Non glacial landforms indicate thin Scandinavian and

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JOURNAL OF CREATION 31 2 2017 PAPERS,Ice Sheets in Europe and Asia. Figure 1 Extent of ice sheets in Europe and north west Asia from Life in the Great Ice Age 89. Figure 3 A piedmont lake in north east Sweden along the east slopes. Figure 2 Geirangerfjord M re og Romsdal Norway Wikipedia of the divide. PAPERS JOURNAL OF CREATION 31 2 2017, presence of a secondary local ice cap in the south west. mountains figure 4 There was also a separate ice cap. on the Outer Hebrides and the Shetland Islands 20 23 24 that. merged with the ice moving west off north west Scotland. This ice sheet is thought to have been two thirds marine in. the shallow seas with large ice streams This was deduced. from detailed features on land and on the ocean bottom 24 25. Non glacial landforms,A variety of non glacial landforms which formed. either before glaciation or during an interglacial and. which did not form after glaciation are found in previous. Pleistocene glaciated areas This suggests that little erosion. occurred with the supposed succession of ice sheets These. landforms also cast doubt on much of the uniformitarian. ice age paradigm especially its long timescale of up to. 2 6 Ma associated with the general start of the Pleistocene. glacial interglacial oscillations These non glacial landforms. observed in the area covered by the Scandinavian and. British Irish Ice Sheets include tors relatively thick soils. saprolite blockfields and little modification of pre glacial. drainage features 16 Nunataks also protruded above the ice. until recently discussed later, Figure 4 The British Irish Ice Sheet with the generalized flow patterns. arrow from Hughes et al 90 The dashed line is its maximum extent A tor is A high isolated crag pinnacle or rocky peak or. which was the edge of the continental shelf in the west a pile of rocks much jointed and usually granitic exposed. to intense weathering and often assuming peculiar or. of ice streams a glacier that moves more than 1 km yr 18 fantastic shapes 26 Figure 5 shows a tor from non glaciated. commonly inferred for the ice sheets during the Ice Age 19 Dartmoor south west UK Tors are especially significant. because they can be easily eroded by a glacier or ice sheet. and therefore are an indication that there was little erosion. British Irish Ice Sheet,The British Irish Ice Sheet figure 4.
is now considered mostly separate from,the Scandinavian Ice Sheet divided. by the Norwegian Channel off the,west coast of Norway It is thought. to have once been connected to the,Scandinavian Ice Sheet but discon. nected during deglaciation 20 21 Until,recently the ice sheet was thought to. have been much less extensive than,shown in figure 4 but it is now argued.
that the British Irish Ice Sheet covered,all but southern England Although. the southern configuration of the,ice sheet on Ireland is unknown and. controversial 22 it is now believed that Figure 5 Hey Tor on unglaciated Dartmoor south west UK Herbythyme Wikipedia Commons. all of Ireland was glaciated with the CC BY SA 4 0. JOURNAL OF CREATION 31 2 2017 PAPERS, in the area However this conclusion could be somewhat with glaciation 35 38 41 Because occasional erratic boulders. modified if the tor was altered by erosion 27 H ttestrand and and meltwater channels are associated with blockfields and. Stroeven declare The implication is that the tors predate there is no other evidence of glaciation researchers now. the oldest recorded ice flow in the area because they are not think ice actually covered the tops of the mountains but was. resistant to glacial erosion 28 Tors are mostly considered cold based and did not erode the blockfield Cosmogenic. pre glacial or non glacial landforms 29 isotopes indicate the blockfields survived at least the last. ice age Regardless Goodfellow et al think they may never. Saprolite have been eroded by glaciers Autochthonous blockfield. mantles may indicate alpine surfaces that have not been. A saprolite is A soft earthy typically clay rich,glacially eroded 42. thoroughly decomposed rock formed in place by chemical. weathering 30 It is generally interpreted as weathered. bedrock Thick soils and saprolites are considered pre. glacial weathering features 25 27 since weathering and A nunatak is An isolated hill knob ridge or peak of. soil development in previously glaciated areas has been bedrock that projects prominently above the surface of a. limited 31 Glaciers and ice sheets should easily erode soils glacier and is completely surrounded by glacier ice 43 The. and saprolites since modern glaciers are very erosive 32 line on the nunatak which shows erosion below and none. above is called the trimline The existence of such features. Blockfields raises many questions with regard to both traditionally. argued and the more recently argued cold ice sheets. A blockfield is A thin accumulation of usually angular. blocks with no fine sizes in the upper part over solid or. weathered bedrock colluvium or alluvium without a Survival of delicate landforms. cliff or ledge above as an apparent source 33 Blockfields. Non glacial landforms left by the Scandinavian and. are commonly found on low relief mountaintops figure 6. British Irish Ice Sheets are found in abundance These. or plateaus, should have been easily eroded by glaciation 44 Therefore.
