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Table of Contents,Abstract 2,Introduction 3,Methodology 5. Material 6,Definitions 10,Radicalisation 11,Jihadist 12. Outline 13,Radicalisation and femininity 14,Radicalisation process 14. Feminist approach and gendering 16,Jihadists and jihadi brides 21. Violent jihadi organisations 21,Women s role 25,Swedish counter radicalisation 26.
Europeans who travel 27,European women s radicalisation process 29. European women in ISIS territory 32,How women are portrayed 34. Reasons for radicalisation and counter radicalisation 34. Push factors 36,Pull factors 40, Prescribed roles in violent jihadi organisations 42. Conclusion 45,Bibliography 49, The aim of this dissertation is to show that Swedish counter radicalisation has maintained. traditional gender norms and thus undermined the potential threat that women who. engage in violent jihadi organisations might pose This will be demonstrated through a. discourse analysis with a feminist perspective of Swedish counter radicalisation I will. further argue that the gendering in itself is a security threat towards Sweden s security. Saltman and Smith 2015 have concluded that the push and pull factors for women who. have recently joined ISIS do not differ from the factors which lead to radicalisation for. men who engage in violent jihadi organisations However media and official documents. tend to claim that women who join are radicalised through the influence of a man and. therefore sometimes not even held responsible for their actions All in line with Gentry. and Sjoberg s 2007 2015 theories of gendering women in political violence. This dissertation will present the process of radicalisation a historical background of. violent jihadi organisations with the main focus on Europe to later move on to the. discourse analysis with Sweden as a case study Sweden has seen a non neglectable. amount of fighters who have recently travelled to Syria many of whom are women Even. so the women are undermined as a threat as females are gendered throughout Swedish. counter radicalisation and Swedish media, Key words Radicalisation Counter radicalisation Sweden Gendering Political.
violence Political Islam Jihad ISIS,Introduction, Their activities are problematic but based on our mission which is to prevent terrorist. crimes in Sweden we do not follow up on them 1 Those were the words of Anders. Kassman operative manager of the Swedish Security Police regarding Swedish women. who join violent jihadi organisations abroad rwall Lov n 2014 This is merely one. example of the gendering of female violent extremism and how authorities undermine the. threat women in violent jihadi organisations might pose. Since the Islamic State2 declared a Caliphate in 2014 Europeans traveling to join jihadist. groups in Iraq and Syria have gained substantial media attention even though the. phenomenon of foreign fighters traveling to the Middle East and North Africa to pursue. jihad is not a new one However more women than previously are leaving their life in. Europe to be a part of the new Caliphate In the media these women are more often than. men portrayed as victims stuck in the terror of ISIS Nevertheless one should keep in. mind that they most often travel voluntarily and are also radicalised to support their. violent means3 why they can also pose a threat, Gentry and Sjoberg 2007 2015 have concluded that women in political violence are. often portrayed as unaccountable for their actions and are often claimed to act under the. My translation Original text Deras aktiviteter r problematiska men utifr n v rt uppdrag vilket. r att hindra terrorbrott i Sverige s g r vi ingen uppf ljning. Throughout this dissertation I will refer to the organisation active in Syria and Iraq as either the. Islamic State or ISIS Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant Some refer to them as Daesh. however this name will not be used in this dissertation. This will be presented further below with references to Hoyle et al 2015 and Saltman Smith. influence of a man I will argue that the same is true for Swedish women who join violent. jihadi organisations Their radicalisation process is either dismissed as a search for. romance or it is assumed that they were tricked into joining such organisations Even. though as Bekker and de Leede 2015 5 points out motivations for young women do. not differ from those of young men Further research on the subject has been conducted. by Saltman and Smith 2015 who reached the same conclusion Their result is presented. in push and pull factors which will serve as a useful framework for this analysis. The aim of this dissertation is to show that Swedish counter radicalisation has in fact. maintained traditional gender norms as the above quotation is one example of The. gendering of ISIS sympathisers and the fact that the threat from female foreign fighters is. undermined is in itself a security threat towards Sweden To avoid this I will present a. recommendation for further gender awareness in Swedish counter radicalisation Previous. research has shown that women join violent jihadi organisations for the same reasons as. men and even though we cannot say for sure that they conduct violent acts abroad there. is evidence that women support violence and that they play an important role in the. territory controlled by ISIS By ignoring the threat a female sympathiser might pose the. Swedish Security Police and others involved in counter radicalisation might fail to. prevent women from joining violent jihadi organisations and a potential domestic attack. in the future,Methodology, This section presents the methodology material and definitions that have been used. throughout this dissertation In the following section a review of previous research and. theories is presented before the specific case study of Sweden. I will investigate the gendering of female jihadi sympathisers in Swedish counter. radicalisation by conducting a discourse analysis I have chosen to focus on Sweden. because in relation to its size many Swede s have travelled to join violent jihadi groups. in Syria recently Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty 2015 01 29 Scandinavia has also. been high in rank on gender equality and gender awareness World Economic Forum. 