Report on the determination of the extent and role of

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Project team, Khabokhedi Waste Management Pty Ltd the waste management and project management. Sipho Makhasana,Nompilo Sidondi,Stephen Rule,Robin Richards. Godfrey Dlulane,Linda Sibeko,1 CONTENTS,List of Tables 5. 2 Definitions 6,3 Executive Summary 7,4 Introduction and background 8. 4 1 Problem Statement 9,4 2 Objectives of the study 9.
4 3 Who are Waste Pickers 10,5 Research Methodology 11. 5 1 Primary data 11,5 2 Secondary data 12,5 2 1 Preparations to conduct the study 12. 5 2 2 Data collection and sampling methods 13,6 WASTE PICKERS 13. 6 1 Waste pickers from landfills 13,6 2 Trolley pushers 14. 7 Municipalities 15,8 Recyclers 15,9 Reseachers and NON GOVERNMENT ORGANISATIONS 15.
10 Limitations to the study 16,11 Analysis and discussion of results 17. 11 1 Extent of waste pickers 17,11 2 Modes of operation of waste pickers 18. 11 2 1 Waste picker demographics 18, 11 2 2 Waste types collected and their economic value 21. 11 2 3 Landfill site operations 24,11 2 4 Attitudinal profiles 29. 12 Contribution of waste pickers to the recycling sector 29. 13 Challenges 39,14 Recommendations 39,14 1 Legal Framework 39.
14 2 Institutional Arrangements 40,14 3 Operational Matters 40. 15 Conclusion 41,15 1 Extent of waste picking in South Africa 41. 15 2 Contribution of Waste Pickers to the recycling sector 41. 15 3 Modes of operation of waste pickers 42, 15 4 Integration of Waste Pickers into the formal waste management system 42. 16 References 42,17 Appendices 43, 17 1 List of landfill sites and number of waste pickers at sites visited 43. 17 2 Appendix 2 65,List of Figures,Figure 1 Trolley Pusher 11.
Figure 2 A waste picker retrieving food at a landfill site in Mthatha 11. Figure 3 Waste pickers collecting recyclables at Rooikraal Landfill Site Tshwane Metro 11. Figure 4 Fieldworker training session in Johannesburg April 2014 12. Figure 5 Age and sex distribution of waste pickers 19. Figure 6 Average monthly earnngs of waste pickers by type of recyclable collected 23. Figure 7 Comparison of quantities collected for recycling from formal companies versus waste. pickers 24, Figure 8 Transportation of recyclables to by back centre 25. Figure 9 Illustration of price change per kilogram when material is collected versus delivered. Figure 10 Waste Picker Attitudes towards the waste picking industry 28. Figure 11 Views of recycling companies on contribution of waste pickers to recycling 29. Figure 12 View of municipalities on contribution of waste pickers to recycling 30. Figure 13 View of recycling reseachers and NGOs on contribution of waste pickers to. recycling 30,List of Tables,Table 1 Selected sample of lanfill sites 14. Table 2 Selected sample of trolley pushers 14,Table 3 Recycling companies 15. Table 4 Research and NGOs bodies 15, Table 5 Estimation of number of waste pickers operating at landfill sites across South Africa. Table 6 Trolley pushers 18,Table 7 Mean age of waste pickers by gender 18.
Table 8 Provincial origins of waste pickers by current province of operation 20. Table 9 Province by language spokenby waste pickers 20. Table 10 Province by level of education of waste pickers 21. Table 11 Types of waste collected gender ratios and monthly earnings 21. Table 12 Prices paid by Recycling Companies 23, Table 13 Operational dynamics of waste picking at landfills 24. Table 14 Level of organisation of waste pickers 27. Table 15 International synopsis of Waste Picker organising and inclusion 31 38Error. Bookmark not defined,2 DEFINITIONS, Buy Back Centre Business that purchases recycled materials. Materials Recycling Facility MRF A specialised plant that receives and separates waste. streams according to their characteristics, Proccessing facility A facility where recyclables are processed to produce. new material, Recycler A person involved in the process where waste is. reclaimed for further use which process involves the. separation of waste from a waste stream for further use. and the processing of that separated material as a. product or raw material, Recyling A process where waste is reclaimed for further use.
