Sustainability of traditional rural mud houses in

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Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science and Technology JMEST. ISSN 3159 0040,Vol 1 Issue 5 December 2014, sensitivity The aim of this paper was to evaluate the criteria effective for interior cooling The present study. vernacular settlement of Meenakshipuram in terms of uses a similar approach in which the climate analysis. its climate appropriateness of various features of the and building performance analysis were done by. building and the settlement The evaluation of the ECOTECT simulation software and the thermal. settlement and houses was carried out keeping in performance of vernacular settlements were also. mind the environmental elements such as heat analyzed by in situ investigation in the summer period. humidity air movement and light and the general The present study also explores the ways in which the. activity pattern of the residents Design strategies for traditional construction techniques in the. improving thermal comfort levels are also suggested experimented settlements can be used in modern. constructions,III STUDY AREA,The dominant climate in Madurai is the warm. humid climate which is characterized by very hot, summers with mild winters with high humidity during. most of the year and low diurnal day night,temperature range Table1 display the climatic. characteristics of the study area The heat gain in the. indoors is of major concern in the warm humid climate. especially in summer as the outdoor air temperature is. higher than the occupants body temperature for a, larger period of the time The days are hotter and the.
air temperature drops down only in the night a few. hours after the sunset Thermal insulation of the, building envelope can be achieved by appropriate use. of building materials and by employing suitable,techniques of insulation 3 The hottest months in. Fig 1 View traditional hut at the foot hill, Madurai are from March to July Madurai experiences. a moderate climate from August to October tempered. by heavy rain and thundershowers and a cool and,climate from November to February The average. annual rainfall in the Madurai district is about,85 76 cm Temperatures during summer generally.
reach a maximum of 40 C and a minimum of 26 3 C,although temperatures up to 42 C are not. uncommon Winter temperatures range between,29 6 C and 18 C Table 2 gives the climate. modification strategies for warm humid regions,An average hut measured approximately 5 to. 6 meters long and 3 to 4 meters wide Figure 3 The,huts vary in size There are also a considerable. number of the larger huts that extend up to 12 to 14. meters in length and 8 to 9 meters in width These,Fig 2 Water Channel communal water body of.
huts are arranged in a linear pattern along the cross. Meenakshipuram, streets which are connected to the main street of a. II METHODOLOGY village Figure 4 admist agricultural fields and rocky. spur The houses are normally detached and a very,Various approaches were employed in the. few row houses with common walls are also found A, literature Dili et al used in situ measurement method. typical hut usually consists of a multipurpose space. to evaluate the thermal environment in a traditional. and a kitchen with storage space in the front Figure. building in Kerala India 3 Shaghayegh Mohammad, 6 Most day to day activities occur in outdoor spaces. and Andrew Shea in their study used computer, Figure 7 The water bodies present in the foothills.
simulation models by means of Design builder, serves as the source of water for drinking bathing. software to evaluate the performance of Modern,washing and cooking Very few houses have newly. Building Thermal Envelope Designs in the Semi Arid. constructed bathrooms The houses are often on a,Continental Climate of Tehran 4 In an intensive. raised platform made of compacted earth called as,study in Japan Hiroshi et al 5 researched four. Thinnai Figure 5 The high thermal mass helps to, traditional farmhouses using both in situ measurement.
keep the house cool in the evenings in the summer,and computer simulation on a model house Their. which makes it pleasant for people to rest in the,findings revealed that cooling technologies for. evenings The huts normally have minimal openings,traditional buildings such as solar shading by a. Often the only opening on the external walls is the. thatched roof earthen floor and natural ventilation as. www jmest org,JMESTN42350265 303, Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science and Technology JMEST. ISSN 3159 0040,Vol 1 Issue 5 December 2014,TABLE1 CLIMATE DATA FOR MADURAI INDIA.
