RF Power Amplifiers for Wireless Communications 2nd Edition

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DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY, The technical descriptions procedures and computer programs in this book have. been developed with the greatest of care and they have been useful to the author in a. broad range of applications however they are provided as is without warranty of. any kind Artech House Inc and the author and editors of the book titled RF. Power Amplifiers for Wireless Communications Second Edition make no warran. ties expressed or implied that the equations programs and procedures in this book. or its associated software are free of error or are consistent with any particular stan. dard of merchantability or will meet your requirements for any particular applica. tion They should not be relied upon for solving a problem whose incorrect solution. could result in injury to a person or loss of property Any use of the programs or pro. cedures in such a manner is at the user s own risk The editors author and publisher. disclaim all liability for direct incidental or consequent damages resulting from use. of the programs or procedures in this book or the associated software. For a listing of recent titles in the Artech House. Microwave Library turn to the back of this book,RF Power Amplifiers for. Wireless Communications,Second Edition,Steve C Cripps. artechhouse com, Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data. A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data,Cripps Steve C.
RF power amplifiers for wireless communications 2nd ed Artech House microwave. 1 Amplifiers Radio frequency 2 Power amplifiers,621 3 81535. ISBN 10 1 59693 018 7,ISBN 10 1 59693 018 7,ISBN 13 978 1 59693 018 6. Cover design by Igor Valdman,2006 ARTECH HOUSE INC. 685 Canton Street,Norwood MA 02062, All rights reserved Printed and bound in the United States of America No part of this book. may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means electronic or mechanical includ. ing photocopying recording or by any information storage and retrieval system without. permission in writing from the publisher, All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have.
been appropriately capitalized Artech House cannot attest to the accuracy of this informa. tion Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trade. mark or service mark,International Standard Book Number 1 59693 018 7. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1,Preface to the Second Edition xi. Introduction 1,1 1 Introduction 1,1 2 Linear RF Amplifier Theory 2. 1 3 Weakly Nonlinear Effects Power and Volterra Series 5. 1 4 Strongly Nonlinear Effects 6,1 5 Nonlinear Device Models for CAD 9. 1 6 Conjugate Match 11,1 7 RF Power Device Technology 14.
References 15,Linear Power Amplifier Design 17,2 1 Class A Amplifiers and Linear Amplifiers 17. 2 2 Gain Match and Power Match 19,2 3 Introduction to Load Pull Measurements 20. 2 4 Loadline Theory 21, 2 5 Package Effects and Refinements to Load Pull Theory 27. 2 6 Drawing the Load Pull Contours on CAD Programs 31. 2 7 Class A Design Example 31,2 8 Conclusions 36,References 37. Conventional High Efficiency Amplifier Modes 39,3 1 Introduction 39.
3 2 Reduced Conduction Angle Waveform Analysis 40,3 3 Output Termination 43. 3 4 Reduced Conduction Angle Mode Analysis FET Model 47. Case 1 Class A 48,Case 2 Class AB 49,Case 3 Class B 51. Case 4 Class C 53, 3 5 Reduced Conduction Angle Mode Analysis BJT Model 55. 3 6 Effect of I V Knee 59,3 7 Input Drive Requirements 61. vi Contents,3 8 Conclusions 65,References 65,Class AB PAs at GHz Frequencies 67.
4 1 Introduction 67, 4 2 Class AB Using a Capacitive Harmonic Termination The Class J PA 68. 4 2 1 Theory 68,4 2 2 Practicalities 73,4 3 Nonlinear Device Characteristics 77. 4 4 Nonlinear Capacitance Effects in RF Power Devices 81. 4 4 1 Introduction 81, 4 4 2 Nonlinear Capacitors Characterization and Analysis 81. 4 4 3 Input Varactor Effects on Class AB PAs 84,4 5 Conclusions 89. References 89,Practical Design of Linear RF Power Amplifiers 91.
5 1 Low Pass Matching Networks 92,5 2 Transmission Line Matching 100. 5 3 Shorting the Harmonics 102,5 4 A Generic MESFET 105. 5 5 A 2W Class B Design for 850 MHz 107,5 6 The Pi Section Power Matching Network 112. 5 7 Pi Section Analysis for PA Design 115,5 8 Class J Design Example 122. 5 9 HBT Design Example 124,5 10 Conclusions 129,References 131.