which process involves the separation of waste from a. waste stream for further use and the processing of that. separated material as product or raw material,3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. The South African population has over the last few years experienced unprecedented growth. which has had an impact on the country s natural resources urbanisation waste production. and management The pressure on the economy placed by the demographic and economic. phenomenon resulted in the economy shedding much needed jobs This has led to many. communities exposed to joblessness and poverty The generation of high volumes of waste. material by the economically active consumer population especially in the urban areas fuelled. by urbanisation has led to the emergence of the so called waste pickers generation. As the custodian of the environment the national Department of Environmental Affairs DEA. was faced with the environmental challenges emerging from this social and economic. phenomenon presented by the waste picking activity This led to the DEA commisioning a high. level study to investigate the extent the mode of operation and the contribution if any of. waste picking in the recycling and overall economy Following due process Khabokedi Waste. Mangement was appointed by the Department to conduct and execute the research of waste. pickers in South Africa, The study was conducted using scientific research tools methodology at sampled landfills. sites and trolley pushing operations in South Africa municipalities waste pickers recyclers. researchers and non government organisations NGOs were interviewed during the study. The findings of the study are that, i There are plus minus 62147 waste pickers in the country 36680 operating from. landfills and 25467 operating as trolley pushers,ii The gender split of the pickers is 50 50. iii Waste picking primarily takes place in urban areas. iv Majority of waste picking is in land fill sites. v Waste pickers are unorganised and informal, vi Waste pickers face health and safety challenges.
vii Waste pickers wish to be formalised and integrated into the waste economy. 4 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND, South Africa has experienced the emergence of a a social class generally referred to as waste. pickers So much has been said and written about this unclassified class Waste pickers play. an important role in the recycling sector in South Africa It is difficult to quantify the contribution. made by the waste pickers to the economy and the environment it is however generally. accepted that this activity makes a significant contribution to the recycling industry. This contribution comes with its own challenges in terms of health and safety in this industry. lack of regulation relationship with municipalities as owners of the facilities at which this. activity largely takes place and the lack of understanding of the extent of waste picking in. South Africa It is assumed that the existence of this activity is informed by socio economic. Over the years South Africa has seen a drop in employment levels from well above the 30. mark between 2001 and 2003 to slightly below 25 from 2008 Index Mundi 2011 The. unemployment rate has had a major influence on the increase in the waste picking activity. It is on the basis of the above trend that the DEA took a decision to embark on a national. study to establish the nature the extent and the contribution of waste picking in the country. The study had to be conducted within the context of the legislative framework of waste. management in South Africa Prior to the promulgation of the legislation Waste Act 59 of 2008. Waste Act dealing with waste management activities was fragmented and in many instances. outdated The advent of the Waste Act has ushered in the much needed focus on governing. and regulating waste management,4 1 Problem Statement. Historically waste pickers have played an important role in the recycling sector in South Africa. Although it is difficult to quantify the contribution made by the waste pickers it is estimated to. be a significant contribution It is thus important to ensure that the waste pickers are included. in future plans relating to waste management in the country. The majority of waste pickers in SA operate on landfill sites and this has its advantages and. disadvantages The advantages include the reduction in the amount of waste that has to be. landfilled as well as the monitoring role waste pickers play in spotting illegal behaviour The. waste pickers are normally very well versed with the waste stream they deal with and the. landfill they operate on as such know what is legal and what is not However the dangers to. the health of the waste pickers outweighs these advantages Waste pickers operate without. any personal protective equipment PPE and hence handle waste directly thereby getting. exposed to health risks In addition waste pickers are often in danger of being run down by. the trucks and or the heavy machinery operating on the site While the contribution of waste. pickers to the recycling sector is widely acknowledged waste picking on landfill sites is not. encouraged Reputation Matters 2011, On July 2 and 3 2009 100 waste pickers from 26 landfills in seven of South Africa s nine. provinces gathered for South Africa s First National Waste Picker Meeting. Waste picking has introduced an unforeseen and unanticipated social problem in South Africa. affecting municipalities industry and waste pickers themselves This problem primarily. revolves around the health and safety of waste pickers and the perceived negative impact of. their operations in municipal facilities In view of the fact that the extent of this industry the. validity of the allegations and concerns and whether assistance is required or not are. unknown the DEA resolved to conduct a scientific investigation to inform any action in this. 4 2 Objectives of the study, This study aims at determining the extent of waste picking as well as its contributions into the. recycling sector with the following specific objectives. The extent of waste picking in South Africa, The different modes of operation of waste pickers in South Africa.