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year. Temperature Average 30 6 33 2 35 8 37 3 37 7 36 8 36 0 35 7 34 8 32 7 30 6 29 7 34 24. high C F 87 1 91 8 96 4 99 1 99 9 98 2 96 8 96 3 94 6 90 9 87 1 85 5 93 64. Temperature Average 20 1 21 1 23 0 25 4 26 1 26 1 25 6 25 3 24 3 23 6 22 6 21 1 23 69. low C F 68 2 70 73 4 77 7 79 79 78 1 77 5 75 7 74 5 72 7 70 74 65. Relative Humidity in 66 60 54 5 61 56 56 56 56 65 68 78 71 62. Precipitation mm 7 4 11 8 14 1 37 1 72 6 32 83 2 80 3 146 9 159 4 140 3 53 838. Avg precipitation days 0 9 1 1 1 1 2 4 4 4 2 0 3 6 4 1 7 8 8 1 6 3 3 4 45 1. Source Indian Meteorological Department Mean data from 1971 2000. TABLE 2 CLIMATE MODIFICATION STRATEGIES AND BUILDING TACTICS FOR WARM HUMID CLIMATE TYPE. Climate Type Adverse Climatic Elements Climate Method Response Strategies. 1 Thin bar building with an east west axis,High heat 2 Cross ventilation. Minimize heat gain,High humidity 3 High ceilings,Warm Humid Maximize ventilation. Insolation 4 Ventilated roof,Maximize shading, Small diurnal variation 5 Window shading all the year. 6 Shaded Veranda,Fig 5 Raised Plat forms Thinnai,Fig 3 Plan of a typical hut. Fig 6 Kitchen space in the hut,Fig 4 View of hutments in Meenakshipuram.
www jmest org,JMESTN42350265 304, Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science and Technology JMEST. ISSN 3159 0040,Vol 1 Issue 5 December 2014,Fig 8 Schematic section of Rammed Earth Wall. Fig 7 Outdoor utility Areas,The type of mud house construction employed in. Meenakshipuram Madurai is Rammed Earth in which,damp earth lay between the formwork and molded. and compacted by ramming The huts were made of,local materials like timber bamboo clay straw cow.
dung and a special variety of grass called nanal were. used to build houses The walls were made of mud,mixed with cow dung and chopped straw to make the. raw material for the walls The walls are approximately. 450 mm thick Figure 8 These houses were mostly,self built by family members sometimes aided by. Fig 9 Schematic section of Thatch roof,neighbors Traditional architecture developed its. individuality by tapping nearby resources and, exploiting them to confront the problems posed by the. local environment 6 The roof rested on wooden, posts erected rows purlins support the roof structure.
The huts usually had a thatched roof Figure 9,Bamboo sticks formed the mullions to support the. thatch The thick thatch used as roofing material,prevented rain from entering the house and at the. same time provided insulation to the building The, Experimented Thatch roof consisted of layers of Palm. reeds Bamboo reeds Thagavai reeds and layer of,Nannai straw All these materials were locally. available in the agricultural fields surrounding the Fig 10 Digital recreation of study hut. village The average life time of the thatched roofs in. IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION,Meenakshipuram is about 90 years.
A Surface area to volume ratio,In order to study and analyze the thermal. performance a typical hut is chosen for the simulation The total surface area excluding ventilation. study Its dimension is 8 5 meters in length by opening including roof area is 136 square meters in. 5meters in breadth Figure 10 The Model House mud hut studied The total volume is 70 meter cube. under study has been divided into two zones the The ratio comes to be 1 93 In warm humid climates. west zone and the eastern zone for more specific the prime concern is creating airy spaces 7 The. study Also for further detailed study one room in the annual heating and cooling energy saving potential of. west zone which is used as a sleeping room at night mud house was determined as 1500 kWh year for. is subjected to further detailed study to analyze its warm humid climate The total mitigation of CO2. thermal behavior emissions due to both heating and cooling energy. saving potential was determined as 6 metric,B Orientation of the houses. The mud house has its longer side oriented along,North South Axis The main door is placed in the. www jmest org,JMESTN42350265 305, Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science and Technology JMEST. ISSN 3159 0040,Vol 1 Issue 5 December 2014, eastern side The solitary small void like opening is sides facing the South East and North West direction.
