Skills in SAGE Publications Ltd

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Skills in Counselling Psychotherapy is a series of practical guides for trainees. and practitioners Each book takes one of the main approaches to therapeutic. work or key client groups and describes the relevant core skills and techniques. Topics covered include, How to establish and develop the therapeutic relationship. How to help the client change, How to assess the suitability of an approach or technique for the client. This is the first series of books to look at skills specific to the different theoreti. cal approaches and is now developed to include skills specific to particular client. groups It is an ideal series for use on a range of courses which prepare the train. ees to work directly with the clients,Books in the series. Skills in Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Second Edition. Frank Wills, Skills in Counselling Psychotherapy with Children Young People. Lorraine Sherman, Skills in Gestalt Counselling Psychotherapy Third Edition.
Phil Joyce and Charlotte Sills, Skills in Person Centred Counselling Psychotherapy Second Edition. Janet Tolan,Skills in Psychodynamic Counselling Psychotherapy. Susan Howard, Skills in Rational Emotive Behaviour Counselling Psychotherapy. Windy Dryden, Skills in Transactional Analysis Counselling Psychotherapy. Christine Lister Ford, Skills in Solution Focused Brief Counselling Psychotherapy.
Paul Hanton, 00 Van Deurzen Adams Prelims indd 2 04 Apr 16 12 26 38 PM. EXISTENTIAL,Counselling Psychotherapy,Second Edition. Emmy van Deurzen,Martin Adams, van deurzen adams exist SICAP 2e aw indd 4 16 03 2016 12 08. 00 Van Deurzen Adams Prelims indd 3 04 Apr 16 12 26 38 PM. SAGE Publications Ltd Emmy van Deurzen and Martin Adams 2011 2016. 1 Oliver s Yard, 55 City Road First edition published 2011 Reprinted 2011 2014 2015. London EC1Y 1SP This second edition published 2016. SAGE Publications Inc Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or. 2455 Teller Road private study or criticism or review as permitted under the. Thousand Oaks California 91320 Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 this publication. may be reproduced stored or transmitted in any form or. SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd by any means only with the prior permission in writing of. B 1 I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area the publishers or in the case of reprographic reproduction. Mathura Road in accordance with the terms of licences issued by. New Delhi 110 044 the Copyright Licensing Agency Enquiries concerning. reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the. SAGE Publications Asia Pacific Pte Ltd publishers,3 Church Street.
10 04 Samsung Hub,Singapore 049483,Editor Susannah Trefgarne. Library of Congress Control Number 2015954536,Editorial assistant Edward Coats. Production editor Rachel Burrows,British Library Cataloguing in Publication data. Copyeditor Solveig Gardner Servian,Proofreader Christine Kidney. A catalogue record for this book is available from. Marketing manager Camille Richmond,the British Library.
Cover design Lisa Harper Wells,Typeset by C M Digitals P Ltd Chennai India. Printed and bound by CPI Group UK Ltd,Croydon CR0 4YY. ISBN 978 1 4739 1191 8,ISBN 978 1 4739 1192 5 pbk, At SAGE we take sustainability seriously Most of our products are printed in the UK using FSC papers and boards. When we print overseas we ensure sustainable papers are used as measured by the PREPS grading system. We undertake an annual audit to monitor our sustainability. 00 Van Deurzen Adams Prelims indd 4 04 Apr 16 12 26 38 PM. THE FRAMEWORK OF,EXISTENTIAL, In the mountains of truth you will never climb in vain either you will get up. higher today or you will exercise your strength so as to be able to get up higher. Friedrich Nietzsche,THEORETICAL BACKGROUND AND HISTORY.
Introducing existential therapy, The questions that existential philosophers address are the questions that human. beings have always asked themselves but for which they have never found satisfactory. answers This makes them both familiar and problematic They are questions like. What does it mean to be alive,Why is there something rather than nothing. How should I act and be in relation to other people. How can I live a worthwhile life,What will happen after I die. These are also the questions which clients are preoccupied with. In spite of this familiarity there are some good reasons why existential ideas are. not well known in psychotherapy First existential therapy does not have a single. founding author with which it can be identified it has no Freud Rogers Perls or. Second it has its roots in philosophy which in spite of its intimate connections to the. questions of living and its long history has always been a rather academic discipline. 02 Van Deurzen Adams Ch 01 indd 8 04 Apr 16 12 26 43 PM. The Framework of Existential Therapy, All therapeutic perspectives have a philosophical basis but this is rarely acknowledged. Because of their practical training most therapists and counsellors are not used to. exploring questions in a philosophical manner They often focus on psychological and. behavioural symptoms or on concrete aspects of professional interaction. Although all existential thinkers have the philosophical stance in common they can. hold quite differing views and it is this dynamism and diversity that give the existen. tial approach its particular strength and resilience Nevertheless it is the family. resemblances that allow us to identify the characteristic skills and interventions of. existential counselling and therapy that we will describe in these pages We will be. concentrating on how to explore our clients human questions philosophically. As we said in the Introduction trying to delineate existential skills is problematic. because systematization and technique have generally been avoided in favour of per. sonal freedom and responsibility Existential therapists are reluctant to say This is how. you do existential therapy because one of the central principles of existential therapy. is that each therapist has to create her or his own personal way of working But it is. most definitely not a free for all Existential therapy is an enquiry into meaning and. any enquiry that is not systematic will lead to haphazard results and will be influ. enced by what the researcher wishes to find Therefore it has characteristic structures. actions disciplined interventions methods and specific skills to guide this enquiry. and the task of existential therapists is to make these their own They are based on. the same broad structures that underpin phenomenological research Indeed existen. tial philosophy is the result of the application of the phenomenological research. method to the study of existence, Before we go any further a word of caution is necessary about some specialist.
