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Solid State Fermentation Bioreactors,David A Mitchell Nadia Krieger. Marin Berovic Eds,Solid State,Fermentation,Bioreactors. Fundamentals of Design,and Operation,With 194 Figures and 32 Tables. Dr David A Mitchell Dr Nadia Krieger, Federal University of Paran Federal University of Paran. Department of Biochemistry Department of Chemistry. and Molecular Biology P O Box 19081,P O Box 19046 81531 990 Curitiba PR Brazil.
81531 990 Curitiba PR Brazil nkrieger ufpr br,davidmitchell ufpr br. Dr Marin Berovic,University of Ljubljana,Department of Chemical Biochemical. and Environmental Engineering,Hajdrihova 19,1001 Ljubljana Slovenia. marin berovic Uni Lj si,Library of Congress Control Number 2006922414. ISBN 10 3 540 31285 4 Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York. ISBN 13 978 3 540 31285 7 Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York. e ISBN 3 540 31286 2,DOI 10 1007 3540312854, This work is subject to copyright All rights reserved whether the whole or part of the.
material is concerned speci cally the rights of translation reprinting reuse of illustrations. recitation broadcasting reproduction on micro lm or in any other way and storage in data. banks Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions. of the German Copyright Law of September 9 1965 in its current version and permission. for use must always be obtained from Springer Violations are liable for prosecution under. the German Copyright Law, Springer is a part of Springer Science Business Media. springer com,Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006. Printed in Germany, The use of general descriptive names registered names trademarks etc in this publication. does not imply even in the absence of a speci c statement that such names are exempt from. the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. Product liability The publisher cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information about. dosage and application contained in this book In every individual case the user must check. such information by consulting the relevant literature. The instructions given for carrying out practical experiments do not absolve the reader from. being responsible for safety precautions Liability is not accepted by the authors. Typesetting and Production LE TEX Jelonek Schmidt V ckler GbR Leipzig Germany. Coverdesign design production Heidelberg Germany,Printed on acid free paper 31 3100 YL 5 4 3 2 1 0. Although solid state fermentation SSF has been practiced for many centuries in. the preparation of traditional fermented foods its application to newer products. within the framework of modern biotechnology is relatively restricted It was con. sidered for the production of enzymes in the early 1900s and for the production of. penicillin in the 1940s but interest in SSF waned with the advances in submerged. liquid fermentation SLF technology The current dominance of SLF is not sur. prising For the majority of fermentation products it gives better yields and is eas. ier to apply It is notoriously difficult to control the fermentation conditions in. SSF these difficulties are already apparent at small scale in the laboratory and are. exacerbated with increase in scale However there are particular circumstances. and products for which SSF technology is appropriate For example a desire to. reuse solid organic wastes from agriculture and food processing rather than simply. discarding them leads naturally to the use of SSF Further some microbial prod. ucts such as fungal enzymes and spores amongst others are produced in higher. yields or with better properties in the environment provided by SSF systems. With recognition of this potential of SSF a revival of interest began in the mid. 1970s However the theoretical base for SSF bioreactor technology only began to. be established around 1990 Before this there were many examples of SSF biore. actors especially those used in the koji industry but there was little or no informa. tion about the efficiency of heat and mass transfer processes within them The. work that has been carried out over the last 15 years is sufficient to establish a. general basis of engineering principles of SSF bioreactors This book brings to. gether this work in order to provide this basis It makes the key point that given. the complexity of SSF systems efficient performance of SSF bioreactors will only. be achieved through 1 the use of mathematical models in making design and. operating decisions for bioreactors and 2 The application of control theory. Before proceeding we must point out that we are quite aware of the potential. problems that might be used by our use of the word fermentation In this book. we use it not in its metabolic sense but rather in its more general sense of con. trolled cultivation of microorganisms Although several terms are used to denote. this fermentation technique the most common by far is solid state fermentation. This book focuses on SSF bioreactors It does not aim to introduce SSF itself. We assume that readers interested in learning about SSF bioreactors are familiar. with SSF processes themselves Even if not a reader who understands the basic. principles of SLF processes and SLF bioreactor design will be able to understand. this book In any case readers requiring a general background regarding SSF can. consult books or review articles e g see the Further Reading section of Chap 1. VI Preface, Even with this focus on SSF bioreactors the book deliberately addresses gen.
eral issues and concepts Specific examples are given to illustrate concepts but the. book neither considers all types of bioreactors that have been used nor presents all. mathematical models that have been developed We do not attempt to present all. the engineering know how so far generated for SSF bioreactors Rather we aim to. introduce the fundamental concepts and ideas, The main audience intended for this book is the researcher worker in SSF who. is currently developing an SSF process with the intention of eventually commer. cializing it Our aim is to give this reader a broad overview of what is involved in. designing a bioreactor and optimizing its performance. We recognize that many readers may not have the necessary background to set. up and solve mathematical models of bioreactor performance This book does not. attempt to teach the necessary modeling skills Such a task would require a. lengthy treatise on various mathematical and engineering fundamentals A basic. understanding of differential and integral calculus will help readers to understand. various of the chapters although it is by no means necessary to be an expert. After reading this book the non engineering reader should. x understand qualitatively the importance of the various mass transfer heat trans. fer and biological phenomena that are important in SSF systems and the inter. actions amongst these various phenomena, x understand what mathematical models of bioreactors can do If you understand. what models can and cannot do then even if you do not have the skills to de. velop a model yourself you will know when it is appropriate to seek the help of. someone with such modeling skills a modeler, x be able to talk the same language as the modeler In other words you. should be able to define clearly for the modeler what you wish to do and you. should be able to understand the questions that the modeler poses In this way. you can interact with modelers even if they have no experience with SSF. This book should also be useful for readers with modeling skills but who are. working in SSF for the first time In a succinct way it outlines the important phe. nomena and the basic principles of SSF bioreactor design and operation. We welcome comments suggestions and criticisms about this book Our aim is. to help you to understand SSF bioreactors better We would appreciate knowing. just how well we have achieved this aim The addresses of the editors and authors. are given after the Table of Contents,November 2005. David Mitchell Nadia Krieger Marin Berovi,Acknowledgements.
