Rockets Rock module NASA

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Table of Contents,Introduction,NASA Out of School Learning Network 2. Background Information for Facilitators 4,Activities. Launch a Rocket from a Spinning Planet 11,Rocket Races 19. Balloon Staging 33,Foam Rocket 39,The Nose Cone Experts 51. 3 2 1 Puff 63,Pop Rocket Launcher and Pop Rockets 73.
NASA Out of School Learning Network,NASA Out of School Learning Network. The NASA Out of School Learning NOSL Network is designed to offer inquiry based. science technology engineering and mathematics STEM learning experiences that. connect students with NASA scientists engineers and mission content related activities. The NASA engineering design challenge Parachuting Onto Mars has been paired with. the Rockets Rock Module and is located on the NOSL Web site This engineering design. challenge allows students the opportunity to work through the engineering design process. used by NASA scientists, The complete module is designed to provide the student with an understanding of. Newton s Third Law of Motion,The engineering design process. Forces and interactions,Scope and Sequence, The Rockets Rock module covers the following Next Generation Science Standards NGSS. for middle school students,Next Generation Science Standards.
Middle School Physical Science MS PS, MS PS2 2 Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object s motion. depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object. Middle School Engineering Design MS ET, MS ETS1 3 Analyze data from tests to determine similarities and differences among. several design solutions to identify the best characteristics of each that can be combined. into a new solution to better meet the criteria for success. MS ETS1 4 Develop a model to generate data for iterative testing and modification. of a proposed object tool or process such that an optimal design can be achieved. NASA Out of School Learning Network,Disciplinary Core Ideas. Forces and motion,Types of interactions,Developing possible solutions. Science and Engineering Practices,Asking questions and defining problems.
Planning and carrying out investigations,Constructing explanations and designing solutions. Crosscutting Concepts,Cause and effect,Systems and system models. Stability and change,Connections to the Nature of Science. Scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence. Connections to Engineering Technology and the Applications of Science. Influence of science engineering and technology on society and the natural world. BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOR FACILITATORS,Newton s Three Laws of Motion. The activities in this module will demonstrate principles from Sir Isaac Newton s three laws. of motion that are related to rocketry The following background information is for instructors. who conduct these activities Understanding how to successfully launch a rocket depends on. understanding the laws of motion that Newton developed based on earlier research by Galileo. First Law of Motion, Objects at rest remain at rest and objects in motion remain in motion in a straight line.
unless acted upon by an unbalanced force,Second Law of Motion. Force equals mass times acceleration f ma,Third Law of Motion. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Before looking at each of these laws in detail a few terms should be explained. Rest and Motion used in the first law can be confusing Both terms mean rest or motion in. relation to the object s surroundings, When sitting in a chair a person is at rest It doesn t matter if the chair is in the cabin of a jet. plane while on a cross country flight or if the plane is on the ground Passengers the objects. are still considered to be at rest because the airplane cabin is moving with them If they get up. from their seats on the airplane and walk down the aisle they are in relative motion because. they are changing their positions inside the cabin. Force used in the second law is a push or a pull exerted on an object Force can be exerted. in many ways such as muscle power movement of air and electromagnetism Force is usually. exerted on rocket by burning propellants that expand explosively. Unbalanced force refers to motions that are in opposition. to each other The forces on a soccer ball at rest on the Balanced. playing field are balanced Give the ball a good kick and Force. the forces become unbalanced Fig 1 Air drag a force. gradually slows the ball and gravity causes it to bounce. on the field When the ball stops bouncing and rolling. the forces are in balance again Take the soccer ball into. deep space far away from any star or other significant. gravitational field and give it a kick The kick exerted on. the ball is an unbalanced force Once the ball is no longer. in contact with the foot the forces on the ball become. balanced again and the ball will travel in a straight line. forever The forces are balanced when the soccer ball is at Unbalanced. rest or when the ball is moving at a constant speed and in Force. a straight line in space The forces are unbalanced when. the ball is accelerating or changing its direction. Figure 1 Balanced and unbalanced forces, Mass refers only to the amount of matter contained in an object Mass and weight are often. confused They are not the same thing Weight is a force and is the product of mass times the. acceleration of gravity, The mass remains the same whether the object is on Earth in Earth.
orbit or on the Moon unless it is changed in some way. Acceleration relates to motion and describes a change in motion. Usually change refers to increasing speed like what occurs when. you step on the accelerator pedal of a car Acceleration can also be. changing direction, This is what happens on a carousel Even though the carousel is turning Figure 2 Top view of. at a constant rate the continual change in direction of the horses and two riders on a carousel. riders circular motion is an acceleration The carousel platform exerts. unbalanced forces on the riders and prevents them from going in straight lines The platform. continually accelerates the riders in a counterclockwise direction as shown in Figure 2. Action used in the third law is the result of a force When a cannon fires and the cannon. ball flies through the air the movement of the cannon ball is considered an action Air being. released from an inflated balloon is also considered an action. Reaction is related to action When a cannon fires the cannon ball flies through the air but the. cannon itself recoils backward and reacts When the air rushes out of the balloon the balloon. shoots the other way another reaction,Newton s First Law of Motion. Newton s first law of motion points out that an object at rest such as a rocket on a launch pad. needs the exertion of an unbalanced force to cause it to lift off. The amount of the thrust force produced by the rocket engines has to be greater than the. force of gravity holding it down As long as the thrust of the engines continues the rocket. accelerates When the rocket runs out of propellant the forces become unbalanced again. Gravity takes over and causes the rocket to fall back to Earth After it lands the rocket is at rest. again and the forces are in balance, One very interesting part of the first law has enormous implications for spaceflight When a. rocket reaches space atmospheric drag friction is greatly reduced or eliminated Drag is an. unbalancing force within the Earth s atmosphere yet is virtually absent in space. A rocket traveling away from Earth at a speed greater than 11 186 kilometers per second 6 95. miles per second or 40 270 kilometers per hour 25 023 mph will eventually escape Earth s. gravity The rocket will slow down but Earth s gravity will never slow it down enough to cause. it to fall back to Earth Ultimately the rocket will travel to the stars Because no additional. rocket thrust will be needed the rocket s inertia will cause it to continue to travel outward Four. spacecraft are actually doing that as you read this Pioneers 10 and 11 and Voyagers 1 and 2. are on journeys to the stars,Newton s Third Law of Motion. It is useful to jump to the third law and come back to the second law later. The third law is the principle of action and reaction In the case of rocket. engines the action is the force produced by the expulsion of gas smoke. and flames from the nozzle end Fig 3 The reaction force propels the. rocket in the opposite direction, When a rocket lifts off the combustion products from the burning.