words Many everyday words like choice and anxiety are used in the existential tra. dition in a special sense and this needs to be borne in mind Conversely there are. many unfamiliar words like being in the world or thrownness that sound daunting. but which actually refer to familiar experiences These too will be explained. What do we mean by philosophical, So what does it mean when we describe the existential approach to psychotherapy as. philosophical A wide range of philosophical writing is available to therapists but not. all philosophy is relevant since it does not all deal with human or moral issues Much. of early Greek philosophy Eastern philosophy and nineteenth and twentieth century. Continental philosophy is relevant Most of analytical philosophy is not so pertinent. to therapy, Counsellors and therapists wishing to work in an existential manner do not nec. essarily need to have a thorough grounding in this literature and philosophical. heritage But they do have to develop some philosophical method in their thinking. about life, Other therapeutic approaches are primarily biological psychological social intel. lectual or spiritual in nature and generally neglect philosophy They also concentrate. on what goes on inside an individual or between people and rarely extend to consid. ering the human condition and its wider philosophical and socio political context. 02 Van Deurzen Adams Ch 01 indd 9 04 Apr 16 12 26 43 PM. Skills in Existential Counselling Psychotherapy, Most therapies also focus on what is wrong and describe this as pathology and state. that their objective is to cure a person of this They are mostly concerned with intra. psychic or inter personal factors While existential therapy may also accommodate. these dimensions at different times its field of vision is wider and reaches beyond. individual problems to life itself Its focus is on the nature of truth and reality rather. than on personality illness or cure so rather than thinking about function and dys. function it prefers to think in terms of a person s ability to meet the challenges that. life inevitably presents us with, Although the existential approach clearly involves ideas it is not simply intellectual.
like a crossword puzzle and is certainly not abstract like mathematics Understanding. life is as crucial to survival as the ability to talk walk breathe or eat It is practical and. concrete It is always life that is the teacher and ideas are no use unless they can make. a positive difference to our lives, Action based on experience is everyone s first language In this sense existential therapy. is the practical application of philosophy to everyday living It is about coming to under. stand and therefore live productively and creatively within the constraints and possibilities. of life To engage with existential ideas requires us to have the courage to value diversity. over uniformity concreteness over abstractness open ended dilemmas over simplistic. answers and personally discovered and hard earned authority over pre existing dogmas. and established power, Fundamentally the skills of the existential therapist begin with the phrase inscribed. at the Temple of Apollo at Delphi Know Thyself because we cannot understand. anyone or anything until we first understand ourselves and our relationship to human. existence This means that our primary tool as therapists is the way we are who we are. and the way we understand our lives not theory or technique. But even this is not so simple since we are always changing and we are also perma. nently and fundamentally in relationship with others What this means is that we can. never ignore the needs of others when making personal decisions but neither can we. allow others to entirely determine us even when alone This is a paradox. What do we mean by existential, The German philosopher Martin Heidegger and the French philosopher Jean Paul. Sartre both agreed that existence comes before essence What this means is that the. fact that we are is more basic than what we are We are first and then we define our. selves later Through our existing our essence is gradually shaped. Moreover we are always in a process of becoming something else A person is first and. foremost dynamic alive self reflective and changing and this is the most important char. acteristic that we exist that we are alive and that we can transform ourselves be aware. and learn For example the essence of this book is that it is about the skills involved in. existential therapy But this book will always be this book it will never change and also. will not be able to change itself A person on the contrary is different at different times. We are dynamic responsive and interactive In one sense a person s essence is their. chemical composition e g as 85 per cent water In another sense a person is her or. 02 Van Deurzen Adams Ch 01 indd 10 04 Apr 16 12 26 43 PM. The Framework of Existential Therapy, his genetic constitution made up of half of each parent s gene pool In yet another. sense we can be said to be the result of our early experiences and education Or we. can say the bio chemical processes in our brains define us Existentially a person is. clearly far more than any and all of this,Let s consider the following incomplete sentence.
Fundamentally people are, If we were to say that essence is more fundamental than existence it could be. completed in many different ways depending on one s view of human nature for. Fundamentally people are their DNA or, Fundamentally people are out for their own survival or. Fundamentally people are social beings or, Fundamentally people are made in the likeness of a god. The fact that we can talk about the human essence in so many different ways explains. why there are so many different theories of psychotherapy because they all consider. essence to be prior to existence and they all have different views of what constitutes. this essence, But if it is true that existence precedes essence the above sentence can only be. completed with a full stop,Fundamentally people are.
That we exist and how we exist determine the essence that emerges not the other way. round This is the first principle that all existential philosophers share that their primary. concern is the existence of human beings It is also the most significant defining char. acteristic of existential therapy A therapeutic approach can be described as existential if. it accepts this premise, This is of course not the end of the matter by any means If people are primarily. Skills in Counselling amp Psychotherapy is a series of practical guides for trainees and practitioners Each book takes one of the main approaches to therapeutic work or key client groups and describes the relevant core skills and techniques Topics covered include How to establish and develop the therapeutic relationship How to help the client change How to assess the suitability of an

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