Saudi Arabian Tertiary Teachers and Learners Attitude

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International Journal of Information and Education Technology Vol 8 No 4 April 2018. II LITERATURE REVIEW B CLT Approach in ESL and EFL Context. This study of Saudi tertiary teachers and students Communicative language teaching CLT is widely. attitudes toward the implementation of CLT methods in acknowledged as an approach to language teaching that. Saudi Arabia is rooted in three areas of the literature a acknowledgeds the main function or purpose of language use. current ELT practices in Saudi Arabia b CLT Approach in as communication The main goal of CLT is therefore to. ESL and EFL contexts and c teachers and learners facilitate the development of the learner s communicative. attitudes toward CLT competence 17 On the basis of this main goal CLT aims is. to place the L2 learner in real life situations that require. A Current ELT Practices in Saudi Arabia, communication in L2 17 As described by Richards 18. Teaching the English language in Saudi Arabia has CLT is based upon the functional view of language which. received great attention from the Saudi Ministry of Education holds that language is a vehicle for the expression of. It has implemented the English language as an obligatory unit functional meaning and emphasizes the pragmatic and. for all levels starting from the primary schools to universities communicative dimension rather than merely the. 7 The aims of teaching English as a foreign language in grammatical characteristics of language Describing CLT in. Saudi Arabia are stated in the Saudi policy of education this way there is clearly an emphasis placed on. article number 50 of the Saudi Arabian education policy communicative competence emerging from the learner s. which are Furnishing the students with at least one of the production of the target language 19 As such there is still. living languages in addition to their original language to importance given to the learner s grammar and vocabulary. enable them to acquire knowledge and sciences from other knowledge linguistic competence ability to utter. communities and to participate in the service of Islam and statements appropriate to particular social situations. humanity 3 The Saudi Ministry of Education stated that sociolinguistic competence ability to manage a. the goal of English language teaching is developing learners conversation discourse competence and the ability to. communicative competence to communicate with English repair communication breakdowns strategic competence. speaking persons 4 However despite the above mentioned 19. communicative goal efforts and publications which support Since first introduced during the 1970s the CLT approach. the communicative teaching method Liton 4 13 Fareh has gradually overtaken other traditional methods of. 14 Khan 12 Rahman and Alhaisoni 7 and Rajab 15 language teaching primarily because the centrality of. argue that English teaching in Saudi Arabia has not yet met grammar in language teaching and learning was questioned. its goals They have identified various reasons such as the use 20 Today major works on language instructions by. of traditional teaching methods teachers role in class Harmer 21 Richards and Rodgers 22 and Brown 23 all. students role teachers preparation etc contain major sections on the CLT approach Notably the. The main reason behind the low achievement in English increased research focus on English language instructions. proficiency level among Saudi learners is the teachers use of has also resulted in increased professionalism among English. traditional teaching methods such as the Grammar language teachers 24 The language learning is best. Translation method and the Audi lingual method According apprehended in CLT 23 Due to perceived deficiencies in. to Fareh 14 the main challenge of teaching English causing the traditional teaching methods CLT gives consideration to. inadequately prepared students in the Arab world is use of learners needs to use the second language to communicate. inadequate teaching methodology The issue of reliance on As such CLT denotes a revolution in the language teaching. traditional method has also been pointed out by Al Johani focus In term of its principles CLT is not a list of strict. 13 Al Johani states that students participation is never teaching methods CLT is recognized as an approach rather. encouraged and lesson content is generally delivered to than a method 23 A method is considered by a finite set of. students in a form of a lecture In an investigation of English described rules concerning linguistic structures An approach. learning difficulties in the Saudi context by Khan the issue of is dynamic and subject to amendments based on teachers. teaching methodology was considered as the major reason experiences or student learning in the classroom 23. behind students low achievement 12 Teacher role is an Although the communicative approach has been widely. essential element in the language teaching process Another adopted it has come under criticism from some scholars in. reason as pointed out repeatedly by studies is that the Saudi recent years These scholars argue that even though the. context contributes to the low competence of Saudi learners communicative approach serves a useful function in. EFL teachers in Saudi Arabia have a dominant position they correcting shortcomings in traditional approaches it ignores. talk most of the time while learners are mostly silent 13 the importance of the learning context including the culture. According to Almutairi 16 The teaching atmosphere in of the teachers and students involved in the language. classes in Saudi Arabia reflects the traditional practice The instruction 25 However such criticisms focus on the. teacher spends a lot of time explaining and illustrating new chauvinistic attitudes of CLT proponents rather than on the. language items and writing on the board while the students sources of resistance to the CLT approach Other critics of. sit and listen read or copy The above reasons causing the CLT argue that the theoretical focus on interaction is rarely. low learners competency level assure the urgent need for implemented and that even though many classrooms have the. proper implementation of the CLT approach in the Saudi form of being communicative the functional elements. context to meet the Ministry of Education goals in the Saudi remain largely grammatically focused 26 27. International Journal of Information and Education Technology Vol 8 No 4 April 2018. C Teacher s and Learner s Attitude toward CLT implications of their actions 42 On the basis of this. Recent attempts to implement CLT in EFL context have assumption the person s intention to perform or not perform. provoked a great deal of research efforts While some an action is positioned as the most important immediate. researchers have focused on the need for the CLT others driver of that action 42 Thus the key construct in the TPB. have investigated the suitability of the CLT approach