The impact or contribution of waste pickers on waste management in South Africa and. Ways in which waste pickers can be integrated in waste management in South Africa in. view of the current and future waste management systems based on the current policy. Develop training material for waste pickers covering the following. Health and Safety issues relating to operating on landfill sites. The recycling value chain, Recycling business models that will assist waste pickers to understand the. business in order to avoid exploitation,4 3 Who are Waste Pickers. Waste pickers have been defined as people who collect sort and sell reusable and recyclable. materials 1 The recyclables predominantly include metal paper cardboard plastic and glass. Estimates of the number of waste pickers in South Africa prior to this research varied widely. between 18 000 and 100 0002 Waste pickers in South Africa form part of an international. total of about 15 million in developing countries across the world Waste pickers have other. appellations depending on the social and geographical context The term reclaimer is. generally used to refer to persons reclaiming materials from landfills Samson3 2010 2 Waste. pickers also describe themselves as bagariesi a Setswana term which is thought to mean. someone who is looking for valuable or good things that are useful ibid Other names reflect. perceptions about waste pickers social status and their economically precarious position in. society For example they are also referred to as skarrelaars scuttlers grab grab and. minza meaning struggling to survive In Johannesburg the term bayahlupeka struggling. to make ends meet is also used Sentime 20114 Shenck Blaauw and Viljoen 20125 For. purposes of this study waste pickers include trolley pushers collecting recyclable materials. from residential commercial and industrial areas mainly in large urban centres Figures 1 to. 3 below show examples of waste pickers in different situations. 1Carras Mark 2012 http urbanearth co za articles waste pickers south africa Waste Pickers in South Africa. 2 Estimates by SAWPA and groundWork, 3 Samson M 2010 Organising Reclaimers in Tshwane South Africa Lessons from Top Down and Bottom Up Experiences. Women in Informal Employment Globalizing and Organizing WIEGO. 4 Sentime K 2011 Profiling solid waste pickers A case study of Braamfontein Greater Johannesburg in. Africanus Vol 41 No 2 pp 96 111 Cited in International Labour Organisation 2012 Unrecognized Waste Management. Experts challenges and Opportunities for Small Business Development and Decent Job Creation in the Waste Sector Schenck. S Blaauw D Viljoen K, 5 Schenck S Blaauw D Viljoen K International Labour Organisation 2012 Unrecognized Waste Management Experts. challenges and Opportunities for Small Business Development and Decent Job Creation in the Waste Sector. Figure 1 Trolley Pusher, Figure 2 A waste picker retrieving food at a landfill site in.
Figure 3 Waste pickers collecting recyclables at Rooikraal Landfill Site Tshwane Metro. Estimates of the number of waste pickers in South Africa prior to this research varied widely between 18 000 and 100 0002 Waste pickers in South Africa form part of an international total of about 15 million in developing countries across the world Waste pickers have other appellations depending on the social and geographical context The

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