2014 Thus if there is gendering in the Swedish contexts it can be assumed that the same. is true for other European countries, In conducting a discourse analysis language is of great importance However most of my. primary sources will be in Swedish and will be translated by myself I realise it may be. problematic for the reader since they cannot critically review the original texts used in. the analysis I argue that my translations are objective and literal and thus this should not. be a problem To show the literality in my translations I have chosen to present the. original texts in Swedish in footnotes where I have conducted the translation so the. reader who is comfortable with Swedish may review my translations. The discourse analysis I will execute to investigate the gendering in counter radicalisation. will have a constructivist feminist approach My definition of gender is in line with the. school of constructivism meaning that gender is socially constructed and thus it can. change By applying a feminist approach to the material I will investigate whether the. traditional gender norms are being maintained or questioned. Feminist approaches seek to understand and deconstruct the traditional gender hierarchy. and gender norms Sjoberg 2013 46 Since gender is socially constructed it can also. change and vary for individuals within the same prescribed gender group Thus by. examining the Swedish counter radicalisation in the case of violent jihadi organisation. from a feminist perspective we can see that the traditional gender norms have in fact been. maintained by authorities and women s ability to conduct violence have been. undermined This lack of gender awareness is in itself a security threat because it. neglects a potential threat and it can lead to less effective counter radicalisation. The first part of this dissertation will deal with previous research theory and a brief. historical overview A selection of the secondary sources used for this part will be. presented alongside the primary sources used in the analysis Given that women who. travel abroad from Sweden to join violent jihadi organisations is a relatively new. occurrence most empirical examples will be from women who have recently travelled to. ISIS controlled territory from Sweden but also from other European countries This. being such a current phenomenon has made it problematic to find empirical sources. something that will be discussed throughout the dissertation. Gentry and Sjoberg 2007 2015 have been my main inspiration for the gendering. analysis In their works Mothers Monsters and Whores 2007 and Beyond Mothers. Monsters and Whores 2015 they argue that women in political violence have been. undermined and their motives have been diminished as irrational and emotional Both. Gentry and Sjoberg have written a lot of work on the subject of women in political. violence before4 and they are experience in the area Like they have looked at active. women before and come to the conclusion that they are subject of gendering so will I. look at the specific case of Swedish counter radicalisation aimed at violent jihadi. organisations, Regarding radicalisation theory I have looked at several different sources for example.
Ranstorp 2010 Ranstorp is active at The Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies CATS. at the Swedish Defense University and he is one of the most well known scholars. regarding the matter of violent jihadi organization in the Swedish context So is Hans. Brun now active at Kings College in London who is often speaking on the matter in. Swedish media and will be cited in this analysis Among other things I will discuss the. reasons for radicalisation in the form of push and pull factors which is also the. framework that Saltman and Smith 2015 uses in their analysis of European women who. travel to ISIS controlled territory Another framework for the radicalisation process is the. one developed by the Swedish Security Police with four different pathways to. radicalisation They will be presented with references to the Security Police. Regarding the background to jihadi movements I will mainly be referring to Esposito. 2002 This source is considered reliable due to Esposito s extended work on the history. of Islam as well as political Islam Regarding the background on foreign fighters from. Europe Ranstorp ed 2010 has also been consulted as well as Sandelin 2007 2012. a Swedish journalist who has worked on the matter for a long time. See for example Women Gender and Terrorism 2011 and Reduced to bad sex Narratives. of violent women from the Bible to the War on Terror 2008. European females who travel abroad to join violent jihadi organisations are a fairly new. phenomenon thus there is not much research on the matter However two reports on the. subject Saltman and Smith 2015 and Hoyle et al 2015 that were released during the. spring of 2015 will be used as sources to describe the radicalisation process for women. who travel to ISIS controlled territory in this dissertation Saltman and Smith 2015 have. used the framework of push and pull factors to describe the reasons for radicalisation. which will serve as a suitable framework for my analysis Both Saltman and Smith and. Hoyle et al s results have been based on posts in social media from women who have. travelled to join ISIS 5 These social media updates will be brought up for discussion in. the empirical background, The material used for the analysis is primarily official documents concerning counter. radicalisation Due to the nature of the concept several agents constitute what can be. considered as the Swedish counter radicalisation By Swedish counter radicalisation I. therefore will refer to a broad understanding of the concept that incorporates the whole. spectrum of responsible agents Accordingly the discourse analysis examines the. executives the Security Police6 and social workers on the ground the legislators the. government and the experts the Defence University as well as the National Coordinator. Against Violent Extremism I have chosen to exclude material from the parliament work. because these are not prepared official documents but mere discussions Instead I will. A majority of these posts have been taken down from social media thus they are not available. anymore However the ISD where they conducted the report have saved all of these in a. database I tried to get in contact with the ISD in order to get access to that database without. success Thus I have not been able to investigate Saltman and Smith and Hoyle et al s primary. Please note the material is merely official documents and thus I have not been able to research. the Security Police s counter radicalisation work in praxis only the part of their work that is. shared in official documents, look at government reports that have been thoroughly reviewed where the authors have. had the time to look through the language from a gender perspective and if necessary. changed its language I argue there is greater relevance to find gendering in these more. carefully concluded documents, In Sweden the counter radicalisation work has been conducted on a local level However. in 2014 the Government the Department of Law decided to institute a National. In their works Mothers Monsters and Whores 2007 and Beyond Mothers Monsters and Whores 2015 they argue that women in political violence have been undermined and their motives have been diminished as irrational and emotional Both Gentry and Sjoberg have written a lot of work on the subject of women in political 140020401 7 violence before4 and they are experience in the

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