Power Electronics and Its Application to Solar

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N G Kulkarni V B Virulkar, scarcity of India In its endeavor to promote the use of renewable energy Ministry of Renewable Energy Gov. ernment of India is providing the subsidy for installation of renewable energy projects. Most of the industries and corporate houses are coming forward to install more and more solar photovoltaic. and wind power plants to meet their electricity requirement Solar photovoltaic systems are becoming more. popular compared to wind power plants due to availability of abundant solar irradiation throughout the year and. decreasing cost of PV panels In renewable energy projects use of power electronics devices plays an important. role This paper discusses about the various solar photovoltaic systems integrated with power electronics in In. 2 Indian Scenario, In 2010 and 2011 European markets dipped and when the National Solar Mission was announced India was. viewed with great enthusiasm by the Indian and international solar community Often leading to disappointment. this enthusiasm has waned over the following years Japan Chile the US or China markets have taken the lime. light At that time India has built its case it has achieved a base of 2 5 GW of solar PV by using power elec. tronics applications evolved its policies and created a solar ecosystem for researchers This can only be a first. step for a country of India s size and promise 1, Seventy percent out of installed capacity of India found in Rajasthan and the deserts of the western states of. Gujarat and almost all of it is incentive driven utility scale and grid connected The past year s capacity. build up has largely been driven by the Gujarat Solar Policy and the first phase of the National Solar Mission. NSM In 2013 there has only been 916 MW of new solar installations This is 6 8 less than in 2012 India. still ranked sixth in global capacity additions for 2013 by using power electronics applications Nearly 1 1 GW. of utility scale solar capacity added in India and another 75 MW capacity was added through rooftop projects. erections from Jan 2015 till date Out of this 1 1 GW 555 MW was added under NSM Phase II Batch I the re. maining are added under different state policies The top three states in India in terms of capacity addition in. year 2014 were Rajasthan 295 MW Madhya Pradesh 220 MW and Punjab 167 MW The below mentioned. new allocations that will start converting in the next one or two years include Punjab phase II 250 MW Kar. nataka Phase II 500 MW Andhra Pradesh 500 MW Telangana 500 MW Uttar Pradesh 115 MW and. Bihar 130 MW Hence in total about 2 GW of new capacity from state allocations is expected in the next one. or two years 27 To build thousands of GWs of solar power and with more than 300 days of sunshine there is. sufficient space available in India India ranks among the highest irradiation receiving countries in the world As. on May 10th 2014 total grid connected installed capacity in India is shown in Figure 1 The solar capacity addi. tions in India in MW from 2011 to 2013 are as shown in Figure 2 The global horizontal irradiation data of In. dia is shown in Figure 3 1, The beginning of the National Solar Mission plays very important role to solar energy in India The highlights. are as follows 2, Installed capacity will enhance up to 20 000 MW by 2022.
A single window investor friendly Mechanism, For next 30 years planned an investment of Rs 90 000 crores. Government of India provided first cost of Rs 4337 crores for the first phase of the mission Target for power. generation,For 1st Phase ending 2013 1300 MW PV CSP. Grid Connected 33 kV 1000 MW PV CSP,Rooftop PV and Small Solar 100 MW. Off Grid PV Applications 200 MW, The plan of US 19 billion to produce 20 GW of solar power by 2020 in July 2009 is to be unveiled by India. shown in Figure 4 The use of solar powered equipment and applications would be made compulsory in all. government buildings as well as hospitals and hotels under the plan India was ready to generate 1000 MW of. power by 2013 on 18th November 2009 by launching National Solar Mission under the National action plan on. climate change, This article presents the requirement of the power electronic devices and interfaces for solar PV power gen.
eration units and collectively verifying the presently installed power electronic devices and their potential appli. cations used in India,N G Kulkarni V B Virulkar, Figure 1 International perspective over 2 5 GW of installed PV capacity current total grid connected. Installed capacity map as on May 10th 2014 1, Figure 2 Solar capacity additions in India 2011 to 2013 MW 1. N G Kulkarni V B Virulkar, Figure 3 Global horizontal irradiation data of India 1. Figure 4 Plan of growth of solar power in India 1 Source National solar mission in India. N G Kulkarni V B Virulkar,3 Photovoltaic Energy Conversion Systems. The most widely used renewable energy is solar photovoltaic based system PV technology is gaining significant. levels and will be around in future to contribute a big share of generated electricity Solar PV systems are based. on semiconductor wafers which produce electricity when exposed to sunlight Thus the electricity produced. can either be stored in the batteries or sold to the electric grid Besides these solar panels balance of system. components are also required which includes inverters wiring breakers racking and switches which can ac. count for up to half of a system s cost According to this application the PV systems can be segregated into four. categories namely Direct Coupled PV Systems Stand alone PV Systems Grid connected PV Systems and. Hybrid connected Systems In direct coupled PV systems the PV array is directly connected to the load There. fore the load can operate only when the sunshine is available Stand alone PV systems are used in area that are. not easily accessible or have no access to an electric grid Stand alone system is the one which is not connected. to power grid and the energy produced by these systems are being stored in the batteries In the grid connected. PV systems electricity produced from panels are either used immediately or directly fed into the grid which is. considered to be an infinite source or sink of power A hybrid PV system is essentially a system that employs at. least one more source other than the PV to meet the electrical power demand of the loads Residential grid tied. solar power systems i e Net Metering will gain more popularity in the near future Net metering provides a. variety of benefits to both utilities and consumers It can potentially reduce the utility s peak load demand It. was suggested that an improvement is required on the solar electronics front so that the maximum utilization of. solar energy can be done by PV system Solar systems are found less efficient The output of solar system ma. jorly depends on shading of the module Partial shading of PV modules will result in dramatic output reduction. because the modules are connected in series The energy from partly shaded photovoltaic system is much lower. than we could assume from the mean solar irradiance 3 4 The panels are connected in series to enhance the. power handling ability The entire PV system made with small dc energy sources with PE power conditioning. interfaces employed to improve the efficiency and reliability of the system. The following Figure 5 3 shows a PV system with dc dc module used to interface the PV panels. The PV modules consists of several solar cells which convert the energy of the sunlight directly into electric. ity and are connected in series to provide desired levels of DC current and voltage PV panel generates electric. ity with the help of photovoltaic effect 6 There are various semiconductor materials used by solar cells manu. factures Most commonly used are monocrystalline Si cells polycrystalline Si cells and amorphous Si cells The. efficiency of monocrystalline Si cells is almost 17 for polycrystalline cells reaches almost 15 while an effi. ciency of 10 is achieved in the case of amorphous Si PV cells A typical current voltage characteristic curve. for all PV modules used to make all necessary calculations is as shown in Figure 6 7. 4 Power Electronics in PV Systems, This section includes review on power generation based on photovoltaic and its implication on the related power.
