Qualitative Research Methods UM Research Repository

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Lecture Content,12 15pm 01 15pm,Ethnographic,Participant observation. Focus groups,Documentary review,Exercise briefing,How does ethnography differ from observation. Ethnography is the study of people in naturally occurring settings or. field by methods of data collection which capture their social. meanings and ordinary activities involving the researcher. participating directly in setting if not also the activities in order. to collect data in a systematic manner Brewer 2000 6. Observation is self exploratory The observer looks listens and. records Silverman 2006 218, Observation as a research method is well known in the field of. environmental psychology It deals with how to understand what. people do in particular spatial setting Golicnic 2005 53. Participant Observation Definition, a field strategy that simultaneously combines document analysis. interviewing of respondents and informants direct participation. and observation Denzin 1989 157 158, Social anthropologists do participant observation and write.
ethnography based on this BUT Tim Ingold Aberdeen gave. Radcliffe Brown Lecture in Social Anthropology at the British. Academy on 14 march 2007 on Anthropology is not,Ethnography. Easiest to think of ethnography and participant observation as. the RESEARCH METHOD,DON T WORRY about unduly about definitions. INSTEAD try to understand what this method is about and what. data result,What is Participant Observation,Everyday lives of other people. While participating,By taking part in these lives,By situating oneself as researcher. Malinowski in field Trobriand Islands 1915 16 1917 18. in the lives of others, Main features to observe from a member s perspective but.
also influence what you observe owing to your participation. Openness is essential when collecting data based solely on. communicating with the observed,Why bother, By observing and participating in everyday activities of. communities researcher tries to decipher,1 The value systems. 2 Social structures power gender class,3 Practices what people do. Thus tried to reveal the CULTURE or CULTURAL SYSTEM. Attempts to uncover PROCESSES and MEANINGS, Phases of observation become a participant and gain access. to the site and to persons becoming acquainted with routines. and settings observation should concentrate on the aspects. that are essential for the research questions,A list of questions for self guidance.
Viewing the sensory garden from the perimeter, Do the attributes of the sensory garden draw users into the setting. Wayfinding to the sensory garden and back to the school building. How does the student recognise access to the garden and back to the. school building, Engaging with the behaviour settings of the sensory garden. Why how is the student fascinated to engage with the behaviour settings. What is the pattern of use, Which area and behaviour settings do most least students prefer and. engage with more less frequently, Does the student identify any behaviour settings of the sensory garden that. resemble to the ones at his her home, Is the student stimulated by the weather artefacts and or wildlife in the.
sensory garden, What sort of research might use participant observation. Traditionally used in anthropology,For studying distant alien cultures. More recently used across social sciences for a vast range of. studies closer to home, Work place studies for e g how an organisation functions. Local sub cultures for e g studying how a,pub gym nightclub shop works. And many more,Participant Observation, Usually a very popular method E g I can just sit in the library.
Requires huge time investment can be boring frustrating. Often uncertainty about whether you will get any usable data. Very hard to do it well,Deserve particular attention and challenging. Limitations strategies of participation in the field the. interpretation of data styles of writing find more attention This. approach may be interpreted, 7 issues for using data from Participant Observation. 1 Accessing the field,2 Fieldwork,3 What do you actually do in the field. 4 Reflexivity,5 Ethical work,6 Data analysis,7 Writing up. 1 Accessing the field, Access to communities or groups often has to be negotiated.
through gatekeepers E g boss landlord school management. Gaining access is already part of the fieldwork,2 Fieldwork. Researchers using participant observation will often talk about. their fieldwork i e their time spent studying with the community. Researchers need to be open to different ways of constructing. social life, Allow everyday actions of community members to influence the. research agenda,Be attentive to safety,3 What do you actually do in the field. Make field notes and diaries, Field observations identification of the setting where and when. observation took place,user types who was observed gender.
type of activities what users were doing,how long they spent doing. Attempts to make sense of these observations interpretation. Write down everything in notebooks,Index this material. BUT need to make notes surreptitiously acquired in secret means. Don t stand in someone s face and write down what they are. FEMALE outline MALE solid NOTES,SYMBOL ACTIVITIES Studen Staf Staf Student Site. Walking Passing through,Walking fast,Walking together Time scale. Walking and talking,Weather conditions,Walking with wheelchair.
Stopping Standing,Stop Stand and talking,Sitting together. Sitting and talking,Playing sensory equipment,Lying down. Walking with cyclist,Walking with walkframe,4 Reflexivity Directed back on itself. Need to be reflexive,be aware of how our behaviour is being perceived. be aware of how our personality influences our observations. and interpretations,5 Ethical Fieldwork, Participant observation disrupts the lives of the research subjects.
Need to have informed consent from all participants. Formal ethical guidelines Association of Social Anthropologists. http www theasa org ethics guidelines shtml,6 Data Analysis. Participant observation results in lots of unstructured data. Distinguish observation interpretation and reflexivity in your. notes and in your writing,What is interesting,What is relevant. What observations support a specific argument how do data. Qualitative Research Methods Hazreena Hussein PhD reenalambina um edu my 2 April 2011 Faculty of Built Environment University of Malaya

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