Neutrino analysis of the September 2010 Crab Nebula

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G Krollac N Kurahashiab T Kuwabaraae M Labaren S Lafebreaj. K Laihema H Landsmanab M J Larsonaj R Laueram J Lu nemannac. J Madsenag P Majumdaram A Marottam R Maruyamaab K Maseo. H S Matish K Meagherq M Merckab P Me sza rosai aj T Meuresm. E Middellam N Milket J Millerak T Montaruliab 1 R Morseab. S M Movitai R Nahnhaueram J W Namx U Naumannal P Nie enae. D R Nygrenh S Odrowskiw A Olivasq M Olivoj A O Murchadhaab. M Onoo S Panknink L Paula C Pe rez de los Herosak J Petrovicm. A Piegsaac D Pielotht R Porratag J Posseltal P B Priceg. G T Przybylskih K Rawlinsc P Redlq E Resconiw W Rhodet. M Ribordyy A Rizzon J P Rodriguesab P Rothq F Rothmaierac. C Rottr T Ruhet D Rutledgeaj B Ruzybayevae D Ryckboschv. H G Sanderac M Santanderab S Sarkaraf K Schattoac T Schmidtq. A Scho nwaldam A Schukrafta A Schultesal O Schulzw M Schuncka. D Seckelae B Semburgal S H Seoah Y Sestayow S Seunarinel. A Silvestrix A Slipakaj G M Spiczakag C Spieringam M Stamatikosr 2. T Stanevae G Stephensaj T Stezelbergerh R G Stokstadh A Sto sslam. S Stoyanovae E A Strahlern T Straszheimq M Stu rk G W Sullivanq. Q Swillensm H Taavolaak I Taboadae A Tamburroag A Tepee. S Ter Antonyanf S Tilavae P A Toaleb S Toscanoab D Tosiam. D Turc anq N van Eijndhovenn J Vandenbrouckeg A Van Overloopv. J van Santenab M Vehringa M Vogek C Walckah T Waldenmaieri. M Wallra a M Walteram Ch Weaverab C Wendtab S Westerho ab. N Whitehornab K Wiebeac C H Wiebuscha D R Williamsb. R Wischnewskiam H Wissingq M Wolfw T R Woodu K Woschnaggg. C Xuae X W Xuf G Yodhx S Yoshidao P Zarzhitskyb M Zollah. III Physikalisches Institut RWTH Aachen University D 52056 Aachen Germany. Dept of Physics and Astronomy University of Alabama Tuscaloosa AL 35487 USA. Dept of Physics and Astronomy University of Alaska Anchorage 3211 Providence Dr. Anchorage AK 99508 USA, CTSPS Clark Atlanta University Atlanta GA 30314 USA. School of Physics and Center for Relativistic Astrophysics Georgia Institute of. Technology Atlanta GA 30332 USA, Dept of Physics Southern University Baton Rouge LA 70813 USA. Dept of Physics University of California Berkeley CA 94720 USA. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley CA 94720 USA. Institut fu r Physik Humboldt Universita t zu Berlin D 12489 Berlin Germany. Fakulta t fu r Physik Astronomie Ruhr Universita t Bochum D 44780 Bochum. Physikalisches Institut Universita t Bonn Nussallee 12 D 53115 Bonn Germany. Dept of Physics University of the West Indies Cave Hill Campus Bridgetown. BB11000 Barbados, Universite Libre de Bruxelles Science Faculty CP230 B 1050 Brussels Belgium. Vrije Universiteit Brussel Dienst ELEM B 1050 Brussels Belgium. Dept of Physics Chiba University Chiba 263 8522 Japan. Dept of Physics and Astronomy University of Canterbury Private Bag 4800. Christchurch New Zealand, Dept of Physics University of Maryland College Park MD 20742 USA. Dept of Physics and Center for Cosmology and Astro Particle Physics Ohio State. University Columbus OH 43210 USA, Dept of Astronomy Ohio State University Columbus OH 43210 USA.