electronic circuits In applying power electronics the system engineering is indispensable for improving the. performance of the whole system,The major role of Power Electronics is as follows. 1 To interconnect the individual solar panels in series and parallel according to requirement A dc dc con. verter interfacing the two solar panels that cannot be identical will help to maintain the required current and. voltage and with regulation improve the overall efficiency Several non isolated dc dc converters have been. employed Buck buck boost boost and Cuk topologies with suitable modifications can be employed for this. Figure 5 PV system with dc dc module 3,N G Kulkarni V B Virulkar. Figure 6 PV module curve 7, 2 Interfacing the dc output of the PV system to the grid or the load this includes dc dc ac and dc ac ac con. version 23, Where the grid is not present and the use of batteries to store energy is required off grid PV systems are used. in order to cover the demand during the night or whenever energy is needed To prevent the batteries to dis. charge on the modules during the night blocking diodes are used which also protect the batteries from short. circuit They also provide over current protection of the strings in case of short circuits if more than one string. is used Charge regulators control the charging of the batteries 6 8 There is the need to use dc voltage and. current with stable characteristics independent from irradiance fluctuations in off grid systems Hence a. DC DC conversion topology is used Switch mode DC DC converters 6 are used to match the dc output of a. PV generator to a variable load, The system types can be used as grid direct and battery based systems The grid direct systems use inverters.
to connect the PV array to the electric utility grid Battery based systems acts as energy storage systems Bat. tery based systems are divided into two subsystems a stand alone system and electric utility backup system. The classification utility interactive system is used to analyze these systems Utility interactive is a general term. it can apply in grid direct and backup systems as well that are in parallel with the electric utility In photovoltaic. systems PV array is connected directly to an inverter 9. 4 1 Inverters, In any stand alone PV system with ac loads power conditioning units or inverters are useful The choice of in. verter will be an important factor in setting the dc operating voltage of your system The choice can affect the. performance reliability and cost of PV system The selection of the inverter input voltage is very important be. cause it often reads the system dc voltage The corrosive gasses of the batteries can damage the electronics. components and the switching in the inverter might cause an explosion hence the inverter should not be in. stalled in the same enclosure with the batteries The inverter should be installed near to the batteries and keep. resistive losses in the wires to a minimum The inverters used for grid tie systems are available in various sizes. and a range of power output values The inverters can be classified into three general categories micro string. and central inverters Micro inverters are the smallest in size and power output ratings These inverters are con. nected to a single PV module and convert DC power directly into AC Each micro inverter is wired to the next. that parallels the AC output String and central inverters are connected to a number of modules wired in series to. form a module string These individual strings can vary from 6 to 20 modules depending on module and in. verter voltage values Individual strings can be placed in parallel to increase current and power input values to. the inverter 3 22,4 1 1 Micro Inverters, Micro inverters have advantages over the more traditional string inverters One easily known advantage is that. the conversion from DC to AC is happening at the module level which results in a number of individual mod. N G Kulkarni V B Virulkar, ules working independently from the modules around them Therefore in a shaded condition it will not affect. the performance of other modules as it would if the all modules are connected in series as in a string inverter. system This level of control also allows installing computer based monitoring and displaying systems which. displays the power and energy values of individual modules It is an effective tool for troubleshooting and en. ergy production verification 9, For mounting the same rail system is used that supports the PV module It includes the inverters on a rooftop. a very good environment for power electronics to reside Micro inverter manufacturers have constructed their. products with this environment in mind but at the time designing they have to consider it In addition when an. inverter fails it requires the removal of a PV module to access to check to verify it The first system of 26 52. KWp using micro invertors has been installed over an industrial unit and is in working from March 2014 suc. cessfully It consists of 102 panels of 260 Wp each are mounted with a 240 W inverters DC cabling in addition. to all the benefits of the micro inverters has been eliminat. role This paper discuss es about the various solar photovoltaic systems integrated with power electronics in I n dia 2 Indian Scenario In 2010 and 2011 European markets dipped and when the National Solar Mission was announced India was viewed with great enthusiasm by the Indian and international solar community Often leading to

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