Overdriven PAs and the Class F Mode 133,6 1 Introduction 133. 6 2 Overdriven Class A Amplifier 134,6 3 Overdriven Class AB Amplifier 139. 6 4 Class F Introduction and Theory 143,6 5 Class F in Practice 149. 6 6 The Clipping Model for the Class F Mode Class FD 155. 6 7 PA Waves 163,6 8 Class F Simulations 164,6 9 Conclusions 171. References 172,Switching Mode Amplifiers for RF Applications 173.
7 1 Introduction 173,Contents vii,7 2 A Simple Switching Amplifier 174. 7 3 A Tuned Switching Amplifier 178,7 4 The Class D Switching Amplifier 180. 7 4 Class E Introduction 182,7 5 Class E Simplified Analysis 183. 7 6 Class E Design Example 192,7 7 Conclusions 198. References 199,Switching PA Modes at GHz Frequencies 201.
8 1 Introduction 201, 8 2 Ignoring the Obvious Breaking the 100 Barrier 202. 8 3 Waveform Engineering 205,8 4 PA Waves 216,8 5 Implementation and Simulation 225. 8 6 Conclusions 227,References 229,Nonlinear Effects in RF Power Amplifiers 231. 9 1 Introduction 231,9 2 Two Carrier Power Series Analysis 233. 9 3 Two Carrier Envelope Analysis 240,9 4 Envelope Analysis with Variable PAR 246.
9 5 AM to PM Effects 250,9 6 PA Memory Effects 256. 9 7 Digital Modulation Systems 261,9 7 1 Introduction to Digital Modulation 261. 9 7 2 QPSK Modulation Systems 262,9 7 3 CDMA and WCDMA 268. 9 7 4 OFDM Modulation 802 11 16 Standards 275,9 8 30 Watt LDMOS Test Amplifier Measurements 278. 9 9 Conclusions 282,References 283,CHAPTER 10,Efficiency Enhancement Techniques 285.
Introduction 285,10 1 Efficiency Enhancement 286,10 2 The Doherty Amplifier 290. 10 3 Realization of the Doherty Amplifier 298,10 4 Outphasing Techniques 303. 10 5 Envelope Elimination and Restoration EER 309,10 6 Envelope Tracking 311. 10 7 Power Converters for EER and ET 314,10 8 Pulse Width Modulation PWM 318. viii Contents,10 9 Other Efficiency Enhancement Techniques 323.
10 9 1 The Sequential Power Amplifier 323,10 9 2 Pulse Position Modulation 325. 10 9 3 RF to DC Conversion 326,10 9 4 RF Switching Techniques 328. 10 9 5 Smart Antennas 329,10 10 Case Studies in Efficiency Enhancement 330. 10 11 Conclusions 333,References 334,CHAPTER 11,Power Amplifier Bias Circuit Design 337. 11 1 Introduction 337,11 2 Stability of RF Power Transistors 338.
11 3 Bias Supply Modulation Effects 343,11 4 Bias Network Design 350. 11 5 Bias Insertion Networks 353,11 6 Prime Power Supply Issues 354. 11 7 Bias Control Circuits 355,11 8 Conclusions 356. References 357,CHAPTER 12,Load Pull Techniques 359. 12 1 Tuner Design for Fundamental Load Pull 359,12 2 Harmonic Load Pull 362.
12 3 Active Harmonic Load Pull 365,12 4 Variations Results Conclusions 367. References 369,CHAPTER 13,Power Amplifier Architecture 371. Introduction 371,13 1 Push Pull Amplifiers 372,13 2 Balanced Amplifiers 380. 13 3 Power Combining 387,13 4 Multistage PA Design 391. 13 5 Conclusions 394,References 395,CHAPTER 14,Power Amplifier Linearization Techniques 397.
Introduction 397,14 1 Introduction to PA Linearization 399. 14 2 Predistortion 401,14 2 1 Introduction to Predistortion Theory 401. 14 2 2 Digital Predistortion DPD 404,Contents ix,14 2 3 Analog Predistortion 407. 14 2 4 Predistortion Conclusions 410,14 3 Feedforward Techniques 410. 14 3 1 Feedforward Introduction 410,14 3 2 Feedforward Gain Compression 411.
