Resource efficiency in the building sector

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Resource efficiency in the,building sector,Final report. Client DG Environment,Dr M rton Herczeg,David McKinnon. Leonidas Milios,Ioannis Bakas,Erik Klaassens,Dr Katarina Svatikova. Oscar Widerberg,Rotterdam 23 May 2014,About Ecorys. At Ecorys we aim to deliver real benefit to society through the work we do We offer research. consultancy and project management specialising in economic social and spatial development. Focusing on complex market policy and management issues we provide our clients in the public. private and not for profit sectors worldwide with a unique perspective and high value solutions. Ecorys remarkable history spans more than 80 years Our expertise covers economy and. competitiveness regions cities and real estate energy and water transport and mobility social. policy education health and governance We value our independence integrity and partnerships. Our staff comprises dedicated experts from academia and consultancy who share best practices. both within our company and with our partners internationally. Ecorys Netherlands has an active CSR policy and is ISO14001 certified the international standard. for environmental management systems Our sustainability goals translate into our company policy. and practical measures for people planet and profit such as using a 100 green electricity tariff. purchasing carbon offsets for all our flights incentivising staff to use public transport and printing on. FSC or PEFC certified paper Our actions have reduced our carbon footprint by an estimated 80. since 2007,ECORYS Nederland BV,Watermanweg 44,3067 GG Rotterdam.
P O Box 4175,3006 AD Rotterdam,The Netherlands,T 31 0 10 453 88 00. F 31 0 10 453 07 68,E netherlands ecorys com,Registration no 24316726. W www ecorys nl,2 FEA91117,Table of contents,Introduction 5. Executive summary 7,1 Policy context 11,1 1 Europe 2020 11. 1 2 Flagship Initiative 4 Resource Efficient Europe 11. 1 3 Roadmap for a Resource Efficient Europe 11,2 Problem definition 13.
2 1 Scope limitations and definitions used 13, 2 1 1 Residential public and commercial buildings 13. 2 1 2 Delineation of buildings from their environment 13. 2 1 3 Buildings as part of construction 14,2 1 4 Type of resources 14. 2 1 5 Resource efficiency 14,2 1 6 Resource use 15. 2 1 7 Material resource efficiency 15,2 1 8 Resource productivity 16. 2 1 9 Environmental impacts of resource use in different life cycle stages of buildings 16. 2 2 Resource use efficiency productivity and environmental impacts 16. 2 3 Results resource use and its related environmental impacts 19. 2 3 1 Material resource use 19, 2 3 2 Material efficiency and productivity of resource use 23.
2 3 3 Per unit environmental impacts of construction materials 24. 2 3 4 Methodological limitations 26, 2 3 5 Estimated impacts of material resource use 29. 2 3 6 Comparison of impacts from production of materials and impacts from annual energy. consumption of buildings 32, 2 3 7 Embodied energy compared to energy consumption of buildings 34. 2 3 8 Waste generation 37,2 3 9 Land use 39,2 3 10 Water use in buildings 41. 2 3 11 Impact of buildings on biodiversity 44, 2 4 Conclusions on the resource use and environmental impacts of buildings 45. 2 5 Review of existing policy on sustainable buildings and resource efficiency in buildings in. Europe for developing the baseline scenario 49,2 5 1 Policy at the EU level 49.
2 5 2 Policy at the National Level 51,2 5 3 Assessment Frameworks 55. 2 5 4 Conclusions on current policy affecting the sustainability of buildings 55. 2 6 Baseline Scenario 56,2 6 1 Drivers 57,2 6 2 Material use and Environmental Impacts 60. 2 6 3 Economic impacts 67,2 6 4 Baseline Conclusions 69. Resource efficiency in the building sector 3,2 7 Objectives 70. 3 Policy Options 73,3 1 Background to the analysis 73.
3 1 1 Overview of voluntary sustainable certification schemes for buildings in Europe 73. 3 1 2 Share of certified commercial and residential buildings in Europe 78. 3 1 3 Generation of data and awareness 80, 3 1 4 Current state of implementation of the EPBD 80. 3 1 5 Summary implications 81,3 2 Policy options 82. 3 2 1 Introduction 82,3 2 2 Business as Usual Option 1 82. 3 2 3 A voluntary framework consisting of core indicators Option 3 1 82. 3 2 4 A mandatory framework consisting of core indicators Option 3 2 83. 4 Analysis of impacts and comparisons of options 84. 4 1 General remarks and methodology 84,4 2 Business as Usual Option 1 84. 4 2 1 Estimating the uptake of certifications in 2020 and 2030 84. 4 2 2 Economic and social impacts 89,4 2 3 Environmental impacts 103.
4 3 A voluntary framework consisting of core indicators to be used for the assessment of the. environmental performance of buildings Option 3 1 107. 4 3 1 Foreseeing the uptake of such an EU voluntary framework 107. 4 3 2 Economic and social impacts 110,4 3 3 Environmental impacts 112. 4 4 A mandatory framework consisting of core indicators to be used for the assessment of the. environmental performance of buildings Option 3 2 113. 4 4 1 Economic and social impacts 114,4 4 2 Environmental impacts 116. 4 5 Comparison of options 116,References 122,4 Resource efficiency in the building sector. Introduction, This report documents the evidence base developed to support the preparation of the European. Commission s planned Sustainable Buildings Communication. The Communication will provide strategic direction for developing a more sustainable buildings. sector This report uses a life cycle approach to the analysis of the current and future sustainability. of the building sector It provides a concrete basis for the problem formulation and objectives of the. Communication explores the scope of relevant existing policy and initiatives in the area of buildings. and construction identifies potential areas ripe for policy intervention and describes the processes. and outcomes of the public consultation on the selected policy options The policy solutions and. environmental and resource analysis in this report and the Sustainable Buildings Communication. address the lifecycle environmental impacts of buildings to complement existing initiatives related. to energy consumption during the use phase of the building. The assessment of the environmental performance of buildings was considered as a practical. achievable and viable avenue to pursue that would both facilitate the improvement of building. sustainability and address existing market barriers to enhance business opportunity within the. sustainable buildings industry, This report was prepared for the European Commission by experts of Copenhagen Resource.
