South African Parking Standards

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Transportation Research Record 816 43,Table 1 Comparison of design vehicle dimensions. Place Source Length m Width m Turning Circle m,United States Eno Foundation jl 5 49 1 98 14 18. Eno Foundation 5 72 2 03 14 98,Institute of Traffic Engineers l Q 5 90 2 00. Institute of Transportation Engineering l 5 80 2 05 14 60. Europe Glanville and Seymer 11 4 78 l 78 9 92,South Africa Durban Corporation J 4 88 1 83 12 20. South African Institution of Civil Engineers 4 85 l 85. Olivier i 4 85 1 85 12 0,Uys and Van der Merwe 4 75 1 80 12 4.
Proposed 4 80 1 80 12 4, Note The foJJowing factors are generally accepted to play a rnle in determining dimensions of parking bays vehicle size dimensions o perational. characteristics driving ability and user convenience. Figure 1 Design vehicle and 90 stall tween a vehicle and a wall or other fixed objects. primarily for the opening of doors After consid,END OF STALL. eration of proposals by various authors and the,variation in car positioning in the stall a stan. dard of O 7 m was proposed for design purposes,Kanaan and Witheford 11 found that parkers did. J not on the average pull all the way into a parking. bay Therefore it was proposed that an additional,O 2 m should be added to the length of the design.
vehicle in determining stall lengths No provision, was made for vehicles parking with part of the over. hang extending over curbs or sidewalks because pa r k. ing like that might interfere with pedestrian activ. ities and might also damage certain vehicles, the number of new small cars sold in the period 1973 Of f S t r e et Parki ng. to May 1979 and a further increase was expected, After the available data were compared the fol If the tolerances mentioned above are added to the. lowing basic dimensions for the South African design dimensions of the design vehicle it results in a. vehicle were proposed proposed general 90 bay size of 5 0 m in length and. 2 5 m in width as shown in Figure 1 A parking bay, Item Dimens i on Im next to a wall should be 0 35 m wider however to. Length 4 8 allow for the opening of doors This results in a. Width 1 8 bay size of 5 m in length and 2 85 min width. Turning circle 12 4 When the standard parking bay width is known t h e. width parallel to the end of stall line can be de, A comparison between these dimensions as set by termined for different angles The stall depth per.
various sources for the United States Europe and pendicular to a wall or the end of stall line for. South Africa is presented in Table 1 The follow different parking angles with or without the inter. ing additional characteristics for the South African locking of bays can also be determined A summary. design vehicle were then chosen the front rear of these dimensions is given in Table 2. and side overhangs were based on limited data only Ricker 14 derived a formula for determining the. aisle width between a row of parked cars and a wall. Item Dimension m or obstruction This formula produces rather wide. Wheel base 2 85 aisle widths and therefore parking maneuvers were. Front overhang 0 75 also simulated graphically to determine the proposed. Rear overhang 1 20 aisle widths given in Table 2 The proposed aisle. Side overhang 0 2 width for 90 parking is 7 5 m A parking module. Minimum turning radius inside 3 1 which represents two rows of parking bays together. rear wheel with the aisle in between is a standard dimension. Minimum turning radius outside 6 2 in planning and designing a specific parking lay out. point front bumper configuration For 90 parking the proposed module. Overall height 2 0 width is 17 5 m, The vehicle size dimensions will to a certain On St reet Par k i ng. extent affect the bay and aisle dimensions The, most important dimensions are the following There are basically two types of on street parking. parking at an angle and parallel parking Parking, 1 Vehicle width at an angle on street is generally viewed as unsafe. 2 Vehicle length and should be avoided There are three basic types. 3 Minimum turning radius inside rear wheel of curb stalls end stall interior stall and. 4 Minimum turning radius outside front bumper paired parking which are shown in Figures 2 and 3. and Paired parking is preferred to the interior stall. 5 Rear overhang layout in South Africa The widths of curb stalls. are prescribed in the different road traffic ordi, These dimensions affect the maneuverability of a nances of the provinces as 2 2 m To allow the. vehicle directly and therefore the parking layout driver and occupants of the vehicle to safely enter. and dimensions Another important factor is the or leave the vehicle the width of the traffic lane. lateral spacing between vehicles when parked or be adjacent to curb parking should be increased where. 44 Transportation Research Record 816,Table 2 Summary of proposed parking.
