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POLICE LINE DO NOT CROSS POLICE LINE DO NOT CROSS POLICE LINE DO NOT CROSS. percentage still represented more than 9 600 bank robberies The experience with dye pack technology bears a little. Furthermore the average loss per bank robbery was 4 221 further discussion here because its use has some common. which was more than three times the average for all robberies features with tracking systems such as ours Banks employ. that year these types of devices both for apprehension and recovery. However cooperation does not imply that banks are as well as prevention when word is leaked of their use in a. simply abandoning their responsibility for protecting their particular area Of course in the latter case training is criti. customers capital Quite the opposite the banking industry cal because many bank robbers present instructions to not. has employed numerous techniques over its history employ pass bait money or dye packs as knowledge of these meth. ing technology psychology and common sense to minimize ods have become better known. opportunities of robbers and maximize their chance at Dye packs stain stolen currency by exploding a colored. recovering stolen cash substance usually a powder that covers the cash and makes. This article describes a system using GPS and radiobea it obvious that the bills have been involved in a robbery In. con based positioning which our company has developed for some devices tear gas is included in the dye to not only make. tracking stolen currency and aiding in its recovery Since its the presence of the stolen currency but also show a colored. first field installation in 2003 this system has been deployed cloud for searching by law enforcement. in more than 30 robberies with a recovery rate of better than A dye pack consists of a hollowed out stack of real bills. 73 percent a figure substantially better than the 57 7 per with chemicals and electronics inside usually with one or. cent cited by the FBI as the average clearance rate of bank two bills stuck on the top and bottom of the stack The dye. robberies resulting in arrest This application requires a high pack sits idle in safe mode on a magnetic plate while in the. sensitivity device capable of operating inside vehicles under teller drawer When a robbery occurs the teller is supposed. car seats or in a glove box inside homes or building and to subtly slip the device in with other money Removing the. other urban environments device from the magnetic plate does not cause the dye to be. We will discuss the technology incorporated into the released it is simply armed at that point. tracking device as well as As the bank robber passes a radio activa. its design and development tion field near the front door. and use by law enforcement a timer in the dye pack is. agencies The article will also activated Delayed release of. provide a summary of the suc the dye allows time for the. cess of our law enforcement bank robber to get some dis. partners in using this system tance from the bank before. to apprehend suspects and the money is stained In many. describe some of the more cases the hands and or cloth. interesting recovery episodes ing of the bank robber are. stained making identification,The Security easier,Challenge Initially these devices had. Over the years banks have rigid construction that made. employed a variety of sys them harder to conceal How. tems and methods in an ever evolution in electronics. effort to protect their cash has enabled design of flexible. According to an 2001 article versions for the explosive device. authored by Wells Fargo and even the chemical pouches. Bank in the Bankers Hot thus allowing them to be passed. Enforcement, line the banking industry during a robbery with low. and law enforcement agen chance of detection by the rob. cies have used nine pri ber who is often an amateur. Florida Department of Law, mary methods to prevent Although a potentially useful. robberies and apprehend tool this type of device requires. robbers training surveil special handling and some banks. lance cameras reward pro have not adopted this technology. grams unarmed guards as a result Nonetheless the dye. police tellers off duty police officers bul pack is reportedly used in more. letproof bandit barriers bait money and explosive devices than 75 percent of banks in the United States and has helped. and tracking systems Our approach of course falls into the recover substantial amounts of stolen money and apprehend. last category perpetrators, www insidegnss com november december 2006 InsideGNSS 23. POLICE LINE DO NOT CROSS P,follow the money, Another common in drawer cash protection system tion robberies by population One would expect that cities.
employed by banks is the miniature RF beacon As in the with their dense population of both people and financial. case of the dye pack the device sits idle in the teller drawer institutions would be prime areas for bank robberies How. until activated by being lifted off of a magnetic plate This RF ever statistics show little variation by population density in. signal activates a network of stations located throughout a a region for bank robberies This means that even suburban. city and along likely escape routes of a robber which local and rural areas need protection the same as large banks in. izes the transmitter to the closest station Police personnel urban centers. can also be equipped with receivers to determine proximity The system would also require near real time position. range and direction to the stolen currency pack reporting to enable pursuit by law enforcement officers. Although the beacon transmitter Latencies of a minute or more could. can be extremely small one of introduce enough target uncertain. the most significant limitations ty in a chase to confuse the pursu. to this technology is the require ers Tests conducted in trials indi. ment for beacon receiver stations cated that the system needed an. to be placed around the area of update rate of 15 seconds or less. operation If a beacon device This provided an extremely. should get outside of the network short interval in which to send. of stations however it can no location information to some cen. longer be tracked effectively To tral location then disseminate it to. cover the whole lower 48 states the police in the field Communi. of the US assuming a five mile cation channels would have to be. radius of receiver coverage would chosen to ensure that a control. take a minimum of 40 000 stations lable or at least reliable latency. excluding line of sight issues that could be maintained. would substantially increase the In developing the system we. number of stations had to assume that given enough. These considerations almost time even an amateur thief. certainly