Nanotechnology An Emerging Drilling Fluid Solution

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Citation Medhi S Chowdhury S Gupta DK Mehrotra U 2019 Nanotechnology An Emerging Drilling Fluid Solution Oil Gas Res 5 163 doi. 10 4172 2472 0518 1000163,Page 2 of 5,Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Used Remarks. Iron Oxide 3 30 nm Increase in yield stress with 0 5 to 5 wt in bentonite base fluid at a temperature 20 200 C. Zinc Oxide Increase in yield stress and viscosity of the drilling mud by 4 8. Calcium Oxide and Iron Oxide CaO minimized the formation damage with oil base mud until 120 C and exhibited higher fluid losses at higher. concentrations Iron oxide nanoparticles reduced the yield point and showed higher fluid losses at HTHP conditions. Iron oxide and Silica Oxide less than 50 nm At HTHP conditions reduction in the filtration loss 42 5 compared to the WBM obtained when 0 5 by wt iron. oxide were added At LTLP conditions higher concentrations of iron oxide nanoparticles exhibited higher reduction. in fluid losses Less permeable filter cake formed by the iron oxide based drilling fluid which helped in the reduction. of fluid loss, Calcium Oxide 51 11 nm 0 5 by weight CaO nanoparticles reduced the fluid loss by 20 30 with water base mud at HTHP conditions. Iron Oxide At high pressure Fe3O4 nanoparticles with 5 Bentonite with ICH Iron Oxide Clay Hybrid improved yield stress. ASCH Aluminosilicate Clay Hybrid showed lower yield stress for lower shear rates The filtration tests showed that. at LTLP conditions ICH and ASCH were able to reduce fluid loss by 37 and 47 respectively At HTHP conditions. 0 5 by wt of iron oxide nanoparticles of 3 nm and 30 nm were able to reduce the fluid loss up to 27 6 and 23 4. respectively Both ICH and ASCH provided good dispersion and avoided flocculation and coagulation. TiO2 21 nm Al2O3 50 nm and SiO2 10 20 nm Increase in concentration of nanoparticles upto 0 25 by volume increased the surface tension of the drilling fluids. as compared to the addition of 0 20 by volume of the mentioned nanoparticles. Iron Oxide 8 nm Na Bentonite based drilling fluid at 250 F and concentration of 0 5 by wt of the nanoparticles showed increase in. the yield stress and reduction in filtrate loss by 40. Aging it at 350 F for 16 hours increased the thickness of the filter cake and 43 reduction of filtrate loss. Iron Oxide and Silica 2 5 by wt concentration of iron nanoparticles with 7 Bentonite exhibited higher Yield Point and Plastic Viscosity at. Higher Temperature more than 200 F but silica nanoparticles gave lower yield point at high temperatures. After aging at 350 F and for 16 hours showed that at a concentration of 0 5 by weight of iron oxide nanoparticles. helped in reducing the filtrate loss by volume up to 42 7 and thickness of the filter cake increased by 17 32. Copper Oxide and Zinc Oxide 50 nm Nanofluid Enhanced Water Based Drilling Mud NWBM with Xanthan Gum as a base fluid 0 4 by weight. increased the NWBM electrical and thermal properties by around 35 as compared to the Water Based Drilling. TiO2 10 15 nm and Polyacrylamide nanocomposite Water based drilling fluid with TiO2 enhanced the plastic viscosity and yield strength It also resulted in 64 reduction. in fluid loss, TiO2 21 nm Al2O3 13 nm and 50 nm and SiO2 TiO2 water based nanofluid exhibited higher surface tension as compared to Al2O3 and SiO2 water based nanofluids. 5 15 nm and 10 20 nm The surface tension of the nanofluids increased from 2 62 to 4 82 as compared to the base fluid. Table 1 Effect of metal oxides nanoparticles on rheological properties 4 18 20 21 44 55. size ranging between 1 100 nm are termed as Nano based drilling fluid due to its ability to form ionic bonds Use of metallic oxides. fluids 24 The main reason behind using nanoparticles as additives nanoparticles is preferred due to their availability and economic. in drilling fluids is the much higher surface area to volume ratio of viability whereas oxides of some transition metals can be toxic and. nanoparticles compared to the macro sized or micro sized materials harmful to the environment. 