dimensions Stall Aisle Width m Module Width m,Interlocking Parking Angle. Bays degrees Width m Depth m Two Way One Way Two Way One Way. None 90 2 4 5 0 8 0 8 0 18 0 18 0,2 5 5 0 7 5 7 5 17 5 17 5. 2 5 5 0 7 0 7 0 17 0 17 0,60 2 S 5 3 5 4 4 4 16 0 15 0. 45 2 5 4 9 5 2 4 2 15 0 14 0,On one side 60 2 5 4 8 5 4 4 4 15 5 14 5. 45 2 5 4 5 2 1 2 14 J 13 3,On both sides 60 2 5 4 8 5 4 4 4 15 0 14 0.
45 2 5 4 2 5 2 4 2 13 6 12 6,Basic proposed standard. Figure 2 The interior stall in urban areas Requirements for such parking pro. vis ion are normally contained in t he town planning. scheme for a particular area Where it is the pur, pos e of this report t o develop and recommend such. desirable minimum standards these standards should. be applied with the necessary ca re The follow ing. factors may requil e these standa r d s to be adjusted. 0 2 2m 1 b 6 0m C 5 Qm d 2 Qm 1 ea12 Qm in a specific case. 1 Size and nature of the development,2 Urban character socioeconomic structure of. Figure 3 Paired parking,the population and residential density in the. milrket or influence area,3 Availability of public transport.
4 Availability of other on street or off street,parking in the vicinity and. 5 Certain combinations o f land use s such is, office s o r theaters in shopping c e nters that may. reduce the tota l combined parking requirement where. the peak parking demand for the different land uses. do not occur at the same time,possible The proposed dimensions for on street. parking are shown in Figures 2 and 3,In the central areas of major cities different. Pa rking Garages situations exist from those in the outlying areas of. central business districts CBDs of smaller cities, Al though parking garages or structural parking is a and townc Factors such as the high density of de.
comprehensive subject on its own vertical clear velopment avai l able public transport major pedes. ance slope of floors and certain ramp characteris trian flows a nd scarcity and cost ot land may pro. tics are discussed briefly A minimum vertical hibit or limit the provision o f parking in re lation. clearance of 2 1 m is proposed for parking garages to outlying areas or smaller town centers There. fore a separate parking policy normally exists for. which implies careful placement of lighting fixtures. the CBD of a large city,and overhead signs However the vertical clearance. on the ground floor or part thereof of any parking. garage shou ld confor m to the maximum vertical height Pata Collection. laid down in the ordinance i e 4 1 m The slope, of floors should not exceed 3 percent in directions Questionnaires on requirements for provision of. longitudinal to parking stalls or 5 percent for off street parking were distributed during June. cross slopes or aisles 2 The preferable maximum 1979 with the assistance of the relevant provincial. grade for sloping floor self park garages is 4 per administrations to all the local authorities within. cent 1 2 the five metroPQlitan areas of Johanneshurg. Ramps should be skid free and the maximum pro Pretoria Cape Town Port Elizabeth and Durban. posed grade is 15 percent 15 A 10 percent grade Most local authorities and provincial administra. is preferred for high volum ramps The width of a tions responded and an excellent return of 44 com. straight one way ramp without a sidewalk and curbs pleted questionnaires was achieved. should not be less than 3 5 m and with sidewalk and Analysis of the completed questionnaires showed. curbs not less than 3 0 m A two lane straight ramp that t here is a great diversity in the standards fur. with sidewalk and curbs should have a width of not off street park i ng provision requirements as applied. less than 6 0 m for one way operation and 7 0 m for by the local a Uthocities For example among the 44. two way operation The width of a circular ramp cities and towns there are no less than 26 dif. should not be less than 4 5 m ferent parking requirements for general offices. This great d i versi ty indicates the need for guide. PARKING PROVISION REQUIREMENTS lines on the uniformity of parking standards. In the analyses of the completed questionnaires, Off Street Park i ng Reguirements we also endeavoured to determine whether there is. any relation between the size of the city or town, In order to safeguard traffic f l ow on adjacent ar and the parking demand or requirement for the vari. ter ials ensure effective access and protect the ous land uses The local authorities were divided. transportation system s general function i ng a suf into three groups depending on population size and. fic ient number of off street parking spaces mus t be the parking provision requirements compared within. provided at all the different types of development each of these three groups No trend or special. Transportation Research Record 816 45, Table 3 Summary of recommended minimum standards for off street parking.
