New Directions in Conservation Medicine

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APPLIED TECHNIQUES OF CONSERVATION MEDICINE,Aguirre Ch35 indd 503 3 21 2012 5 36 45 PM. HUMAN HEALTH IN THE BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOTS, Applications of Geographic Information System Technology and. Implications for Conservation,Larry J Gorenflo, As we enter the second decade of the 21st century population continues to grow by more than 200 000. our planet seems out of balance on several fronts per day Gorenflo 2006 the challenges of improving. One of the most apparent problems is persisting human well being at a large scale and maintaining key. widespread poverty and associated human misery natural components of our world will grow accord. throughout much of the world World Bank 2010 ingly in coming decades J E Cohen 1995 2003. Despite the definition by the United Nations of Cincotta and Engelman 2000. Millennium Development Goals to improve the At first glance the plights of humans and non. human condition progress toward meeting funda humans appear largely at odds with meeting human. mental human needs and broader achievement of needs seemingly compromising the needs of nature. basic human rights have been uneven and in many Ferraro 2002 Sanderson and Redford 2003 Roe and. countries likely will fall well short of 2015 targets Elliott 2004 Chan et al 2007 Apparent competition. UN 2010 Another serious problem is the deteriora between people and nature emerges on a global scale in. tion of natural systems a consequence of a rapidly terms of the growing human appropriation of the. expanding human footprint as natural resources Earth s primary productivity Vitousek et al 1997 and. are extracted at unprecedented rates to support the in modification of roughly 50 of the planet s surface. increasing demands of Earth s human inhabitants for human use the total converted anticipated to. Wackernagel and Rees 1996 UNDP et al 2000 increase to 70 in coming decades FAO 2002 UNDP. Sanderson et al 2002 Chivian and Bernstein 2008 2002 However the seventh Millennium Development. Conservationists have long pointed to the biological Goal Ensuring Environmental Sustainability alludes. implications of such pressure on nature noting that to a necessary connection between people and nature. species loss at rates 1 000 times or more greater than in the form of mutual benefits arguing for improve. historical background levels indicates mass extinction ments to the natural environment in the interest of. of a magnitude witnessed only a few times in our plan promoting long term human well being UN 2000. et s entire history Pimm et al 1995 As global human In recent years this relationship between the human. Aguirre Ch35 indd 505 3 21 2012 5 36 45 PM,506 Applied Techniques of Conservation Medicine. condition and nature has been defined more broadly can complement more conventional development. in terms of ecosystem services the benefits to people interventions that emphasize public health. of functioning ecosystems categorized as provisioning. e g food water regulating e g climate regulation, cultural e g spiritual aesthetic and supporting SELECTED HUMAN WELL BEING.
e g soil formation services Millennium Ecosystem INDICATORS IN THE. Assessment 2005 Melillo and Sala 2008 The benefits BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOTS. to humans from nature through maintaining natural, cycles upon which humans and other species rely This chapter focuses on biodiversity hotspots Fig 35 1. Fisher 2001 and the consequences of interrupting Biodiversity is the diversity of life on Earth measured. such cycles are increasingly accepted providing a link in terms of genes species populations and ecosys. between people and the natural environment that tems Wilson 2002 Pimm et al 2008 Hotspots. introduces potentially tangible contributions of con represent one of several templates proposed to define. servation to human well being Rosenzweig 2003 global biodiversity conservation priorities Myers. But how these relationships play out can vary depend et al 2000 Brooks et al 2006 here focusing on a. ing on the human systems associated natural condi combination of unique biological contents species. tions and links between them endemic to each hotspot and human threat Originally. This chapter examines the relationship between conceived by Myers 1988 who identified 10 such. people and the natural environment by focusing on regions conservationists currently define 34 hotspots. human health in 34 biodiversity hotspots regions of as regions containing minimally 1 500 endemic vascu. global importance for conserving the diversity of life lar plant species and having lost at least 70 of their. on our planet In addition to their role in conserva original habitat Mittermeier et al 2004a Totaling. tion hotspots contain large numbers of people who only about 2 3 of the Earth s terrestrial surface the. affect their surroundings and in turn are affected by remaining original habitat in 34 hotspots contains. those surroundings The approach used here explores more than 50 of the world s vascular plant species. human health in hotspots by estimating values for and at least 42 of all terrestrial vertebrate species. selected health indicators both to define general as endemics Hotspots are important to biodiversity. health