25 This property changes the Van der Waal forces molecular and. atomic forces which consequently alters the fluid properties with Effect of carbon nanotubes on the rheological properties of. the use of even less than 1 of the nanomaterial in the drilling fluid drilling fluids. composition 26 27 Carbon nanotubes and fullerenes play a vital Investigations were conducted to study the effect of Carbon. role in enhancing the properties of drilling fluids 28 29 The surface Nanotubes on the rheological and filtration properties of drilling fluids. property of nanoparticles also enhances the thermal properties of the Studies showed that mixing 0 01 ppb Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes. drilling fluid rendering it convenient to further cool the drill bit and MWCNTs with oil based drilling fluid tend to increase the yield. find its applicability in HPHT conditions strength gel strength and emulsion stability of the drilling fluid 31. A study was conducted on the significance of MWCNTs as an additive. Effect of Nanoparticles on Properties of Drilling Fluid. in water based drilling mud to increase the cutting carrying capacity. With increasing demand of petroleum products there is a need of the mud which depends upon four forces downward gravitational. to explore more hydrocarbon reserves This would require drilling of force upward buoyant force a parallel drag force and a lifting force. wells in unconventional formations and harsh conditions It has been perpendicular to the direction of mud flow The cutting slip velocity was. found that the drilling fluids account for 5 15 of the total capital calculated and examined to be increasing with size of the cuttings The. expenditure and often contribute to the failure of the drilling operations cutting carrying capacity was determined as the percentage of cutting. too 30 Thus it is essential to condition drilling fluid properties in recovery from the bottom of hole to the surface It was examined that. accordance with the wellbore environment Therefore there is a need addition of 0 005 of MWCNTs to the mud increased the cutting. to develop highly efficient and economic drilling fluids These next carrying capacity by 5 15 and doubling the amount of MWCNTs. generation drilling fluids must possess enhanced rheological properties to 0 01 the cutting carrying capacity increases to 5 21 It was. along with superior thermal and filtration control properties Few also reported that such multi walled carbon nanotubes increased the. difficulties that a drilling fluid might encounter include instability of viscosity of the mud suggested that carbon nanotubes can be used to. additives excessive fluid loss and disintegration of polymers which enhance the rheological stability at high temperature and high pressure. eventually lead to sagging of weighing agents and rock cutting conditions of inverted emulsion drilling fluids but failed to contribute. in control of fluid losses 32 33 Another research was carried out to. Effect of metal oxides nanoparticles on rheological properties emphasize on nano based drilling fluids having CNTs as a functional. It is generally observed that metal oxide nanoparticles tend to additive The results showed that the acid treatment of the hydrophobic. increase the yield point viscosity and gel strength of the drilling CNTs had a significant increase in the thermal conductivity of the. Oil Gas Res an open access journal Volume 5 Issue 1 1000163. ISSN 2472 0518, Citation Medhi S Chowdhury S Gupta DK Mehrotra U 2019 Nanotechnology An Emerging Drilling Fluid Solution Oil Gas Res 5 163 doi. 10 4172 2472 0518 1000163,Page 3 of 5, CNT water based mud by 23 2 using 1 by volume of CNTs at Effect of Graphene on the rheological properties of drilling.
