Perceptions of hazard and risk on Santorini

Perceptions Of Hazard And Risk On Santorini-PDF Download

  • Date:29 Jun 2020
  • Views:3
  • Downloads:0
  • Pages:26
  • Size:1.19 MB

Share Pdf : Perceptions Of Hazard And Risk On Santorini

Download and Preview : Perceptions Of Hazard And Risk On Santorini


Report CopyRight/DMCA Form For : Perceptions Of Hazard And Risk On Santorini


Transcription:

286 D Dominey Howes D Minos Minopoulos Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 137 2004 285 310. rence and Grattan 2002 and references therein the susceptibility of the human and biophysical. Vitaliano 2002 It has even been argued that the systems to a hazardous event is increasing i as a. human species came close to failing total number of consequence of the attractiveness of volcanoes and. humans as low as 3000 10 000 individuals due to the the draw of people to their environs but more. impacts of the massive Toba eruption circa 73 500 BP importantly ii as a result of cultural economic and. Rampino and Ambrose 2000 social factors at work within individual countries. Following the eruptions of Mt St Helens 1980 growth and development programmes coupled with. Nevado del Ruiz 1986 and Mt Pinatubo 1991 the fact that development seldom incorporates civil. scientists policy makers and disaster emergency protection measures with the same level of resource. planners and the public have become aware of the allocation that public education and health pro. dangers that volcanoes may pose Volcanologists grammes receive Alexander 2000 Chester et al. working on a variety of projects during the 1990s 2002. International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction Hazard reduction will depend not just on an. IDNDR gained experience in the light of what understanding of process per se but also on the. Chester et al 2002 referred to as ba paradigm shiftQ impacts these will have on 1 the wider biophysical. in the understanding of hazard assessment based environment and 2 the fine detail of the socio. upon changes in the social theory of natural hazards economic conditions and cultural milieu of the society. The theoretical framework of hazard risk and in question. vulnerability is well explored by Alexander 2000 Interestingly it is frequently implied that devel. and references therein oped countries have a lower intrinsic vulnerability to. Until recently the vast majority of volcano related the impacts of natural hazards That is they will be. published work has been concerned with bpure less affected because they have more resources. research rooted in the earth sciencesQ Chester et al monitoring and warning systems are operational that. 2002 This is a pity since recent volcano related the political will and legislative frameworks to. emergencies demonstrate that there is a clear relation protect communities are in place and citizens are. ship between the success of dealing with an emer more readily educated informed and aware of the. gency and the degree to which policies focused on risks. hazard reduction were already in place prior to that Santorini a part of the Cyclades is located. emergency Paton et al 1998 Kokelaar 2002 within the Aegean Sea Greece Santorini is 75 8. European progress in addressing socially aware risk km2 and is a complex of five islands known as. assessment and human vulnerability appears to have Thera Therasia Aspronisi Palaea Kameni and Nea. been disappointing The proportion of published Kameni Palaea Kameni and Nea Kameni consti. outputs concerned with applied volcanology and in tute the active intra caldera volcanic field Mt. particular that which relates to hazard risk vulner Columbo is a submarine volcanic centre located. ability and hazard mitigation and disaster planning 6 5 km NE of the main island Santorini was. remains depressingly low Much of what is available chosen as one of the European Union European. is referred to as bgrey literatureQ that is official Science Foundation IVECO Laboratory volcanoes. reports conference papers and Web pages that are not within the IDNDR. widely disseminated For an excellent discussion of Santorini has been the focus of significant. these issues interested readers are referred to Chester volcanological research because of interest in its. et al 2002 paroxysmal explosive eruption of circa 3500 BP that. In spite of the lack of research into the social according to some had a terminal impact on the. aspects of volcano related hazards interest has Minoan civilization Marinatos 1939 McCoy and. increased in undertaking risk assessments and in Heiken 2000 As a consequence of this interest. determining vulnerability of populations From this Santorini has some of the most complete and. research it has been realized that risk the interface