in which Clarisia and Lamphedon engage will also point to the betrothed s. capacity for mutuality in love their shared commitment to the precepts of loyalty and. sexual constancy, The hero and heroine s reciprocal love culminates in a perfectly orchestrated. exchange of marital vows When Lamphedon and Clarisia chance upon one another in the. next scene the two secretly declare their steadfast and eternal devotion. Lamphedon doth professe he will to thee be faithfull knight. Not once for to forsake thy love for wronge ne yet for right. And therefore Lady yeelde to mee like promise here agayne. TALES OF EROTIC SUFFERING ROMANCE IN SIDNEY AND SHAKESPEARE by DARLENE CIRAULO Under the Direction of Christy Desmet ABSTRACT This study argues that the Greek romances of late antiquity were an important source in the works of William Shakespeare and Sir Philip Sidney I specifically address how the chaste marriage plot of Greek romance reflected the social and religious ethics of the

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