27 C However the thermal conductivity increased to 31 8 at a fluids. temperature of 50 C for CNT water based mud An increase of 43 1. in the thermal conductivity was reported for oil based muds for the Use of Graphene with drilling fluids is an emerging concept where. same concentration of CNTs 33 its addition is able to enhance the drilling fluid rheological properties. In an investigation by graphite nanoparticles Nano graphite of. Halali investigated the effects of Carbon Nanotubes on engineered particle size 40 nm were used 41 The study revealed that adding 0 1. polymer based fluids The results showed that combining Carbon by weight of nano graphite helped in increasing the density of the mud. Nanotubes with PMMA Polymethacrylic Acid Methyl Ester exhibited by 50 from 1 4 g cc to 2 2 g cc It was found that at normal drilling. higher thermal conductivity at various temperature ranges At 394 K temperature 90 C and pressure 100 psi viscosity was enhanced with. the HPHT filter loss was reduced by 82 and a significant increase lesser filtrate losses compared to convention drilling fluid In another. in the gel strength was studied 34 At 422 K the fluid losses were research by Methylated Graphene Oxide were prepared and used as. reduced by 88 and the gel strength was enhanced Further at 450 K an additive in the water based drilling mud 42 The results proved. the fluid losses were reduced by 90 and a slight improvement in the that Graphene Oxide could be used for fluid loss control when added. gel strength was examined It was further investigated that the thermal to water based muds Further methylated graphene oxide helped in. conductivity of the sample increased with temperature This concludes increasing the stability of the mud in saline environments The filtration. that CNTs play a vital role in increasing thermal properties of the mud properties were enhanced by using a mixture of large flake graphene. and hence these muds can be operated at HPHT conditions oxide and powdered graphene oxide in a ratio of 3 1 with water based. mud which resulted in the formation of a filter cake of 20 m Thus it. Effect of silica nanoparticles on the rheological properties of. can be concluded that using graphite materials significantly helped in. drilling fluids fluid loss control, Various researches have been performed with silica nanoparticles. as an additive to enhance the rheological properties of the drilling. Effect of clay nanoparticles on the rheological properties of. fluid due to its ease of availability Initial researches involved the use drilling fluids. of SiO2 nanoparticles 40 130 nm to develop an all new drilling fluid In a research synthesis of palygorskite hydrous clay was carried. which successfully reduced the formation damage by increasing the out to form a needle shaped structure with 10 20 nm in diameter. thickness of the mud cake by 34 35 Further researches have shown The prime objective of this research was to study its stability. that using Nano clays and silica nanoparticles instead of the polymeric and applicability at HPHT conditions Comparing the results of. composites helped to stabilize the emulsion models of drilling muds at palygorskite and montmorillonite showed that using montmorillonite. high temperature and high pressure It was also found that the stability alone did not enhance the rheological properties to much extent but. and flow properties were at their best when both nanoclays and silica using palygorskite nanoparticles in small concentrations along with. nanoparticles were used simultaneously Further aging the samples for montmorillonite helped to enhance the rheology 43 49. 96 hours at 225 C the yield stress decreased by 30 but the emulsion. remained stable 36 Summary, Mao used a hydrophobic polymer based silica nano composite Nanotechnology has shown a lot of potential in its application. formed by inverse micro emulsion and sol gel method 37 The to improve the performance of drilling fluids This paper provides a. results were quite drastic as 0 5 of the Nano composite enhanced the summary of work carried out to address challenges and limitations of. rheological properties as well as provided better thermal stability and conventional fluids used in the industry It is concluded that the use of. lubricity It also helped in reducing the filtrate losses up to 69 under nanotechnology has not been fully utilized for critical situations such. high temperature and pressure conditions Other researches focused as HPHT drilling of unconventionals or deep offshore wells The main. on mixing common materials like Bentonite 22 5 grams Potassium purpose of this review is to present the effect of the nanoparticles on. Chloride KCl 0 25 by weight and silica nanoparticles 0 20 g to the rheological properties of the drilling fluids based on the types of. fresh water 350 mL to design a water based mud The addition of nanoparticle used Although various reseaches were carried out in this. these nanoparticles enhanced the rheological properties and reduced field but it is still a challenge to make the Nano enhanced drilling fluids. the filtrate losses 38 The concept of Smart water based muds using homogeneous in composition cost effective periodically stable and. silica nanoparticles 0 1 03 by weight is gaining popularity as it environment friendly without compromising with the improvements. can replace oil based muds in a directional and horizontal well thereby in the rheological and filtration properties 50 51 This review presents. reducing the drilling and completion problems in the wellbore Further a gist upon the effect of nanoparticles on the rheological and filtration. silica is quite sensitive to pH and hence it enhances the properties of the properties of the drilling fluids The following conclusions can be. Nanotechnology An Emerging Drilling Fluid Solution Medhi S 1 Chowdhury S Gupta DK1 and Mehrotra U2 1Department of Petroleum Engineering and Earth Sciences University of Petroleum and Energy Studies Dehradun India 2Department of Chemical Engineering University of Petroleum and Energy Studies Dehradun India

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