Origin and meaning in the Etosha National Park Namibia

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14 P A AND,H H BERRY C I V R O C H M N T CODPER,Fig 2 1 Fig 3 I Fig 4 I Fig 5. FIGURE 1 Map of Erosha Nationat Park showing the division into Foul sections for the purpose of locating pIace names. various pronunciations according to B leek and Lloyd Latin names of wild animals and plants are bracketed. 1 968 To facilitate locating the places a map of Etosha following the common name when first used in the text. Figure I is sub divided into four sections Figures 2 Classificadon of animals is according to Meester. through 5 with names numbered fromthe Iower western Rautenhach Dippedaar and Baker 1986 classification. side of Etosha moving eastwards of plants follows Merxrniiller 1966 72 and Palgrave. Phonetic pronuncia ionsof San names by Hei om in, Etosha based on Bleek and Lloyd 1968 MEANING OF HEIllOM. cerebral click sounded by curling up the tip of the The name means tree sleeper heib or heis is tree. tongue against the roof of the palate and withdrawing and om is sleep referring to past times when these. it suddenly and forcibly people who lived and hunted in Etosha escaped into trees. when wild animals threatened their safety Fourie, I dental click sounded by placing the tip of the tongue 1963 65 or slept on rudimentary tree platforms to avoid. against the front teeth of the upper jaw and then mosquitoes Smoky fires lit under the platforms from the. forcibly withdrawing it bark and wood of au heb the Tmboti tree Spirosrachys. ufricana Schatz 19931 with its copious milky latex and. I lateral click sounded by covering with the tongue the oily wood burnt with a sweetish aromatic odour which is. whole of the palate and withdrawing it forcibly or by a highly effective insect repellent Palgrave 1977 Con. placing the tongue against the side teeth and then firming the problem caused by mosquirms since early. withdrawing it forcibly the lateral click is similar to times Rohlwink 1973 found adult Heillom very resist. the sound made when urging a horse forward ant to most illnesses except malaria but high infant. mortality was prevalent Nevertheless Budack 1 969, s palatal click sounded by pressing the tip ofthe tongue regards the meaning of Hei om as tree sleepers not. with as flat a surface as possible against the terrnina verified and considers it originated with derogatory in. tion of the palate at the gums and withdrawing it tent. a hyphen denotes brief pauses between words ORIGIN OF THE HEIIIOM PEOPLE. Heiliorn are the greatest intermixture of all Bushmen. In the case of artificial water points bore holes an i races They have no language of their own and speak a. inactive following the number indicates the bore hole Nama diaIect A clearly delineated group they occur in. is permanently dosed Active bore holes may be closed the districts of Outja Tsumeb and Grootfontein as well. for varyjngperiods toassist In the management of Etosha as in Owambo where they intermarried with Ngandyela. Kwanyama and Ndonga tribes Em additional reading, When other places in Etosha are mentioned the number about Heillom refer to Budack 1969 Fourie 1963 65.
of the name referred to is bracketed Rohlwink 1973 and Schatz 1493. PLACE NAMES IN THE ETOSHA NA RONAL PARK 15, ANNOTATED LIST OF PLACE NAMES IN staff member s way of describing the mirages. ETOSHA which frequent Etosha s horizons Samples taken. of the Pan s clay sediment were highly alkaline, To k read in conjunction with Figures l through 5 having a pH of 10 2 and saline with a sodium. content of 3 25 le Roux 1980 In addition to, Etosha 0 It is also spelled Etotha 0 in early Etosha Pan which covers 23 of the Park 19. literature When used in conjunction with the smaller pans occur totalling approximately 877. word Pan which refers to a slight sometimes km or 3 4 s of the Park s area Lindeque and. saIine depression which may hold water the name Archibald 1991 Pans therefore account for more. has various interpretations the Great White Place than one quarter of the Park s total area. is the most accurate or Place of Emptiness de, scribing the vast salt pan covering 4 360 km2 l Rooilyn A The name means red line OriginaIIy. Lake of a Mother s Tears to illustrate the Iirnitless maps of the area demarcated Etosha s western. grief of a Heillom mother when her infant died boundary with the Kaokeveld by means of ZI red. 70 run falteringly across illustrating the fatigue line Green 1981 When an epidemic of. an early hunter felt when he attempted to cross the foot and mouth disease occurred in domestic un. Pan Jaeger 11926 27 says Etotha was the gulates in South West Africa SWA a veterinary. Wambo equivalent of the Narna word Namib cordon fence was erected in 1961 along the entire. meaning hare place Damaras refer to the Pan as southern and eastern boundary of Etosha This. Th gas the Rain Plain HeiJlom call the Pan fence also became known as the Red Line to. Khubus Khubush or Khushu saying this denote the potential contagious diseases in Etosha s. means totally bare white place with lots of dust It wild ungulates which lived behind it From that. is also known as Churns S which HeiJlom say time it became a colloquial figure of speech as. originated from their description of the evidenced by the name given to the Iocal farmers. churn chum noise made by a person s feet when organisation namely Rooilyn Boerevereninging. walking across soft mounds ofpowdery clay which A meaning Red Line Farmers Union. form on large areas of the Pan Yet another Heill, orn description is Xom pronounced gutturally 2 i Soutputs A Sout is salt and puts a well or.