14 3 3 Feedforward Effect of the Output Coupler 414. 14 3 4 Feedforward Adaptive Controls 417, 14 3 5 Feedforward Practical Issues Conclusions 418. 14 4 Feedback Techniques 419, 14 4 1 Introduction Direct Feedback Techniques 419. 14 4 2 Indirect Feedback Techniques Introduction 420. 14 4 3 The Cartesian Loop 421,14 4 4 The Polar Loop 423. 14 5 Other Linearization Methods 424,14 6 Conclusions 425. References 426,APPENDIX A,PA Waves 429,APPENDIX B,Spectral Analysis Using Excel IQ Spreadsheets 433.
Bibliography 435, Introductory Texts on RF and Microwave Techniques 435. Wireless Communications 435,Digital Modulation 435. Nonlinear Techniques and Modeling 435,Power Amplifier Techniques 435. Recommended Reading 436,Glossary 437,About the Author 441. Preface to the Second Edition, When I started writing the first edition of RF Power Amplifiers for Wireless Com.
munications some time back in 1997 it seemed that I was roaming a largely unin. habited landscape For reasons still not clear to me there were few if any other. books dedicated to the subject of RF power amplifiers Right at the same time how. ever hundreds of engineers were being assigned projects to design PAs for wireless. communications products It was not therefore especially difficult to be successful. with a book that was fortuitously at the right place and the right time. As the original manuscript progressed both Artech and I not to mention the. bemused reviewers became aware that the book was developing into something of. an experiment a not entirely premeditated attempt to write a technical book that. was readable It even had jokes My word if that s not really radical isn t engineer. ing supposed to be a serious business Well my own experiences in the engineering. labs around the world is that engineers don t seem to be all that serious at least not. all of the time Then there was the issue of equations I happen to like symbolic anal. ysis but only the kind that I can understand Once the s get into double nesting I. tend to switch off and I have a sneaking suspicion I m not alone. Well times have changed PA design and their high volume manufacture have. advanced enormously and there now seem to be thousands of engineers and tech. nologists who know more about the subject than I do I like to think I played a part. in getting some of them started but it makes the current task rather more challeng. ing than the initial carefree romp I suppose I should just get more serious cut the. jokes and fill many more pages with s But that s not my style for better or for. Scanning the chapters the general flow of the original book is the same There. are several new chapters and nearly all of the original material has been updated. and extended as appropriate A new Chapter 4 digs a bit deeper into all of the things. that make PA devices behave differently at GHz frequencies than at audio Some of. this analysis leads into another new chapter Chapter 8 where I make an undis. guised attempt to persuade RF designers that transistors do not behave as switches. anymore and the classical switch modes can be approximated using more con. ventional RF thinking on impedance and harmonic matching I hope this sits OK. with the two potential sides of a debate which I hope to promote I am not in any. way suggesting that the switch modes and their associated voluminous literature are. in any way wrong but simply trying to build a more solid bridge between the real. world of GHz PA design and the elegant but idealized world where transistors are. modeled as switches In so doing I am not claiming any kind of priority either but. trying to persuade people to think a bit differently. Modulation and nonlinear effects in PAs are closely interwoven and so I have. decided to cover both in a single chapter Chapter 9 As modulation systems get. more complicated RF designers have a more difficult time understanding them and. xii Preface to the Second Edition, the numerous excellent books that have appeared on the subject tend to cover areas. of specific interest to the PA designer rather briefly and in some cases barely at all. With a little trepidation therefore I have tried to cover modulation systems from. the PA designer s viewpoint To do so I place heavy reliance on actual measure. ments and observations of signals coming out of commercial generators rather than. delving into the challenging depths of symbolic analysis This is something of a novel. approach to the subject and I hope it will not get me into too much trouble. The design of bias networks for PAs has been belatedly promoted to chapter sta. tus Chapter 11 The problems of maintaining stability and simultaneously minimiz. ing supply modulation effects can cause as much difficulty for a PA designer as does. the design of the RF matching networks and hopefully this new chapter will provide. some useful new insights for the PA practitioner In further recognition and promo. tion of the school of pragmatic PA design there is a new chapter on load pull tech. niques covering both passive and active methods I am particularly indebted to. Professor Paul Tasker and his group at Cardiff University for allowing me extensive. access to their facilities which include active harmonic load pull and accurate mea. surement of RF waveforms I have always held the vie. Power Amplifiers for Wireless Communications Second Edition make no warran ties expressedorimplied thattheequations programs andproceduresinthisbook oritsassociated softwareare freeoferror orare consistentwithany particular stan dard of merchantability or will meet your requirements for any particular applica tion They should not be relied upon for solving a problem whose incorrect

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