As leader of the editorial team and the main contributing author of the book I. would first like to thank my PhD supervisors Paul Greenfield and Horst Doelle. You set me on a path that I have found both challenging and interesting over the. last twenty years or so In fact I still remember the moment in mid 1984 when I. decided to do my PhD in the area of solid state fermentation Paul Greenfield said. to me I have heard of this area called solid state fermentation I think that you. can make some contributions in the area Well Paul you were right I have man. aged something Thanks Of course there is still much to do. I must also thank my co editors and co authors This book would never have. been written without your input From each of you I have learnt something about. solid state fermentation Further I recognize that I am indebted to many col. leagues who while not being co authors have helped me to understand solid state. fermentation better I will not cite names because the list is enormous It includes. not only colleagues with whom I have interacted personally but also colleagues. who have published papers in the area of solid state fermentation that have helped. me to develop my understanding of this area, This book in part represents a synthesis of work undertaken by my research. group and supported by various funding agencies I am indebted to these agencies. for funding my research over the last 15 years or so I received two grants to work. on solid state fermentation bioreactors from the Australian Research Council. Small Grants Scheme Since my move to Brazil I have received funding from. several state and federal granting bodies These include 1 the Araucaria Foun. dation Funda o Arauc ria a research agency of the state of Paran 2 the. Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development CNPq. Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cient fico e Tecnol gico and 3 the. Brazilian Argentinean Biotechnology Committee CBAB Comit Brasileiro. Argentino de Biotechnologia for which the funds originated from the Brazilian. Ministry of Science and Technology MCT Minist rio de Ci ncia e Tecnologia. and were administered by CNPq CNPq has also been kind enough to award me a. research scholarship, Finally thanks are due to the Springer staff especially Marion Hertel Beate. Siek and Joern Mohr for their patience and guidance. David Mitchell,Contributing Authors,Prof Eduardo Agosin. Department of Chemical and Bioprocess Engineering,Pontificia Universidad Cat lica de Chile. P O Box 306 Santiago 22 Post Code 6904411 Chile,E mail agosin ing puc cl.
Prof Marin Berovi, Department of Chemical Biochemical and Environmental Engineering. Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology University of Ljubljana. Askerceva 9 Ljubljana 1000 Slovenia,E mail marin berovic Uni Lj si. Dr Mario Fern ndez, Deparment of Sciences and Engineering Universidad de Talca. Camino Los Niches km 1 Curic Chile,E mail mafernandez utalca cl. Dr Matthew T Hardin, Division of Chemical Engineering University of Queensland.
St Lucia 4072 Australia,E mail matth cheque uq edu au. Dr Lilik Ikasari,Food Division Quest International Indonesia. Jl Raya Jakarta Bogor Km 35 Cimanggis Kab Bogor West Java Indonesia. E mail lilik ikasari questintl com,Dr Morteza Khanahmadi. Agricultural Engineering Research Section, Isfahan Center for Research of Agricultural Science Natural Resources. Amirieh Agriculture Blvd Isfahan 81785 199 Iran,E mail khanahmadi yahoo com.
Dr Nadia Krieger, Department of Chemistry Universidade Federal do Paran. Cx P 19081 Centro Polit cnico Curitiba 81531 990 Paran Brazil. E mail nkrieger ufpr br,X Contributing Authors,Dr Luiz Fernando L Luz Junior. Department of Chemical Engineering Universidade Federal do Paran. Cx P 19011 Centro Polit cnico Curitiba 81531 990 Paran Brazil. E mail luzjr ufpr br,Dr David A Mitchell,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Universidade Federal do Paran, Cx P 19046 Centro Polit cnico Curitiba 81531 990 Paran Brazil. E mail davidmitchell ufpr br,Dr Montira Nopharatana.
Department of Food Engineering,King Mongkut s University of Technology Thonburi. 91 Prachauthit Rd Tungkru Bangkok 10140 Thailand,E mail montira nop kmutt ac th. Dr J Ricardo P rez Correa,Department of Chemical and Bioprocess Engineering. Pontificia Universidad Cat lica de Chile,P O Box 306 Santiago 22 Post Code 6904411 Chile. E mail perez ing puc cl,Dr Luis B Ramos S nchez, Department of Chemical Engineering University of Camag ey.
Circunvalaci n Norte km 5 1 2 s n Camag ey CP 74650 Camag ey Cuba. E mail lramos qui reduc edu cu,Dr Penjit Srinophakun. Department of Chemical Engineering Kasetsart University. P O Box 1032 Kasetsart Post Office Bangkok 10903 Thailand. E mail fengpjs ku ac th,Dr Deidre M Stuart, School of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management. University of New England Armidale NSW 2350 Australia. E mail deidre stuart pobox une edu au,Ms Graciele Viccini MSc. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology,Universidade Federal do Paran. Cx P 19046 Centro Polit cnico Curitiba 81531 990 Paran Brazil. E mail gvic pop com br,Dr Oscar F von Meien, UN RIO ST EISA PETROBR S Av Gen Canabarro 500 5 ad.
Coverdesign design amp production Heidelberg Germany Printed onacid freepaper 31 3100 YL 543210 Preface Although solid state fermentation SSF has been practiced for many centuries in the preparation of traditional fermented foods its application to newer products within the framework of modern biotechnology is relatively restricted It was con sidered for the production of enzymes in

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