as Ghorn meaning Bruised Ptace or place where bore hole producing salty wafer sunk close to the. the Earth s skin has been scraped away Recently southern boundary of the Karos enclosure for rare. Berry 1978 coined the name Place of Dry Water animal species The water source dried in 1984. using journalistic licence to portray an old Wambo and because its location near to the boundary. could make anirnaIs vulnerable to poaching it has,been permanently closed. 3 Karosfontein A The farm Karos meaning skin,rug or skin cloak with the hair still attached. belonged to the von Bach family The original,spelling was Kaross and fontein is a natural. fountain or spring The farm was bought by the,South West Africa Administration SWAA en. closed with a game proof fence and added to the,greater Etosha as an adjoining refuge for rare.
animaI species A bore hole was later sunk to,supplement the fountain s flow. 4 Karoshwk A Hoek is corner describing a,bore hole in Kams located near its north eastern. boundary corner,5 Karosdrink A Drink refers to a bore hole which. supplied water far domestic stock and wildlife on, the former Farm It was tater closed to protect the. Karos enclosure from over grazing but was,re opened when the bore holes at Soutputs 12 and.
Karosfontein 3 became dry,0 10 20 NI 40 50Km,6 Zebrapomp A Zebra refers to the mountain zebras. Equus xhru har imannae which frequent the,pomp pump or windmill where water is sup. FIGURE 2 Map of section one of Etosha Niitional Park showing plied near the western boundary of Karos enclo. Iwation ofplace names 1 through 46 sure,16 H H BERRY CJ V ROCHBR M PAXTONAND T COOPER. 7 Galton Gate E Named in honour of the explorer i n the Otjovasandu area but was later. Francis Galton who teamed with Charles Andersson decommissioned due t o its proximity t o. to become the first Europeans to record the exist Otjovasandufontein 1 25 and Renostesvlei 14. enceof theEtoshaPan when they reachedNamuroni,165 on 29 May 185 1. 14 Renostervlei A Rhinoceros hollow or bog,literally translated is an apt description of the.
X Zebradam A A cement dam wall was constructed muddy pool created by the overflow of the nearby. near Galton Gate 7 to hold back run off water drinking trough supplied from a bore hole It is a. fromthe adjoining hill but it is dry most of the year favoured place for several black rhinos which waI. It too received its name from mountain zebras low in the mud or the dusty bowl surrounding the. which inhabit the area water hole,Sterculia L The African star chestnut StercuIia. 9 i 150 Dinteri L Named after the weIl known German. africana and the large leafed star chestnut S botanist Kurt Dinter Aloe dinreri grows in nearby. qdnqueloba prow in the vicinity of a windmill hillside dolomite fissures The windmill which took. which supplied water to a trough in an ephemeral its name supplied water for wildlife until it was. river bed The installation is defunct decornmissioned because its proximity to the west. em boundary of Etosha resulted in numerous fence, 10 Equinus L Roan antelope Hippotragus equinus breaks by elephants. eqtdinw were released into the 765 hectare quaran, tine camp of Khoabendes IN mown originally as 3 6 i Aasvdbad A Vulture bath was the name of. Qoabendus it was earlier a farm owned by the bore hole where Whitebacked Vultures G yps. Mr Schrnidt Heini meaning the place where el africanics and sometimes Lappetfaced Vultures. ephants pass through It l resdirectly north of Karos Torgos iracheIiotus congregated to drink bathe. enclosure Introduction of roan to Khoabendes and and preen Vultures favoured this water trough. later Karos followed an air lift of 74 of these rare above other drinking places in the Otjovasandu. animals to Etosha from the Khaudum in Kavango area Its proximity to the western boundary fence. Namibia Hofmeyr 1974 The bore hole supplying and adjacent main road made animals which drank. water for the roan was named after this operation there vulnerable to poaching so it was p m a n e n t l y. 1 1 Otjovasandu W Correctly spelled Otjovazandu, this camp serves as the base for wildlife conserva. tion staff in the western sector of Etosha and means. place of the young men omuzandona is young, 17 i Cuiperdkap A In the vicinity of this bore hole.