conditions in individual regions and to enable conservation precisely because of the high levels of. comparisons among regions The study begins by endemism they contain Loss of an endemic species in. examining health status in the hotspots revealing a a hotspot marks its extinction and in light of high. wide range of variability It then examines possible levels of threat in the hotspots widespread loss is. connections between human health and the natural imminent without conservation. environment at a regional scale considering apparent Given the large amount of habitat loss in the. benefits of maintaining natural habitat amid the broad hotspots clearly these regions all have a substantial. influence of poverty Attention then shifts to sub human presence Studies using geographically refer. regional analyses of infant mortality to explore the enced global population data have yielded estimates. health implications of natural habitat in the hotspots of population in these regions In 1995 approximately. and the potential connections between maintaining 1 1 billion people inhabited the 25 hotspots defined at. habitat diarrheal diseases and the compromised water the time of that analysis Cincotta et al 2000 Using. sources that often transmit these diseases The chapter data tied to the most recently available round of decen. closes by proposing more geographically focused anal nial censuses CIESIN and CIAT 2005 a subsequent. yses to identify specific settings where conservation analysis reported that by 2000 population in the 34. 1 Several datasets on global population exist presenting data in gridded map format at resolutions as fine as 1 km grid cells for. years as recent as 2010 Although the 2000 global data are more than a decade old they are the most recent available data tied. to a large number of censuses generally conducted at the beginning of a decade More recent global population datasets are. based on estimates rather than censuses introducing an additional source of error in many cases that is desirable to avoid. Results of the most recent round of censuses conducted in or around 2010 were not available when I completed this study. Aguirre Ch35 indd 506 3 21 2012 5 36 45 PM,Human Health in the Biodiversity Hotspots 507. Figure 35 1, Biodiversity hotspots 1 Atlantic Forest 2 California Floristic Province 3 Cape Floristic Region 4 Caribbean. Islands 5 Caucasus 6 Cerrado 7 Chilean Winter Rainfall Valdivian Forests 8 Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa 9. East Melanesian Islands 10 Eastern Afromontane 11 Guinean Forests of West Africa 12 Himalaya 13 Horn of Africa. 14 Indo Burma 15 Irano Anatolian 16 Japan 17 Madagascar and the Indian Ocean Islands 18 Madrean Pine Oak. Woodlands 19 Maputaland Pondoland Albany 20 Mediterranean Basin 21 Mesoamerica 22 Mountains of Central. Asia 23 Mountains of Southwest China 24 New Caledonia 25 New Zealand 26 Philippines 27 Polynesia Micronesia. 28 Southwest Australia 29 Succulent Karoo 30 Sundaland 31 Tropical Andes 32 Tumbes Choc Magdalena 33. Wallacea 34 Western Ghats and Sri Lanka, hotspots totaled 1 9 billion or roughly one third of the hotspots infant mortality and percent of children. global population at the time Mittermeier et al underweight CIESIN 2005 These sub national esti. 2004b Fig 35 2 1 In 22 of the 34 hotspots population mates are particularly valuable for present purposes. density exceeded the global average in 2000 of 45 providing a direct means of calculating their values. persons km2 while in 23 cases population growth for each hotspot through the use of geographic infor. exceeded the 1 4 worldwide annual rate of increase mation system GIS technology Infant mortality rate. The presence of so many people their numbers in is the number of children who die in their first year for. many cases steadily growing indicates that biodiver every 1 000 live births with the global data analyzed. sity conservation in the hotspots will have to occur in generally associated with the year 2000 base data. the context of considerable human occupation With spanning 1990 to 2002 Figure 35 3a shows infant. growing demand for limited resources understanding mortality for the hotspots the resulting values vary. key dimensions of human occupation in the hotspots widely from about 1 for Japan to nearly 110 for the. is essential to developing conservation strategies that coastal forests of East Africa 2 A closer examination of. benefit people as well as nature and contribute to the these results reveals a pattern generally repeated by. long term maintenance of biodiversity One such the other health indicators considered in this study. dimension is human health an essential component namely a broad range of values from more desirable. of the human condition levels in hotspots located in developed countries to. Data on two health indicators have been compiled levels much less desirable in hotspots located in less. at a sub national level for most of the areas covered by developed countries In the case of infant mortality. 2 For infant mortality rate no data existed for infant deaths in New Caledonia Because the hotspot corresponds to the entire. nation I inserted the 2000 infant mortality rate of 7 0 to complete the bar chart summarizing regional data World Bank. Aguirre Ch35 indd 507 3 21 2012 5 36 45 PM,508 Applied Techniques of Conservation Medicine.