The origin of blockfields is somewhat of a mystery. it is difficult for uniformitarian scientists to explain them. especially since they are neither forming today nor did they. with their proposed 40 50 ice ages, form after the ice left with the exception of limestone blocks. in the Canadian Arctic 27 34 35 Many researchers thought. that blockfields formed before glaciation in a warm pre Scandinavian Ice Sheet. Pleistocene climate 36 37 However the consensus has shifted Non glacial features extensively cover the area of what. to viewing them as a result of a cold environment associated was once the Scandinavian Ice Sheet including where ice. was supposed to be thick over northern,Sweden and Finland 19 45 46 For instance. tors are common in arctic Finland 47,Tors and saprolites are common in. areas of north east Sweden indicating,glaciation had little effect 48 49. However they are also adjacent to,areas of significant glacial erosion.
as shown by streamlined landforms,suggestive of ice streams 19 25 49 In. areas where tors and saprolites occur,pre glacial drainage was hardly. modified as would be expected with,so many glacial interglacial cycles. over 2 5 to 2 8 Ma Even in glacially,streamlined areas planation surfaces. and inselbergs that were only slightly,planed or not planed at all still exist.
This shows that erosion by the ice, Figure 6 Blockfield on top of the glaciated Beartooth Mountains north central Wyoming and streams was insignificant Although. south central Montana USA there are patches of thick till in. PAPERS JOURNAL OF CREATION 31 2 2017,at various altitudes 19 56 They indicate. little glacial erosion 57 58,The mountains of Norway also. show little glacial erosion at the tops,while the main glacial erosion is. linear in fjords 59 Most landforms are,pre glacial 60 The east slopes of the.
mountains of western Scandinavia also,show little erosion 9. The British Irish Ice Sheet,There is little glacial erosion in the. North West Highlands of northern,Scotland figure 8 as shown by tors. and other non glacial features 44 61 62,For instance tors and blockfields are. found in the Caithness Mountains of,north east Scotland 63 Saprolites up.
Figure 7 Planation surface with rounded inselbergs near Ume Sweden to 60 m 200 ft thick that are thought. northern and central Sweden 9 glacial till is generally thin 31. This is anomalous considering all the proposed glacial Isles of. activity The glacial transport of eroded rocks was also of. short distances 50 Indeed Stroeven et al exclaim,For a site near the centre of Fennoscandian. glaciation it is remarkable that the landscape is, characterized by well developed tors boulder fields. and weathering mantles and that the only traces of. glaciation are till veneers and meltwater channels 51. This is truly remarkable and points more to a problem. with the paradigm, Preservation of extensive and deep Neogene Highlands. late Cenozoic weathering requires that cold, based patches develop in the same areas repeatedly Moray Firth. and throughout the many cold stages of the late,Pleistocene Hall 1986 52 Skye Great Glen Fault.