Dept of Physics TU Dortmund University D 44221 Dortmund Germany. Dept of Physics University of Alberta Edmonton Alberta Canada T6G 2G7. Dept of Physics and Astronomy University of Gent B 9000 Gent Belgium. Max Planck Institut fu r Kernphysik D 69177 Heidelberg Germany. Dept of Physics and Astronomy University of California Irvine CA 92697 USA. Laboratory for High Energy Physics E cole Polytechnique Fe de rale CH 1015 Lausanne. Switzerland, Dept of Physics and Astronomy University of Kansas Lawrence KS 66045 USA. Dept of Astronomy University of Wisconsin Madison WI 53706 USA. Dept of Physics University of Wisconsin Madison WI 53706 USA. Institute of Physics University of Mainz Staudinger Weg 7 D 55099 Mainz Germany. Universite de Mons 7000 Mons Belgium, Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy University of. Delaware Newark DE 19716 USA, Dept of Physics University of Oxford 1 Keble Road Oxford OX1 3NP UK. Dept of Physics University of Wisconsin River Falls WI 54022 USA. Oskar Klein Centre and Dept of Physics Stockholm University SE 10691 Stockholm. Dept of Astronomy and Astrophysics Pennsylvania State University University Park. PA 16802 USA, Dept of Physics Pennsylvania State University University Park PA 16802 USA. Dept of Physics and Astronomy Uppsala University Box 516 S 75120 Uppsala. Dept of Physics University of Wuppertal D 42119 Wuppertal Germany. DESY D 15735 Zeuthen Germany, We present the results for a search of high energy muon neutrinos with.
the IceCube detector in coincidence with the Crab nebula are reported on. September 2010 by various experiments Due to the unusual aring state of. the otherwise steady source we performed a prompt analysis of the 79 string. con guration data to search for neutrinos that might be emitted along with. the observed rays We performed two di erent and complementary data. selections of neutrino events in the time window of 10 days around the are. One event selection is optimized for discovery of E 2 neutrino spectrum typ. ical of 1st order Fermi acceleration A similar event selection has also been. applied to the 40 string data to derive the time integrated limits to the neu. trino emission from the Crab 35 The other event selection was optimized. for discovery of neutrino spectra with softer spectral index and TeV energy. cut o s as observed for various galactic sources in rays The 90 CL best. upper limits on the Crab ux during the 10 day are are 4 73 10 11 cm 2. s 1 TeV 1 for an E 2 neutrino spectrum and 2 50 10 10 cm 2 s 1 TeV 1 for a. softer neutrino spectra of E 2 7 as indicated by Fermi measurements during. the are IceCube has also set a time integrated limit on the neutrino emis. sion of the Crab using 375 5 days of livetime of the 40 string con guration. data This limit is compared to existing models of neutrino production from. the Crab and its impact on astrophysical parameters is discussed The most. optimistic predictions of some models are already rejected by the IceCube. neutrino telescope with more than 90 CL,Keywords Neutrino and gamma are pulsar nebula. 1 Introduction, The Crab supernova remnant originating from a stellar explosion at a. distance of 2 kpc recorded in 1054 AD consists of a central pulsar a syn. chrotron nebula and a surrounding cloud of expanding thermal ejecta 1. Its bright and steady emission has made it a standard candle for telescope. calibration However the photon emission stability in the X ray and in the. ray regions is recently being questioned by a number of satellite experi. ments As a matter of fact a 7 decline of the Crab ux in the 3 100 keV. region larger at higher energies has been observed in the period between. 2008 and 2010 by the Fermi Gamma ray Burst monitor and con rmed by. Swift BAT RXTE PCA and INTEGRAL IBIS 2 The pulsed emission. from RXTE PCA observations is consistent with the observed pulsar spin. down suggesting that the decline is due to changes in the nebula and not in. the pulsar, The source of energy that powers the Crab is the spin down luminosity of. the pulsar The measured spin down luminosity of the pulsar is 5 1038 erg. s 1 and its rotational period is 33 ms While a small fraction of this energy. goes into the pulsed emission most of it is carried by a highly magnetized. wind of relativistic plasma the composition of which is not known Both pure. e plasma models and a mixture of e and protons or ions have been proposed. 1 3 4 6 10 The wind terminates in a standing shock and transfers some. of the energy to accelerating particles A part of this energy is converted. into synchrotron emission from radio to MeV rays by a population of high. energy electrons radiating in the nebular magnetic eld The observations. of the synchrotron emission from the Crab up to the MeV energies make. the Crab an undisputed galactic accelerator able to inject electrons up to. energies 1015 eV These high energy electrons inevitably interact with the. ambient photon elds through inverse Compton scattering resulting in the. production of high energy rays observable in the TeV regime 13 14 15. The synchrotron emission from the Crab has an integrated luminosity of. 1 3 1038 erg s 1 that is at least 26 of the spin down luminosity of. the pulsar is involved in the acceleration of electrons in the energy range. 