Potassium chloride in fertigation Semantic Scholar

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when applied via drip irrigation Goode et al 1978 Kafkafi and Bar Yosef 1980 Haynes 1985 showed that the. distribution of potassium was more uniform than that of either nitrate or phosphate. Preplanting fertilizer application usually include 15 25 of the recommended N 20 30 of the recommended K. and 100 of the recommended P Ca Mg and micro elements Sanders 1991 Further nitrogen and potassium is. given by fertigation during the growing period to complete the plant requirements. Potassium is applied through fertigation by using various sources of K salts such as potassium chloride KCl. potassium sulfate K2SO4 potassium nitrate KNO3 and mono potassium phosphate KH2PO4 Among the less. common K fertilizers are potassium carbonate K2CO3 and potassium silicate K Si The K fertilizer is chosen by. price solubility anion type and ease of use This paper discusses various features of KCl fertigation. Compatibility of Fertilizers with Fertigation, There are no standards regarding fertigation fertilizers currently in force therefore the following are suggested. complete solubility 0 2 insolubles in water high nutrient content in the saturated solution fast dissolution in. irrigation water insolubles of non clogging mineral and bacterial type only no chemical interactions between the. fertilizer and irrigation water and absence of undesired anions. Solubility of K fertilizers Solubility is defined as the amount of salt grams per volume liter Potassium chloride. KCl is the most soluble potassium fertilizer up to a temperature of about 20 C fig 1 at higher temperatures. potassium nitrate KNO3 is more soluble Both salts have an endothermic reaction when dissolved the solution. cools as the fertilizer dissolves This phenomenon limits the solubility of KNO3 more than that of KCl The. solubility of fertilizers is reduced when two or three fertilizers are mixed together The maximum concentration. can be determined by using triangular diagrams from which any ratio can be calculated for a given temperature. Wolf et al 1985,Solubility gr liter,300 KH2PO4,0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35. Fig 1 Solubility of various K fertilizers at different temperatures. Nutrient content of K fertilizers Nutrient content is defined as the value received by multiplying solubility times. the percentage of the nutrient in the fertilizer KCl yields the highest nutrient content at 10 C fig 2 achieving a. concentration of 15 K2O compared to only 8 with KNO3 and even less with K2SO4 and KH2PO4. Fast dissolution This parameter is important when considering industrial dissolution processes dissolution at. field level for the calculation of irrigation timing and intervals Elam et al 1995 showed the difference between. KCl KNO3 and K2SO4 dissolution rates and the change in temperature after dissolving the fertilizers fig 3 The. graph shows that the dissolution time t90 the time needed to dissolve 90 of the salt added in minutes of KCl is. much shorter and the K2O content is much higher about 13 for KCl in 8 minutes as compared to 4 for K2SO4. in 25 2 min and 9 for KNO3 in 15 6 min,of plant food K2O anion. Solubility gr l,Solubility,MOP KNO3 MKP SOP, Fig 2 Solubility and nutrient concentration at saturation of K fertilizers at 10 C 50 F MOP muriate of potash. KCl MKP mono potassium phosphate KH2PO4 SOP sulfate of potash K2SO4. Insolubles of non clogging type, KCl is marketed either as white or red MOP muriate of potash The source of the red color is the presence of.
insoluble in water Fe Oxide compounds in the material When dissolving red potash It is clearly seen that the. saturated solution contains a red colored fraction of insoluble material thus raising the question of its ability to be. applied through fertigation, Chemical interactions between the fertilizer and irrigation water. The formation of precipitates in irrigation water due to the addition of fertilizer is one of the most common. problems farmers encounter at field level The most common precipitates are Ca P compounds at pH 7 0 when P. fertilizers are added Fertilizing with K and N fertilizers are limited when irrigation water contain high. concentration of Ca and or SO4 At such conditions salting out of K2SO4 CaSO4 and NH4SO4 occur Since. chloride salts are highly soluble precipitation of its salts practically does not exist in such systems. A more accurate method of predicting precipitation under various conditions of pH and concentrations of Ca Mg. Fe and PO4 is by the use of the computer program GEOCHEM PC Parker et al 1995 The program can predict. the precipitation of any salts in irrigation water and thus plays an important role in fertigation management. Laboratory experiments with nutrient solutions showed a good correlation between the program s predictions and. the actual results Magen 1995,0 8 10 K2SO4,Fraction Dissolved. Temperature C,0 10 20 30 40 50,at equilibrium KCl K2SO4 KNO3. K2O 12 9 4 3 9 0,t 90 8 0 25 2 15 6,Salt 20 4 8 0 19 2. Fig 3 Dissolution kinetics full points and change in temperature hollow points when dissolving K fertilizers. 80 saturation 20 C 100 rpm,Presence of undesired anions.