an inseIbergW G island mountain of dolomite,rises above the undulating plain An exceptionally. man Warriors used the nearby perennial spring large male leopard Panrh rapardus made this. 12 as an outpost for watering their cattle during kop or hill his residence He became a favourite. the winter months Due to the presence of ions with the nature conservatars because he preyed on. Panrhera leo black rhinoceroses hereafter called goats from neighbouring villages when they strayed. hicornis and elephant Loxodonra, rhinos D i c r m into Etosha His predation was sufficient to force. ufricana the fittest and most fearless young men the local communities to restrain their herds from. accompanied the cattle to protect them More re entering that part of the Park Similar to AasvoElbad. cently when an aerial census recorded 2 665 moun 1I6 its proximity to the boundary has forced its. tain zebra and 1 044 Burchell s zebra Equus closure. hurchkellii in the Otjovasandu sector of Etosha, Berry 1984 the biggest game captureoperation in 18 Okondethe H The original spelling is Okondese. southern Africa took place 2 235 mountain zebras meaning small place of the honey badger. and 4513 Burchell s zebras were captured as a Mellivoracapensis ondese is honey badger It. management measure to reduce grazing pressure is a tiny spring situated on the western boundary of. and sold to farmers in Namibia and South Africa Etosha. t 2 Ot jovasandufontein A This fountain which 19 Kowares H It is also known as Otjikovares. seasonally flows westwards in the river bed north Kowares implies quenching of thirst kowa by. of Otjovasandu I l is a favoured drinking place drinking m alcoholic beverage made by fermenting. for a variety of wildlife When ir dries mountain the growing tip of the fan palm Hyphaene. zebras and elephants excavate goms A or holes perersiuna Kowares was apparently derived from. in the sand to obtain water thereby providing a the word Otjivare which is Herero for the leaf of. socrce for other species the fan palm Another possibitity is that this place. was called Otjokuvare H meaning place of, 13 i Miernes A Meaning ant nest or more cor Hottentots Green I981 1 a name used historically. rectly termite nest this bore hole was so named and with derogatory intent against indigenous peo. because termites built a nest in it It was originally ple Previously a farm called Kowares also. drilled by farmers who utilised emergency grazing Khowares J Kowareb J Khowareb was given our. PLACE NAMFS IN THE S H NATIONAL,during the Getman occupation of SWA Later it.
Onangombati 0 The l l 000 000 map of SWAl, became enclosed in Game Reserve No 2 Etosha s Namibia Surveyor General 1979 gives the name. first European name and belonged to Mr as Onamgombali but no expfanation of this ves. Schrnidt Heini in the 1950s Kowares reverted to ion could be found Onangombati is probably. the State as part of Kaokoland in 1966 thereby correct and refers to the sickle shaped pod of the. excluding the spring from the Park le Roux 1980 camel thorn tree Acacia erioloha which occurs in. At present the name Kowares refers to the Herero the area However an alternative spelling is Onango. settIement immediately to the west of Etosha s rnbari and may refer to the place where two. boundary fence on the mad to Ruacana Waterfall waters tasted as bitter as gall or where the water. is twice mbari as bitter as gall onango A, 20 Klippan A Klip is stone and pan sa depres bore hole was drilled here to supply water for. sion in the ground It describes the shallow calcrete wildlife when the Onandera spring 26 2 km to the

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