detailed geological petrological and volcanological. between hazard the probability of an area being information of any European volcano On the basis. affected by a hazardous eruption and vulnerability of much research it has been demonstrated that. D Dominey Howes D Minos Minopoulos Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 137 2004 285 310 287. Santorini is potentially one of the most dangerous probably extends beneath the sea includes the. volcanoes in Europe Druitt et al 1999 products of 12 major explosive eruptions and the. On the basis of the introduction provided above dissected remains of several lava shields stratovol. our study aims canoes and lava dome complexes The caldera is a. composite structure resulting from several collapses. 1 to note the range of volcanic hazards that might Druitt et al 1999 The caldera walls reach 400 m. be expected to accompany a bmost probable above sea level and depths of 390 m below sea level. maximumQ magnitude eruption and are breached by three channels The outer. 2 to investigate the existing provision of the islands of Thera Therasia and Aspronisi are. bXenocratis Emergency PlanQ of the island and composed of rocks that predate the Late Bronze. to determine its strengths and weaknesses Age LBA or Late Minoan LM eruption of circa. 3 to use a questionnaire survey to investigate 3500 BP Palaea and Nea Kameni are composed of. the vulnerability of the population by deter dacitic lavas and post date the LBA eruption It is. mining their level of awareness perception not the purpose of this paper to provide a summary. and knowledge and of the volcanic history of Santorini Very good. 4 to make a series of recommendations to raise summaries have been provided elsewhere Interested. community awareness readers are referred to Druitt et al 1999 and. references contained therein,Worthy of mention is the last major eruption of. 2 Santorini an introduction the volcano Around 1628 BC a paroxysmal Plinian. eruption of the Thera Volcanoes occurred and this, 2 1 Tectonic and geological framework eruption generated a caldera the remains of which. are still visible This eruption has been extensively. Santorini part of the Hellenic Volcanic Arc is studied and is referred to as the Late Bronze Age. located in southern Greece Fig 1 The Hellenic LBA or Late Minoan LM eruption The LBA. Arc is the surface expression of the subduction of eruption had four phases reflecting changing vent. the African plate beneath the Eurasian plate The arc geometry s and eruption mechanisms Heiken and. is approximately 500 km long and 20 40 km wide McCoy 1984 Druitt et al 1999 McCoy and. and extends from the eastern coast of mainland Heiken 2000 The eruption began with phreatic. Greece to western Turkey The arc lies 250 km and phreatomagmatic explosions that produced. behind the trench system and includes the volcanic 4 1012 kg or 2 km3 of ash Phase 1 was. islands of Aegina Methana Poros Milos Santorini characterised by sub aerial plinian ejection of tephra. Kos Yali and Nisyros Volcanic activity began and pumice that reach depths of 6 m It is probable. approximately 3 4 million years ago Keller et al that the eruption column attained a height of 36. 1990 and the area is considered as a region of km The intensity of the eruption then increased. extensive Quaternary volcanism However the main Phase 2 associated with violent phreatomagmatic. explosive centres of the Upper Quaternary are Milos explosions led to the deposition of high temperature. Santoini Kos and Nisyros Santorini developed on base surge deposits up to 12 m deep Phase 3. the northern edge of a basement horst called the consists of massive white poorly sorted low. Santorini Amorgos Ridge Sparks et al 1996 temperature pyroclastic flows up to 55 m thick. Druitt et al 1999 Basement rocks consist of upper Phase 4 of the eruption is characterised by the. Mesozoic marbles and lower Tertiary phyllites and deposition of high temperature fine grained ignim. metasandstone Druitt and Francaviglia 1990 San brite laid down by pyroclastic flows Phase 4. torini is a multicentre volcanic field and is a deposits reach 40 m in depth Phases 1 4 produced. complex of islands arranged in a dissected ring a volume of DRE 8 4 1013 kg or 39 km3. around a flooded caldera see Fig 2 and Table 1 for Sigurdsson et al 1990 Peak mass eruption rate. a summary of the evolution of Santorini and place was estimated as 2 5 108 kg s 1 and lasted about 4. names referred to in the text The volcanic field that days Sigurdsson et al 1990 Heiken and McCoy. 