Institute Ecorys and Triple E Consulting,Resource efficiency in the building sector 5. Executive summary, Resource use efficiency and productivity of buildings. The first part of the report provides novel empirical evidence on resource use and consequent. environmental impacts from buildings and assesses the significance of the policy problems related. to resource use for sustainable buildings In line with the contents of the Communication on. Sustainable buildings under planning at the time of implementing this part of the study in late 2012. and early 2013 this project addresses residential public and commercial buildings but excludes. industrial buildings, In order to identify and prioritise areas where policy action could be used to increase the. sustainability of buildings an empirical overview and calculation of estimated resource use and. associated environmental impacts from buildings was necessary Cradle to gate LCA figures were. used covering the resource extraction to final product i e steel since the future management of. waste arising from materials used for buildings in present times is rather uncertain and therefore. difficult to cover Waste generation land use embodied and operational energy use embodied and. operational water use and biodiversity were also quantified to the extent possible The LCA based. calculations cover the following impact categories in details abiotic depletion potential ADP. global warming potential GWP and toxicity impacts These three categories have been used to. give a useful overall picture of sustainability without overburdening the analysis with specific. impacts within each category particularly that of toxicity impacts We found that the use of. materials for building construction represents a significant share of our total use of abiotic materials. Looking at the split of total aggregated impacts from the materials used in buildings it is clear that. steel copper and aluminium dominate We conclude that these three metals are collectively. responsible for about 80 of all impacts stemming from the cradle to gate production of the. studied materials even despite the fact that benefits of recycling for these materials are included in. the calculations, We estimated that embodied energy in building products was around 1 9 Million TJ in 2011 Steel. and aluminium together are responsible for approximately 51 of the total embodied energy in. building materials with concrete responsible for another approximately 17 of the total embodied. energy in building materials In 2010 the operational energy in residential buildings was nearly 7. times the embodied energy in all newly produced building materials However in 2007 at the. height of the building boom this ratio was down to 4 5 This was due to the larger production. volume in 2007 and thus higher embodied energy and not because of a lower energy use in. buildings The embodied energy in building products can also be compared with the total final. energy consumption in the EU27 of which it made up 5 4 in 2006 or with the EU27 industry s. final energy consumption of which it made up 20 the same year. Existing policies in Europe, The evidence on resource use and associated environmental impacts were complemented by an.
overview of European policies concerning resource efficiency in buildings in order to establish a. baseline scenario, Please see section 2 3 3 for a more detailed description of the impact categories. Resource efficiency in the building sector 7, It was found that there is already a comprehensive range of policies at EU and Member State level. addressing energy efficiency in buildings However the promotion of sustainable buildings taking a. broader view on environmental performance has not benefited from such prolonged policy action In. fact there is far less focus on other life cycle impacts of buildings Certain policies exist at both EU. and Member State level that sometimes directly but more often indirectly influence the sustainability. of buildings either by targeting building materials or as strategies encompassing the wider urban. environment Importantly several initiatives point to the need of a lifecycle approach which. incorporates a wider spectrum of resource uses and environmental impacts. In relation to the current assessment and certification of environmental performance of buildings it. was found that the majority of the existing certification schemes are private and fall outside the. traditional scope of policy although there is often a public support element in their initial. development in the verification certification process or on going aid and recognition These. schemes can however be used to broaden the concept of the environmental performance of. buildings by including several life cycle stages and resource uses. Current state of development of certification systems in Europe. The analysis showed that the market for the voluntary certification of the environmental. performance of buildings in Europe consists of multiple competing commercial schemes such as. BREEAM LEED HQE and DGNB Around 80 of the market of certified mainly new commercial. buildings belongs to BREEAM However due to the differences in areas covered and indicators. used in existing schemes very little generated data is comparable across the EU Even within a. single scheme it is often difficult to produce aggregated figures. According to our estimates there were approximately 0 04 of commercial buildings and 0 32 of. residential buildings certified in Europe in 2013 However these buildings are largely concentrated. to a limited number of countries and there are several EU MS where voluntary certification schemes. have not been developed yet and which rely primarily on the mandatory EPC system implemented. under the EPBD, In particular environmental certification of residential buildings is still lagging behind in most. countries as it presents extra costs and complexity where specific efforts to meet the needs of the. residential market have not been made However when specific efforts have been made. certification of residential buildings has been proven to be cost effective and attractive In the case. of France 40 of residential buildings of private developers are certified. Analysis of impacts Business as usual scenario, Under the BAU scenario we estimate that the share of environmentally certified commercial as well. as residential buildings in Europe will slightly increase by 2020 and 2030 although the situation is. not expected to improve much for the residential sector which constitutes 75 of the total floor. area in buildings in Europe The energy efficiency of buildings is foresee. energy in building materials In 2010 the operational energy in residential buildings was nearly 7 times the embodied energy in all newly produced building materials However in 2007 at the height of the building boom this ratio was down to 4 5 This was due to the larger production volume in 2007 and thus higher embodied energy and

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