make it financially impos would detect the smallest device. sible to place receiving stations embedded in currency So the. throughout the country for a single overall design of the device. application Therefore RF beacon would have to help prevent its. Department, technology practically provides only obvious detection within the. a local solution leaving the system first 5 to 10 minutes after a rob. vulnerable to coverage gaps bery especially in the case of a. New York City Police,single perpetrator who may not. GPS Tracking have time to inspect the stolen, GeoTrax was formed in late 2002 with cash This 5 10 minute period. the goal among others of developing is the crucial response time for. a cash tracker that would overcome the police to isolate the location. the technical and operational limita of the criminal Therefore precise location as soon as a min. tions of the covert systems used at the time Consequently ute or two after activation is necessary to support effective. our solution would have to provide a success rate that met or response by the law enforcement community. exceeded current systems but without the drawbacks such as Keep in mind that placing a tracking device employ. dangerous chemicals or limited coverage ing GPS in a potentially challenging environment an. A couple of significant FBI statistics provided additional unknown enclosure possibly next to the human body in an. guidance to our design of the tracking system The first is the unknown orientation was virtually impossible with off. distinction between amateur and professional bank rob the shelf GPS technology in 2002 This would prove to be. bers A landmark study by Dr Yoshio Akiyama written in a critical hurdle in bringing this solution to market Table 1. 1983 discovered that over a 10 year period an overwhelming presents a list of the requirements that Geotrax thought the. percentage of bank robberies was conducted by individuals tracking device would face. without a prior criminal record It was as if the individual Another aspect of system design would have to deal with. was acting on an impulse as compared to a well thought out location uncertainty Even the most sensitive autonomous. plan Obviously relative inexperience is a factor that can be GPS receiver operating at optimal accuracy could produce. accounted for in the design of a bank cash protection system enough positioning ambiguity to hinder recovery of the. Another relevant data point from the FBI is the distribu tracking pack To illustrate consider a scenario in which the. 24 InsideGNSS november december 2006 www insidegnss com. POLICE LINE DO NOT CROSS POLICE LINE DO NOT CROSS POLICE LINE DO NOT CROSS. police determine that a GPS tracking device is operating in meet the needs of the banks and law enforcement agencies. the southeast corner of a parking lot The pack is somewhere These system requirements are summarized in Table 2. within a 20 meter radius of a given point Within that radius The following section will address how GeoTrax made. there are 10 cars which one do they search They do not nec certain technical choices to meet these performance require. essarily have probable cause to search them all and in some ments. jurisdictions may prefer to get a warrant for a specific car. before proceeding Systems Analysis and Alternatives. As a result of such considerations early in the design One of the first technical decisions to be made related to the. process GeoTrax decided to add an RF direction finding bea wireless data telemetry solution Multiple options existed. con to the tracking device to help law,enforcement with the isolation of the. pack in such situations,Based on these observations plus.
feedback from marketing partners and,potential customers high level perfor. mance requirements were developed to,Item Performance Goal. Device Size Small enough to be com,pletely concealed in a bundle. Device Weight Match currency stack within,Device Flexibility Must bend at two internal. junctions by at least 20,Reporting Period Less than 10 seconds to.
support 15 second mapping,Wireless Data Link Digital wireless modem to. meet reporting period,Reporting Coverage Must support the populated. regions of the US with high,reliability,Battery Capacity Must support wireless. modem Available LiIon,capacities 750 mAh,Battery Life 45 minutes after activation. 18 month shelf life 4 hours,on full charge,Battery Voltage 3 2 4 2V operational.
Device Battery In field technician service,Charging able battery charging. RF Beacon Transmit Sufficient for open air 150m,Power operation. Configurability Over the air operating,configuration. GPS Capability High sensitivity GPS tracking,and advanced location algo. rithms allow GPS locations to,be obtained in non open sky.
environments include for,example in car trunk or glove. box under car seat in homes,and other buildings as well. as many urban environments,TABLE 1 Device requirements. www insidegnss com november december 2006 InsideGNSS 25. POLICE LINE DO NOT CROSS P,follow the money,SMS was often possible when a voice call. would not complete or stay connected,SMS also offered a data solution for.
which several wireless data aggregators,could provide service to our company. However this still left the problem of,getting access to a high sensitivity GPS. Finding a GPS solution In 2002 a,number of enhanced sensitivity GPS. chipsets were under development Avail,able research indicated that real world. degradation of signals could easily be 15, FIGURE 1 The currency tracking device dB and as much as 50 dB over traditional.
line of sight GPS applications Given the, in late 2002 for data telemetry Control channel modems nature of how the mobile device would be used operation. offered the best coverage in the United States and selected ally in this application obtaining the highest sensitivity GPS. coverage internationally solution available would be critical. These solutions offered relatively inexpensive data rates One strong option of interest was only available at the. mid level modem costs and nearly complete coverage in the time as a chipset not a receiver module Selecting that option. lower 48 states The downside was the relatively large size of would have required development of a dedicated board to. the modems compared to their corresponding cellular coun support the chipset s operation Due to time constraints in. terparts This in fact proved to be a prohibitive factor given reaching the marketplace we decided to use an off the shelf. the goal of enclosing the modem in a package that would. by the U S Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI a total of 469 815 218 10 was reported stolen in U S bank robberies between 1996 and 2000 According to a recent FBI report bank robberies

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