placed on the western wall Most of the houses were making an angle of about 72 5 degrees from North. located in the same orientation The east and west rather than the longest side of the building aligned. walls is completely shaded by the projecting eaves of along the proper North South Axis as done in the mud. the roof They were also located in clusters which house studied. enabled mutual shade of the houses and the open, Direct solar radiation to the walls can be further. spaces within the cluster were also shaded which, avoided by increasing the width of the raised plinth. acted as open utility spaces Ecotect software,Thinnai from 450 mm to 750 mm and the eaves can. analysis of simulated study hut shows that the Mean. be projected to 900 mm instead of 500mm in the east. radiant temperature Thermal Comfort inside a mud,and west direction Ecotect software analysis of. hut at 12Noon 15th April on the west zone is about. simulated study hut for the above conditions showed. 32 C and the east zone is about 36 C which is very low. that the Mean radiant temperature Thermal Comfort,compared to any other modern building materials.
inside a mud hut at 12Noon 15th April on the west, zone is about 31 2 C and 24 C in the raised plinth. Thermal improvements were observed when the which makes the Thinnai more suitable for outdoor. built form is one side longer than the other is the long activities Figure 12. Fig 11 Ecotect software analysis of simulated study hut Mean radiant temperature Thermal Comfort inside mud hut at 12. Noon 15th April 2013 East West Orientation of the house void window like smaller opening on the west wall. Fig 12 Ecotect software analysis of simulated study hut Mean radiant temperature Thermal Comfort inside a mud hut at 12. Noon 15th April longer side orientated along NW SE direction at an angle of 72 5 degrees to the East West Axis eaves are. projected 1m,www jmest org,JMESTN42350265 306, Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science and Technology JMEST. ISSN 3159 0040,Vol 1 Issue 5 December 2014,Prevailing Winds. Wind Frequency Hrs,Madurai IND,Date 1st January 31st. Time 00 00 24 00,ECOTECT v5, Fig 13 Prevailing annual wind direction and wind velocity within the hut.
C Ventilation,The air velocities inside the house were measured. at different time of the day using a handheld, anemometer The indoor air velocities were between 5. and 1 m s The ASHRAE Standard 55 2004 specifies,that the occupants would feel comfortable at 27 C. operative temperatures and 75 relative humidity, with 0 27 solos and 1 Met if the air velocity was at. least 1 m s Warm humid climates report comfort at air. velocities above 1 5 m s when air temperature is well. above the skin temperature and humidity is high 8, The Ecotect analysis of the existing hut shows that the.
openings are arranged according to the prevailing,wind direction Figure 13 However the portion. through which cool air at night could come in at the. top portion of the roof and through which warm air can. go out by convective process has been blocked in this Fig 14 Lack of air outlet at ceiling level in existing hut. particular hut due to rain water coming inside the hut. during the rains Figure 14 This causes lack of,ventilation in summer and convective air flow at. evening and night A probable solution is to let the. openings remain and cover them by bamboo mesh,like surface to stop rain water coming in the. monsoons Figure 15, Fig 15 Extended Eave projection and bamboo meshing. to prevent rain ingress and allow ventilation,www jmest org.
JMESTN42350265 307, Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science and Technology JMEST. ISSN 3159 0040,Vol 1 Issue 5 December 2014, D Building envelope materials top of conventional footings or a reinforced. concrete slab base Where blocks made of rammed,The Thermal Transmittance value U indicates the. earth are used they are generally stacked like regular. total amount of heat transmitted from outdoor air to. blocks but are bonded together with thin mud slurry. indoor air through a given wall or roof per unit area. instead of cement Special machines usually powered. per unit time The lower the value of U the higher is. by small engines and often portable are used to, the insulating value of the element The value of the. Sustainability of traditional rural mud houses in Tamilnadu India An analysis related to thermal comfor t A Madhumathi J Vishnupriya S Vignesh Department of Architecture Thiagarajar College of Engineering Madurai E mail madhu tce edu jvpacquintance gmail com treasureteam2 gmail com Abstract Energy consumption in the buildings sector is very high and is expected to increase

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