PLANT PROPAGATION California Rare Fruit Growers Inc

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Types of Propagation,Sexual Propagation Asexual Propagation. Seed Division Separation,Grafting Budding,Tissue Culture. Sexual Propagation Seed, The result of combining characteristics from two parents. plants grown from seed are never an identical replica of. either parent,Plants grown from seed are often highly variable. Although some plants are more reliable from seed and a. few plants are true from seed these are exceptions to. When grown from seed plants must grow through a, juvenile stage and become mature enough to reproduce.
This generally takes from 3 15 years for most fruiting. Seed propagation is generally used by plant breeders. when trying to develop new plants with characteristics. different from plants that are already in cultvation. Asexual Propagation Division,Propagation by division is the. simplest form of propagation,Plants with more than one rooted. crown may be divided and the,crowns planted separately. If the stems are not joined gently,pull the plants apart If the crowns. are united by horizontal stems cut,the stems and roots with a sharp.
knife or pruners to minimize injury to,Divisions of some outdoor plants. should be dusted with a fungicide,before they are replanted. Examples snake plant iris prayer,plant day lilies,Asexual Propagation. Separation, Separation is a term applied to a form of propagation by. which plants that produce bulbs or corms multiply, New bulbs form beside the originally planted bulb Separate these bulb clumps.
every 3 to 5 years for largest blooms and to increase bulb population. Dig up the clump after the leaves have withered Gently pull the bulbs apart and. replant them immediately so their roots can begin to develop Small new bulbs. may not flower for 2 or 3 years but large ones should bloom the first year. Examples onion tulip narcissus, A large new corm forms on top of the old corm and tiny cormels form around. the large corm, After the leaves wither dig up the corms and allow them to dry in indirect light. for 2 or 3 weeks Remove the cormels then gently separate the new corm from. the old corm, Dust all new corms with a fungicide and store in a cool place until planting time. Examples crocus gladiolus,Asexual Propagation Cuttings. Cutting propagation can use root cuttings or leaf,cuttings as well as hardwood semi hardwood or.
softwood stem cuttings,Many cuttings can be taken from a small number of. stock plants, New plants produces are fairly small and it requires. time for the new plants to grow and become large,Not all plants can be propagated by cuttings. Root Cuttings Rhizomes Tubers, Root cuttings are usually taken from 2 to 3 year old plants. during their dormant season when they have a large. carbohydrate supply, Root cuttings of some species produce new shoots which then.
form their own root systems while root cuttings of other plants. develop root systems before producing new shoots, A rhizome is a horizontal usually underground stem that often. sends out roots and shoots from its nodes, A tuber is a swollen fleshy usually underground stem of a plant. such as the potato bearing buds from which new plant shoots. Examples horse radish bearded iris canna lily potato dahlia. Asexual Propagation Leaf Cuttings,Leaf Cuttings, Leaf cuttings are used almost exclusively for a few indoor plants Leaves of most. plants will either produce a few roots but no plant or just decay. Whole Leaf with Petiole, Detach the leaf and up to 1 1 2 inches of petiole Insert the lower end of the. petiole into the medium One or more new plants will form at the base of the. Whole Leaf without Petiole, This is used for plants with sessile leaves Insert the cutting vertically into the.
medium A new plant will form from the axillary bud. Split Vein, Detach a leaf from the stock plant Slit its veins on the lower leaf surface Lay. the cutting lower side down on the medium New plants will form at each cut. Leaf Section, This method is frequently used with snake plant and fibrous rooted begonias. Cut begonia leaves into wedges with at least one vein Lay leaves flat on the. medium A new plant will arise at the vein Cut snake plant leaves into 2 inch. sections Consistently make the lower cut slanted and the upper cut straight so. you can tell which is the top Insert the cutting vertically. Asexual Propagation,Types of Stem Cuttings, The four main types of stem cuttings are herbaceous softwood semi hardwood. and hardwood These terms reflect the growth stage of the stock plant which is. one of the most important factors influencing whether or not cuttings will root. Asexual Propagation Cuttings, Herbaceous cuttings are made from non woody herbaceous plants such as coleus. chrysanthemums and dahlia, A 3 to 5 inch piece of stem is cut from the parent plant The leaves on the lower.
one third to one half of the stem are removed A high percentage of the cuttings. root and they do so quickly,Asexual Propagation Cuttings. Softwood cuttings are prepared from soft succulent. new growth of woody plants just as it begins to,harden mature. Shoots are suitable for making softwood cuttings Softwood. when they can be snapped easily when bent and, when they still have a gradation of leaf size oldest. leaves are mature while newest leaves are still,small For most woody plants this stage occurs in. May June or July, The soft shoots are quite tender and extra care must.
be taken to keep them from drying out The extra Semi. effort pays off because they root quickly hardwood. Semi hardwood cuttings are usually prepared from,partially mature wood of the current season s. growth just after a flush of growth This type of, cutting normally is made from mid July to early fall. The wood is reasonably firm and the leaves of,mature size Many broadleaf evergreen shrubs and. some conifers are propagated by this method,Asexual Propagation Cuttings. Hardwood cuttings are taken from dormant mature stems in late fall. winter or early spring, Plants generally are fully dormant with no obvious signs of active.
growth The wood is firm and does not bend easily, Hardwood cuttings are used most often for deciduous shrubs but. can be used for many evergreens, The three types of hardwood cuttings are straight mallet and heel. A straight cutting is the most commonly used stem cutting. Mallet and heel cuttings are used for plants that might otherwise be. more difficult to root For the heel cutting a small section of older. wood is included at the base of the cutting, For the mallet cutting an entire section of older stem wood is. Asexual Propagation Grafting,Grafting describes any of a number of. techniques in which a section of a stem,with leaf buds is inserted into the stock.
The upper part of the graft the scion,becomes the top of the plant the lower. portion the understock becomes the,root system or part of the trunk. Although grafting usually refers to joining,only two plants it may be a combination. of several A third plant added between,two others becomes the trunk or a. portion of it This is called an interstem,Asexual Propagation Grafting.
Grafting techniques are used to produce new plants as well as to add varieties to an existing plant or. to change an existing plant to an entirely new variety. Grafting requires that rootstocks are available to reproduce new plants Rootstocks are generally. propagated by seed layering or by cuttings, Growth which develops from below the graft union is often referred to as suckers or root. Suckers can overgrow the scion of the tree and can become dominant stunting or killing off the. grafted portion of the tree All suckers and root suckers should always be removed. Asexual Propagation Budding, Budding is a method of grafting in which the scion upper portion of the graft. is a single bud rather than a piece of stem or twig It is the most commonly. used method of grafting for production in the nursery. Budding is a very fast technique Like grafting rootstocks must be available to. produce new plants, Advantages of grafting or budding over other types of propagation is that the. rootstock may be chosen for certain desirable traits such as dwarfing of the. mature plant tolerance to heavy or sandy soils resistance to diseases or pests. such as nematodes phytopthera etc while the scion can be chosen for. fruiting flowering foliage or growth characteristics. plants will either produce a few roots but no plant or just decay Whole Leaf with Petiole Detach the leaf and up to 1 1 2 inches of petiole Insert the lower end of the petiole into the medium One or more new plants will form at the base of the petiole Whole Leaf without Petiole This is used for plants with sessile leaves Insert

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