350 000 000,300 000 000,250 000 000,200 000 000,Population. 150 000 000,100 000 000,50 000 000,Indo Burma,Mediterranean Basin. Atlantic Forest,Eastern Afromontane,Guinean Forests of West Africa. Philippines,Mesoamerica,Tropical Andes,Irano Anatolian. Western Ghats Sri Lanka,Horn of Africa,Mountains of Central Asia.
California Floristic Province,Caribbean Islands,Maputaland. Madagascar Indian Ocean Islands,Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa. Chilean Forests,Madrean Pine Oak Woodlands,Tumbes Choco Magdalena. Mountains of Southwest China,Cape Floristic Region. New Zealand,Polynesia Micronesia,Southwest Australia.
East Melanesian Islands,Succulent Karoo,New Caledonia. Figure 35 2,Population in the biodiversity hotspots 2000. extremely low rates in the developed world contrast children number of children aged five years or less. markedly with high rates in the less developed world or both lacking in at least part of the areas covered. the latter including two sub Saharan Africa hotspots by the remaining nine hotspots Once again we see a. that lose 10 or more of their children in the first year broad range of values from less than 1 of children in. of life the California Floristic Province underweight to more. Children underweight represents the percentage than 40 of the children in the Himalaya hotspot The. of children aged five years or less whose weight is two contrast between developed and less developed coun. standard deviations or more below the median weights try continues hotspots featuring high infant mortality. established for an international reference population rates also contain higher percentages of children. by the U S National Center for Health Statistics underweight and vice versa. U S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Apart from the above two indicators global data. and the World Health Organization CIESIN 2005 on human health unfortunately tend to be available. Data again are generally for 2000 base data covering only at national levels for many of the countries that. the years 1990 to 2002 Though focusing on a subset are partially or totally in the hotspots However by. of total population children underweight is a major using GIS software and global datasets of population. risk factor leading to death particularly in low and in 5 km grid cells CIESIN and CIAT 2005 to calcu. middle income countries Skolnik 2008 Figure 35 3b late the percentage of each hotspot population con. presents the results of this analysis for 25 of the 34 tributed by individual countries one can estimate. hotspots with estimates of number of underweight the value of several indicators of human health in the. Aguirre Ch35 indd 508 3 21 2012 5 36 46 PM,Aguirre Ch35 indd 509. Children Aged 5 years or Less Underweight Infant Deaths per 1 000 Live Births. New Directions in Conservation Medicine Applied Cases of Ecological Health Edited by A Alonso Aguirre Richard S Ostfeld and Peter Daszak 1 AAguirre FM indd iiiguirre FM indd iii 33 21 2012 4 35 13 PM 21 2012 4 35 13 PM PART SIX APPLIED TECHNIQUES OF CONSERVATION MEDICINE AAguirre Ch35 indd 503guirre Ch35 indd 503 33 21 2012 5 36 45 PM 21 2012 5 36 45 PM 505 35 HUMAN HEALTH IN THE

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