When such contrived conditions are required to Highland. prop up the multiple ice ages idea it is no surprise that Boundary. researchers admit that they do not understand glacial erosion Grampian. and deposition in Scandinavia 9 Mountains, Twenty percent of the mountains of northern Sweden that. were repeatedly glaciated have non glacial or pre glacial Southern. landforms including tors 32 Even heavily scoured areas Uplands. show minimal erosion Glacial erosion seems to be mainly Central. linear enlarging pre glacial valleys into fjords and piedmont Lowlands. troughs in western Scandinavia Arran, Although some earlier researchers claimed deep erosion Southern. by ice sheets 53 54 many other researchers say that little. glacial erosion has taken place 19 55 They point to saprolites. with little glacial weathering that occur in central Sweden 55. Planation surfaces with inselbergs are found not only in. central Sweden but also over much of Scandinavia figure 7 Figure 8 Relief map of Scotland with locations from Rab k Wikipedia. JOURNAL OF CREATION 31 2 2017 PAPERS, to represent a warm humid climate survive in north east cold based at the same locations where the non glacial. Scotland 64 65 Blockfields and nunataks in the mountains features are located 9 25 51 This is because the lower levels of. and plateaus of north west Scotland show little glaciation a cold based ice sheet do not move and are frozen to the bed. although rare exotic boulders transported by ice occur Without ice motion delicate features such as non glacial. on some mountains 62 66 which have caused researchers to features would not be eroded For instance tors are claimed. suggest these high areas were covered by cold based ice to have survived many such glacial cycles 80. Farther south tors are common in the Grampian But how likely is it that cold based formation took. Mountains of central Scotland 44 These mountains cover place in the same areas up to 50 times Although it is. about half of Scotland There are a lot of impressive tors not expected that all these ice ages necessarily affected. up to 15 m 50 ft high on the Cairngorms Mountains the same area some were smaller and some were larger. part of the eastern Grampian Mountains Some tors have even the smaller ice ages would have at least glaciated the. been slightly modified by glacial flow 67 Tors are found at mountains of Scandinavia It is improbable that each ice. mountaintops of Arran Island of west central Scotland as age would be cold based at the same location especially. well as elsewhere in Scotland 68 since many uneroded areas are adjacent to areas scoured. In the Southern Uplands of southern Scotland figure 8 by ice streams 49 Did ice streams always develop at the same. there is little evidence of glaciation in the Cheviot Mountains locations Although some ice streams are guided by bottom. of south east Scotland and adjacent England as shown by topography some are random 81 These random ice streams. areas of deep weathering and tors 69 Evidence of intense would be expected to erode all non glacial landforms if there. erosion does occur at lower elevations around the Cheviot were 50 ice ages Ebert expresses great surprise. Mountains that are attributed to ice streams Scandinavia is unique in the respect that pre. Ice moved radially from an ice cap over the Lake District Quaternary landforms were repeatedly covered by. of north west England which was thin with nunataks and Quaternary ice sheets but often survived with different. blockfields protruding above the ice 70 Farther south deeply degrees of glacial modification 82. weathered material and several planation surfaces exist But even if there was just one ice age it should erode. in Wales in areas that were glaciated 71 Tors are recorded these non glacial landforms As an ice sheet first develops. in south west Wales 63 Ollier states that many pre glacial and then melts back it would move since it would have a. Tertiary features are preserved in the British Isles 72 surface slope one of the variables in glacial movement Cold. There is little evidence of glaciation on the higher based areas should be rare early and late in an ice age when. plateaus of Ireland as shown by blockfields 66 Deep the ice is relatively thin and summers relatively warm And. weathering occurs in north east Ireland that was not erased even cold based ice can still move and be erosive 27 Thus. by glaciation 73 delicate pre glacial features should be erased with just one. thick uniformitarian ice sheet,Rescuing hypotheses unlikely. Nunataks did not exist, If scientists objectively investigated all this evidence Because secular scientists believe in thick ice sheets.
they would naturally conclude that the Scandinavian and they believe nunataks really did not protrude above the ice. British Irish Ice Sheets were thin and that there was only but instead were covered by non e. The last glaciation is thought to be one of the largest Since each ice age apparently reworks and destroys much of the evidence of previous ice ages 10 we mostly only have terrestrial evidence for the last ice age This argument of course does allow a scientist to add as many ice ages as desired or required The last glacial maximum LGM is said to be about 20 000 years ago with

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