Table 1 shows types of anions and their relative consumption by plants. Table 1 Cations and anions from different K fertilizers and their uptake by plants. Fertilizer Cation Anion Anion absorbed by,plants as nutrient. KCl K Cl secondary,K2SO4 K SO4 2 secondary,KNO3 K NO3 macro. KH2PO4 K H2PO4 macro, Chloride is consumed by plants at low quantities therefore under heavy fertilization with Cl containing fertilizers. and sub optimal leaching conditions it will accumulate and create salinity problems Specific guidelines and. tolerance levels were assessed Maas 1986 enabling research and farmers to monitor and adopt proper. management to minimize this problem,Prepared liquid fertilizers. Clear liquid fertilizers used for fertigation include urea ammonium nitrate ammonium sulfate either individually. or in combination as the N source orthophosphate as the P2O5 source and KCl K2SO4 and KH2PO4 as the K2O. sources By mixing two or three different nutrients the solubility of each nutrient declines table 2. Table 2 presents some of the characteristics of selected liquid fertilizers of industrial preparation. Under field conditions mixing and heating are limited resulting in a much lower nutrient content An experiment. describing the maximal nutrient content in field prepared solution was conducted in our laboratory in order to. develop a simple mixing tables for the end user At the present work we have examined the preparation of KCl. solutions with minimal stirring at a controlled temperature of 10 C. Different amounts of fertilizer grade potassium chloride 61 K2O 4 6 7 and 10 K2O concentration. w w were added to 100 ml of tap water at 10 C in a vessel jacketed with cooling liquifd at 10 C After addition of. the fertilizer the solution was stirred for one minute and the stirring then stopped The temperature change with. time was recorded as well as the time to reach complete dissolution. The temperature changes with time for four different amounts of KCl is shown in table 3 For the first three. additions clear solutions were obtained after 5 8 minutes The fourth addition 10 K2O did not dissolve. completly even after one hour although the temperature had returned to 10 C after 17 minutes. Table 2 Selection of various formulas of liquid fertilizers source Sne Ministry of Agriculture Israel 1989. Fertilizers Formula Salting out pH,Temperature C 1 1000.
NH4NO3 H3PO4 KCl 19 5 0 6 0 0,7 7 7 15 3 1,4 0 12 5 4 5. Urea NH4NO3 H3PO4 KCl 0 10 10 5 0 3,8 8 8 13 0 6,8 0 12 12 7 6. NH4NO3 H3PO4 KNO3 7 0 7 14 3 5,6 6 6 3 3 5,3 0 9 12 3 5. Table 3 Temperature change with time to reach clear K solution. Time 4 K2O 6 K2O 7 K2O 10 K2O,0 10 10 10 10,0 5 7 6 5 2. 10 10 9 9 8,15 10 10 10 9,clear solution,undissolved material present after one hour.
On the basis of these results the most concentrated solution of KCl that can be prepared in simiulated field. conditions at 10 C with minimal stirring is 0 0 7 and this will take approximately 8 minutes to reach full. dissolution,Conclusion, KCl was compared with other K fertilizers regarding their suitability to fertigation The chemical characteristics. of KCl were discussed and assessed KCl s high nutrient percentage in saturated solution as well as its rapid. dissolution and compatibility with other fertilizers applied in stock solutions makes it ideal for fertigation use. In some cases monitoring of Cl content in soil and plant is recomended to eliminate its accumulation. Acknowledgments, Thanks are due to Dr M Lupin IMI TAMI Institute for research Development Ltd who conducted and. summarized the KCl dissolution at field conditions experiment. References,Agronomic Update 1990 Fertilizer Int 286 40 41. Elam M Ben Ari S and H Magen 1995 The dissolution of different types of potassium fertilizers suitable for. fertigation A paper presented in Dhalia Greidinger International Symposium on Fertigation Haifa Israel. Goode J E Higgs K H and K J Hyrycz 1978 Trickle irrigation and fertilization of tomatoes in highly. calcareous soils J Bester Hort Sci 53 307 316, Haynes R J 1985 Principles of fertilizer use for trickle irrigated crops Fertilizer Research 6 235 255. Kafkafi U and B Bar Yosef 1980 Trickle irrigation and fertilization of tomatoes in highly calcareous soils. Agron J 72 893 897, Maas E V 1986 Salt tolerance of plants Applied Agric Res 1 12 26 Springer Verlag.
Magen H 1995 Influence of organic matter on availability of Fe Mn Zn and Cu to plants Msc thesis Hebrew. University of Jerusalem, Parker D R Norvell W A and R L Chaney 1995 GEOCHEM PC A chemical speciation program for IBM. and compatible personal computers in Chemical equilibrium and reaction models Loeppert R H Schwab A P. and S Goldberg eds Soil Sci Soc Am SSSA Madison Wisconsin USA. Sanders D C 1991 Drip fertigation systems Information leaflet No 33 D North Carolina Coop Ext Ser. Wolf B Fleming J and Batchelor J 1985 Fluid Fertilizer Manual National fertilizer solutions association. Potassium chloride in fertigation H Magen 1 1 ICL Fertilizers Paper presented at the 7th International Conference on Water and Irrigation 13 16 May Tel Aviv Israel Abstract The rapid proliferation of fertigation in modern agriculture has brought about a growing demand for factory mixed fertilizer solutions as well as wide scale dissolution of solid fertilizers by farmers in the field

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