for a is human intention 42. specific cultural context Investigating teachers and Culture is typically described as the prevailing values. students attitude is an essential factor in determining principles ritual beliefs and ethics shared among an. teachers and learners intention and behaviour with respect identifiable group of people Jackson Hogg 2010. to a learning approach in classrooms Existing research on Arguably the most recognised framework for identifying. teachers attitudes toward the CLT approach has been mainly cultural variability is the Cultural Dimensions model. conducted in the Asian and European contexts 10 28 33 developed by Geert Hofstede 43 Importantly the. Ansarey 30 stated that despite teachers strong desire to underlying assumption in Hofstede s framework is that. implement the CLT approach teachers are not confident individuals and groups organise their thoughts emotions and. about implementing the CLT approach fully behaviours in relation to their environment Alkailani. A few studies suggest a positive students attitude towards Azzam Athamneh 2012 The proposed research aims to. the CLT approach 34 In Vietnam an investigation of investigate Saudi tertiary language teachers and students. students attitude towards the CLT approach shows that attitudes towards CLT the relationship of teachers and. students held positive attitude toward the CLT approach 35 students attitude with their educational background and. Also positive students attitude toward the CLT approach is factors that enable or constrain the implementation of the. suggested among the first year university students in Taiwan CLT approach As a result it is important to determine the. especially those who started learning English at a younger extent to which cultural forces are at work in shaping these. age 36 This positive attitude of students toward the CLT attitudes toward the CLT approach To achieve this outcome. approach is also shared by the Arab learners In Jordan an two dimensions of Hofstede s cultural variability framework. investigation towards learners attitude towards CLT will be applied namely power distance dimention and. approach shows positive attitude toward the CLT approach individualism collectivism dimension to support this research. 37 investigation Fig 1 shows the model, Although the above cited studies show that EFL countries. have shifted toward the CLT approach as a favourable. teaching approach for their nations to develop learners. communicative competence empirical studies show a gap. between desired teaching approach and actual classroom. practices 28 30 34 37 39 While some scholars, such as Holliday argue that resistance to a specific teaching. method is due to cultural and contextual differences 40 Fig 1 Research model. others claim that the CLT approach should be replaced by a. contextual approach since CLT ignores the context that is a. vital aspect of language teaching 25 Thus investigating IV HYPOTHESIS DEVELOPMENT. teachers and learners attitude is an essential factor in Fishbein and Ajzen 44 defined attitude as a learned. determining teachers and learners intention and behaviour predisposition to respond in a consistently favourable or. with respect to a learning approach in classrooms The unfavourable manner with respect to a given object p 6 In. teaching methodology is more likely to be implemented if terms of the TPB attitude is conceptualised as to the person s. teachers view it favourably and consider the students needs positive or negative evaluation of performing the particular. 11 Such an investigation of both Saudi teachers and behaviour of interest 42 Underpinning a person s attitudes. learners attitudes will defiantly disclose their thoughts are his or her beliefs about the consequences of performing. barriers opportunity and intention to practice CLT in Saudi the behaviour multiplied by evaluations of those. consequences 41 The rationale for applying the TPB. framework to a study of teachers and students attitudes. towards CLT is that it is arguably the most influential theory. III THEORETICAL BACKGROUND AND FRAMEWORK,for the prediction of social behaviour 41 The TPB. Two major theories will be used to support this research framework states that a person s behaviour is predicted by. arguments namely the theory of planned behavior TPB his her behavioural intention which is influenced by his her. developed by Icek Ajzen 1988 and the cultural variability attitude toward the behaviour among other factors 45. theory developed by Hofstede 1981 TPB Icek Ajzen Based on the TPB a person behavioural beliefs shape the. 1988 presents a framework for measuring how human person s attitude toward an object. actions are shaped As such TPB aims to predict the Regarding the cultural variable Scarino 46 asserts that. manifestation of a particular behaviour on the condition that learning and communication are social and interactive. the behaviour is intentional 41 The underlying assumptions Certainly the contrasting profiles of CLT and grammar. in the TPB are that human beings usually behave in a translation method provided above point to the higher level. sensible manner that they take account of available of social interaction for communicative purposes required of. information and implicitly or explicitly consider the L2 learners when being taught according to the CLT. International Journal of Information and Education Technology Vol 8 No 4 April 2018. approach This emphasis on teacher student and 2 A M Al Asmari and M Khan World Englishes in the EFL teaching. in Saudi Arabia Arab World English Journal vol 5 no 1 pp. student student interaction in the CLT classroom however 316 325 2014. draws attention to the influence of socio cultural factors on 3 D T A Hajailan Teaching English in Saudi Arabia Riyadh Aldar. language learning processes and outcomes In turn evidence Alsawlatiah 2003. 4 H A Liton Developing EFL teaching and learning practices in Saudi. is available that demonstrates how different cultural norms. colleges A review International Journal of Instruction vol 5 no 2. values and customs may influence the nature of the pp 129 152 2012. teacher student relationship in the classroom as well as the 5 H A Liton EFL teachers perceptions evaluations and expectations. preferred teaching and learning methods embedded in the about English language courses as EFL in Saudi universities vol 6. no 2 pp 19 34 2013, subject curriculum 47 Therefore we hypothesize 6 A M Ahmad Kumaravadivelu s framework as a basis for improving.
H1 Behavioral beliefs have a positive impact on tertiary English language teaching in Saudi Arabia Opportunities and. Communicative Language Teaching CLT in Saudi Arabia The emphasis lies on behavioral beliefs and culture on attitude towards CLT approach This study will lead to a clearer understanding of the suitability of the CLT approach and will lead to further investigation on factors that could make the approach more suitable in the context of Saudi Arabia Index Terms Attitude communicative

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