Land Use Buildings Standard,Residential Single and attached dwelling units. One habitable room l O space unit,Two habitable rooms 1 0 space unit. Three habitable rooms l 25 spaces unit,Four or more habitable rooms l 5 spaces unit. Visitors 0 5 additional space unit, Hotel and motel 1 space habitable room 10 spaces per 100 m 2 PAA. Residential hotel and boarding house 0 6 spaces habitable room. Old age home and orphanage 0 3 spaces habitable room. Office General office 2 sp ces 100 m2 PFS, Bank building society and other public trade office 4 spoces l 00 m1 PFS.
Business Shopping center,Neighborhood 5000 m2 7 spaces 100 m 2 PFS. Commu nity 5000 1 S 000 m 2 6 spaces 100 m 2 PFS,Regionol IS 000 m2 5 spaces 100 m 2 PFS. Hypermarket 7 spaces 100 m 2 PFS, Single shop excluding car showroom and plant nursery 6 spaces 100 m 2 PFS. Medical Consulting room 6 spaces I 00 m 2 PFS,Small private hospital and clinic 1 space bed. General hospital 1 space l ed, Industrial and commercial Manufacturing 1 space 100 m2 PFS.
Warehousing I space 100 m 2 PF S,Dairy bakery and laundry 1 space 100 m2 P S. Storage yard I space 100 m2 PFS, Public garage 4 spaces working bay 2 spaces 100 m 2 spaces and sales area. Place of public worship 0 15 space seat, Educational Nursery school 1 space classroom or office. Primary school 1 space classroom or office,Secondary school 1 space classroom or office. College 0 25 space student,University 0 4 space student.
Recreation sport and Community center 2 spaces I 00 m2 PFS. entertainment Hall 0 25 space seal or 20 spaces JOO m 2 PFS. Movie and theater,Within shopping center 0 l space seat. Isolated 0 2 space seat,Sport stadium 0 25 space seat. Swimming pool 0 25 space seat,Library and museum 2spaces 100 m 2 P FS. Note PAA public accessibility area PFS permissible floor space. Not applicable in CBD of large cities b A hypermarket is a large discount store that sells many items including food clothing and furniture. relation within the groups or differences among the CBD Off Street Parking Reguirements. groups was noticed and we therefore concluded that. at this stage there is no noticeable or specific As mentioned before parking requirements for cen. difference in parking demand for different sizes of tral areas of large cities are generally substan. local authorities tially less than the requirements shown in Table 3. The requirements and proposals obtained from the In some cases no parking is required or the provi. questionnnaires were also compared with other sur sion thereof prohibited This may be due to good. veys of parking demand made in South Africa public transport access the high density and high. Kruger Van Zyl and Du Plessis used the cost of land and the pedestrian flow which should. results of their own surveys and surveys done by not be interrupted by vehicle entrances Parking. University of Pretoria students to propose parking provision can also be limited in order to limit the. indices for certain land uses Jordaan and Switala influx of traffic into the CBD. 17 also compared results of a large number of sur On the other hand it may be necessary to provide. veys done by students of the University of sufficient parking to combat decentralization and. Pretoria Guidelines were also prepared by the deterioration of the CBD Specific policies in. South African Institute of Civil Engineers 18 for relation to on street parking as well as core park. off street parking provision Cognizance was also ing for short term shoppers and fringe parking for. 42 20 Parking As A Factor In Business HRB Special Rept 11 1953 21 M L Olsson and G K Miller The Impact on Commuters of a Residential

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