propellants accelerate rapidly out of the engine while the rocket slowly. accelerates skyward The action and reaction are equal but the mass of. the gas smoke and flames being propelled by the engine is much less. than the mass of the rocket being propelled in the opposite direction. Even though the force is equal on both the rocket and propellants the. effects are different Newton s first law the law of inertia explains why. Because it takes a force to change the motion of an object the greater. the mass the greater the force required to move it. Figure 3 Action and reaction,Newton s Second Law of Motion. The second law of motion relates force acceleration and mass. The law is often written as the equation f ma, The force or thrust produced by a rocket engine is directly proportional to the mass of the. gas and particles produced by burning rocket propellant times the acceleration of those. combustion products out the back of the engine This law applies only to what is actually. coming out of the engine at the moment and not the mass of the rocket propellant that will. be consumed later The implication of this law for rocketry is that the more propellant m. consumed at the moment and the greater the acceleration a of the combustion products out. of the nozzle later the greater the thrust f,Conclusion. In conclusion Newton s laws of motion explain just about everything you need to know to. become a rocket scientist However knowing the laws is not enough You have to know how. to apply them such as How can you create enough thrust to exceed the weight of the rocket. What structural materials and propellant combinations should you use. Grades 6 to 8,INQUIRY BASED ACTIVITY, Grades 6 to 8 Prep Time 0 25 hour Activity Time 0 5 hour. About This Activity,This activity which was taken from the.
NASA Adventures In Rocket Science Guide Balloons,illustrates how rockets and airplanes move. forward Balloon Thrust Experiment Log,Background, Engines propulsion systems provide a Next Generation Science. constant source of thrust to move vehicles Standards. forward and to overcome drag In this, activity balloons will move in the opposite MS PS2 1 Apply Newton s Third Law. direction of the flow of the released air of Motion to design a solution to a. propulsion system because every action problem involving the motion of two. has an opposite and equal reaction colliding objects. Newton s third law Since the air will be,released from one small hole the release. Learning Objective,of the air will be in one direction.
Learners will,Conduct an experiment with a system,Step 1 that moves due to equal and opposite. actions and reactions,Ask students why an airplane is able to. move forward,Tell students they are going to conduct a. simple experiment to see how a jet or plane,moves forward. Distribute Balloon Thrust Experiment Log,and balloons Let students know they should.
follow the procedures on the handout and,remind them to use all of their senses. Student Handout,Balloon Thrust Experiment Log,1 Fill the balloon with air. 2 Hold it so that no air gets out but do not tie a knot. 3 Hold the balloon up with the opening facing to your left. 4 Let go of balloon Write down your observation below. 5 Repeat steps 1 to 4 with the opening of the balloon facing to your right. Write your observation below, 6 Repeat steps 1 to 4 with the opening of the balloon facing up. Write your observation below, 7 Repeat steps 1 to 4 with the opening of the balloon facing the ground. Write your observation below, 8 In general describe what happens when you release the balloon.
Write your observation below,9 What did you learn, 10 How did this activity relate to rockets and their motion. Launch a Rocket,From a Spinning Planet,Grades 6 to 8. INQUIRY BASED ACTIVITY,LAUNCH A ROCKET FROM A SPINNING PLANET. Grades 6 to 8 Prep Time 0 5 hour Activity Time 1 hour. About This Activity,This activity which was taken from NASA. Space Place illustrates how difficult it is Several small balls for example. for a rocket that is launched from the Earth tennis balls softballs whiffle balls. which is spinning on its axis to meet the golf balls or bean bags. intended target,Two containers, Next Generation Science Merry go round or any device.
Standards that will allow you to turn around, MS PS2 2 Plan an investigation to provide in a circle. evidence that the change in an object s,motion depends on the sum of the forces. on the object and the mass of the object,Learning Objective. Learners will,Understand that rockets are launched. into space with precise timing in order to,meet their intended destinations.
LAUNCH A ROCKET FROM A SPINNING PLANET,Background, Gravity is at work on Earth and in space Because all ob. science technology engineering and mathematics STEM learning experiences that connect students with NASA scientists engineers and mission content related activities The NASA engineering design challenge Parachuting Onto Mars has been paired with the Rockets Rock Module and is located on the NOSL Web site This engineering design

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