1011 1015 eV 1 On the other hand the presence of hadrons in the pulsar. wind and the amount of energy transported by them remain as some of the. unresolved and interesting questions about the Crab Nebula and plerions in. Protons and ions do not lose their energy as e ciently as electrons and. hence it is more di cult to observe the products of their interactions The. dominant processes discussed below are proton proton and proton inter. actions and both processes generate rays and neutrinos through meson. decays Hence neutrinos constitute an unique signature for hadron acceler. ation while hadronic ray production has to be disentangled from inverse. Compton emission Hadronic models of the Crab emission assume that the. pulsar wind is composed of a mixture of electrons and ions These models. predict that a signi cant part of the rotational energy lost by the pulsar. is transferred through the shock radius to relativistic nuclei in the pulsar. wind Relativistic nuclei injected into the nebula can interact with the neb. ula matter and produce cosmic rays and neutrinos via pion decay Neutrino. production by protons and nuclei interacting in the pulsar wind in the Crab. have been discussed in Ref 3 4 According to these models the nuclei. can generate Alfve n waves just above the pulsar wind shock These Alfve n. waves will resonantly scatter o and accelerate the positrons and electrons. that create the synchrotron emission In the model described in Ref 6 neu. trinos are produced by heavy nuclei accelerated by the rotating neutron star. that photo disintegrate in collisions with soft photons These models predict. between 1 5 events per year in a cubic kilometer detector such as IceCube. when accounting for neutrino oscillations Inelastic nuclear collisions are con. sidered in Ref 3 In this paper the predicted rates depend on the Lorentz. factor of nuclei injected by the pulsar and the e ective target density. The thermal matter distribution in the Crab is far from being uniform but. forms laments For relativistic protons the e ective target density is also. a ected by the structure of the magnetic eld in and around these laments. The authors in Ref 3 provide several expected neutrino uxes from the. Crab Nebula as a function of energy for di erent assumptions on these two. parameters For the highest values of the e ective target density IceCube. begins to have the sensitivity to probe the highest possible values around. 107 while the favored values of the upstream Lorentz factor of the wind. Acceleration of positive ions near the surface of a young rotating neutron. star 105 yrs has also been investigated in Ref 7 This model describes. how positive ions can be accelerated to 1 PeV in rapidly rotating pulsars. with typical magnetic elds B 1012 G by a potential drop across the. magnetic eld lines of the pulsar Assuming that the star s magnetic mo. 0 protons are, ment and the angular velocity satisfy the relation. accelerated away from the stellar surface Beamed neutrinos in coincidence. with the radio beam are produced by such high energy protons interacting. with the star s radiation eld when the production threshold is surpassed. Observation of these neutrinos could validate the existence of a hadronic. component and a strong magnetic eld near the stellar surface that acceler. ates the charged particles The predictions in Ref 8 based on this model. account for 45 neutrino events yr from the Crab in a cubic kilometer de. tector in the most optimistic scenario where the fraction of charge depletion. is assumed to be fd 1 2 In this paper we will show that IceCube data. severely constrains these optimistic predictions of the model. In Ref 12 a mean prediction of 1 2 neutrino events per year for E. 1 TeV was calculated for an underwater cubic kilometer detector This pre. diction is based on the H E S S measured ray spectrum 13 assuming that. all the rays observed by H E S S up to 40 TeV are produced by pion decay. and that the absorption of rays is negligible A similar calculation con. necting photon and neutrino uxes was done in Ref 9 predicting about 5. events from the Crab accounting for neutrino oscillations For a summary of. some of the models on neutrino spectra the reader is referred to 10. From Sep 19 to 22 2010 the AGILE satellite 16 17 reported an en. hanced ray emission above 100 MeV from the Crab nebula The are. however was not detected in X rays by INTEGRAL 20 observations be. tween Sep 12 and 19 partially overlapping with AGILE observations It was. also not con rmed by the SWIFT BAT 21 in the 15 150 keV range nor by. RXTE 22 on a dedicated observation of the Crab on Sep 24 The observa. tion was later con rmed by the Large Area Telescope on board of the Fermi. Gamma Ray Space Telescope that detected a are of rays E 100 MeV. with a duration of 4 days between Sep 19 22 in the Crab direction 24. The observed energy spectrum during the are interval was consistent with a. negative power law with a spectral index of 2 7 0 2 The ux increase was. a factor 5 5 0 8 above the average ux from the Crab Fermi also detected. The Crab supernova remnant originating from a stellar explosion at a distance of 2 kpc recorded in 1054 AD consists of a central pulsar a syn chrotron nebula and a surrounding cloud of expanding thermal ejecta 1

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