288 D Dominey Howes D Minos Minopoulos Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 137 2004 285 310. Fig 1 The major tectonic components of the Aegean Sea region the Inner Hellenic Volcanic Arc with the principal centres of explosive. volcanism and the Outer Hellenic Arc with subducting trench system shown by heavy black lines south of Crete Abbreviations of volcanoes. A Aegina M Milos S Santorini K Kos Y Yali N Nisyros Inset shows the principal African Arabian Eurasian and minor Aegean. Anatolian Turkey crustal plates Arrows indicate directions of plate motion Adapted from Jackson 1994 p 242 and Le Pichon and Angelier. 1979 1981 p 140, 1984 state collapse began during Phase 3 whereas volcanism broke the water surface in 197 BC and. Pichler and Friedrich 1980 and Sparks and Wilson all sub aerial products are dacitic Fytikas et al. 1990 suggest collapse occurred after Phase 4 1990 Approximately 6 5 km NE of the main. Caldera collapse is estimated at 25 km3 The island a new volcanic centre broke the water. LBA eruption was violent and during successive surface in 1650 AD This volcanic field is referred. phases numerous hazardous processes occurred to as the Columbo Volcanic Reef hereafter referred. Historic volcanism has resulted in the present day to as Mt Columbo and is considered to be active. islands of Palaea and Nea Kameni Post LBA today, Fig 2 Summary diagram of the volcanic evolution of Santorini and the distribution of the volcanic products Akrotiri Volcanics stages 1 and 2. Micros Profitis Ilias Volcanics Peristeria volcano stage 3 Cape Balos products of the first eruptive cycle these are actually hidden beneath. the Thera Pyroclastic Formation stage 4 Megalo Vouno Volcanics Skaros Volcanics and Thera Pyroclastic Formation stage 5 Kameni. Islands stage 6 Adapted from Druitt et al 1999 p 15. D Dominey Howes D Minos Minopoulos Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 137 2004 285 310 289. 290 D Dominey Howes D Minos Minopoulos Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 137 2004 285 310. Table 1 Table 1 continued, Summary of the history of the Santorini Volcanic Complex after Event Magma 1 Age.
Druitt et al 1999 p 50,Caldera collapse possible tsunamigenesis. Event Magma 1 Age Construction of Peristeria 1 A 528F23 ka 5. Mt Columbo eruption 1650 AD,Eruption of the Early Centres D R 645F92. Formation of the Kameni D 197 BC to of Akrotiri Peninsula 619F35. Volcano 1950 AD 586F15, Caldera collapse possible tsunamigenesis 553F10 ka 5. Minoan eruption R 3 6 ka 3,1 B basalt A andesite D dacite R rhyodacite. Caldera collapse possible tsunamigenesis 2 Historic records. Cape Riva eruption R 21 ka 4 3 Mean of radiocarbon ages on plant remains in tuffs Friedrich et. Eruption of the Andesites A al 1990, of Oia 4 Mean of radiocarbon ages on plant remains in tuff Pichler and.
Construction of Therasia R Friedrich 1976 correlated using the data of Bard et al 1990. dome complex 5 K Ar or 40Ar 39Ar age of this study. Upper Scoriae 2 eruption A 79F8 54F3 6 Tentative correlation by Federman and Carey 1980 with W 2. ka 5 deep sea ash,Construction of Skaros B A D 67F9 ka 5. lava shield,2 2 Present day demography and economy. Caldera collapse incremental possible tsunamigenesis. Upper Scoriae 1 eruption A,The 1991 census showed that Santorini had a. Vourvoulos eruption A D, Eruption of Megalo A 76F28 54F23 resident population of 8000 though this figure is. Vouno Columbos tuff ring ka 4 likely to be slightly higher now the 2001 census. Middle Pumice eruption A D c 100 ka 6 data are not available in sufficient detail from the. Cape Thera eruption A Greek Government National Statistical Service. Construction of Simandiri A 172F33,Department 2003 www statistics gr Some 3000.
lava shield 172F4 ka 5,4000 people live in Fira and approximately 1500. Caldera collapse possible tsunamigenesis people live in Oia see Fig 2 for locations The. Lower Pumice 2 eruption R remainder of the population is distributed among 11. Lower Pumice 1 eruption R 203F24 ka 5 larger villages However during the summer months. Cape Therma 3 eruption A, Santorini s population rises significantly in response. Extrusion of Rhyodacites of R 257F31, Cape Alonaki and NE Thera 224F5 ka 5 to the arrival of tourists According to the Epic. Cape Therma 2 eruption R Travel Agency in Kamari during the summer of. Cape Therma 1 eruption A 1999 900 000 domestic and foreign tourists visited. Extrusion of Cape Alia A 456F138 the island At any one time there may be more than. andesites 364F62,50 000 people on Santorini,345F88 ka 5. Eruption of Akrotiri B A 522F104 The islands economy is principally supported by. Perceptions of hazard and risk on Santorini Dale Dominey Howesa Despina Minos Minopoulosb aRisk Frontiers Department of Physical Geography Macquarie University Sydney NSW 2109 Australia bDepartment of Geology Sector of Dynamic Tectonic and Applied Geology Athens University Athens GR 157 84 Greece Received 24 December 2003 accepted 1 June 2004

Related Books