Millennials Who are they how are they different and why

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6 Millennials who are they how are,they different and why should we. Eddy S W Ng and Jasmine McGinnis Johnson,INTRODUCTION. Since the publication of Howe and Strauss s 2000 Millennials Rising. interest in the millennial generation has become widespread particularly. among marketers and employers Foot 2001 Hoover 2009 Companies. are eager to tap into a new market that is composed of younger consum. ers Nowak et al 2006 while employers are keen to attract and retain. the next generation of workers as the Baby Boomers exit the workforce in. large numbers Burke and Ng 2006 Perry and Buckwalter 2010 In the. U S there are roughly 74 3 million Millennials representing 23 6 percent. of the population U S Census Bureau 2013 Likewise in Canada there. are 9 1 million Millennials making up 27 percent of the Canadian popula. tion Statistics Canada 2011a Although researchers have used different. birth year boundaries to define the Millennial generation e g 1980 95. in Foot and Stoffman 1998 1982 99 in Howe and Strauss 2000 after. 1982 in Twenge 2010 in reality the exact boundaries defining a genera. tion are much less important than shared historical events and experiences. accompanied by social changes Lyons and Kuron 2014 Parry and. Urwin 2011 Given the historical events that characterized their lives. e g post Gen X internet turn of the century authors have labeled them. Gen Y Gen Me Net Gen Nexus Generation and Millennial Generation. Advertising Age 1993 Barnard et al 1998 Burke and Ng 2006 Howe. and Strauss 2000 Twenge 2006 For the purpose of this chapter we will. use the term Millennial to keep consistent with the literature. Organizations and employers should pay attention to the Millennial. generation because, Low birth rates and an aging workforce are creating a shortage of. skilled workers in North America and elsewhere Burke and Ng. BURKE 9781783476572 M3696 G indd 121 22 04 2015 16 13. 122 The multi generational and aging workforce, 2006 Van Bavel and Reher 2013 Although many governments. have stepped up their immigration efforts to boost the supply of. labor these measures have limited effectiveness given differences. in human capital e g education technical skills language pro. ficiency Chand and Tung 2014 Therefore workforce renewal. efforts should be directed at the Millennial generation Ng et al. forthcoming, There is growing evidence to suggest that the Millennial workers.
espouse different values and attitudes and form different expecta. tions about work Lyons et al 2014 Twenge 2010 also see Lyons. and Kuron 2014 for a review For example Millennials report. a high degree of preference for materialistic rewards Twenge and. Kasser 2013 value leisure time over work Twenge et al 2010. and indicate a strong preference for work life balance Ng and. Gossett 2013 In this regard existing human resource policies and. practices to attract and retain Millennial workers may be outmoded. Millennials also report a greater amount of job and organiza. tion changes than previous generations Gen Xers and Boomers. Lyons et al 2012b 2015 They have been said to be looking for. meaningful and engaging work Ng et al 2010 and the public. and non profit sector are offering attractive opportunities through. their public service missions Rampell 2011 For example Ng and. Gossett 2013 found that the Government of Canada was the most. popular employer of choice among Millennial college and university. students Likewise in the U S Rose 2013 found that students. expressing compassion and self sacrifice altruism also indicate a. preference for non profit work,THE MILLENNIAL GENERATION WHO ARE. According to demographer David Foot the Millennials are a cohort born. between 1980 and 1995 Foot and Stoffman 1998 He also refers to them. as Baby Boom Echo as the Millennials are the children of the Baby. Boomers 1946 65 As a cohort Millennials are said to share a common. location in historical time shaped by the historical events and experiences. of that time cf Gilleard 2004 This conceptualization of a generation. is rooted in Mannheim s 1952 theory or sociology of generations where. members of the same generation share more than the same birth year As. a result the environment in which Millennials grew up during their forma. tion years impacts their values attitudes and behaviors. BURKE 9781783476572 M3696 G indd 122 22 04 2015 16 13. Millennials who are they how are they different and why should we care 123. As a generation Millennials are heavily influenced by the trends that. affected them and their Boomer parents such as increases in divorce rates. a greater number of women in labor force participation and rapid techno. logical change Lancaster and Stillman 2009 Statistics Canada 2011a. Socioeconomically Millennials were also raised in a relatively middle. class environment as the Baby Boomers were more prosperous than their. parents Osberg 2003 This has led many commentators to characterize. the Millennials as spoiled and entitled e g Howe and Strauss 2000. Twenge 2006 Millennials also have higher levels of post secondary edu. cation than earlier generations with younger women gaining an increas. ing share of university degrees and full time work as opposed to men and. women in previous generations Leete 2006 Statistics Canada 2011b. U S Census Bureau 2012 Hence they are more likely to question eve. rything have higher expectations of themselves Twenge and Campbell. 2008b but are also having trouble fulfilling their career goals Deal et al. 2010 De Hauw and De Vos 2010 Lyons et al 2012a, This generation is also among the most ethnoculturally diverse Pew. Research Center 2012 In the United States Mexican immigrants make. up nearly 30 percent of all foreign born residents while Canada has seen. a sharp rise in the proportion of immigrants with the Asia Pacific region. contributing over half of immigrants to Canada Asia Pacific Foundation. of Canada 2014 Terrazas and Batalova 2007 The Millennials are more. likely to have gone to school with others who are racially or culturally dif. ferent and be exposed to messages of diversity and inclusion As a result. there have been suggestions that Millennials hold more egalitarian atti. tudes towards women and minority groups e g LGBTs Broido 2004. Decoo 2014 Ng and Wiesner 2007 Millennials are also much more. selective in their geographic boundaries preferring urban and suburban. areas which in turn affects the types of work e g industries jobs they. perform Foot 2001 Given that the Millennials number 50 million in. the United States Pew Research Center 2012 and 9 1 million in Canada. Statistics Canada 2011a they are expected to have as much impact as. the Baby Boomers in the labor market,HOW ARE THEY DIFFERENT. Given the interest in Millennials researchers have been documenting how. they are different from previous generations e g see Ng et al 2012. However it is important to distinguish among the age period and cohort. generational effects that can confound true differences observed among. the different generations see Joshi et al 2010 Parry and Urwin 2011. BURKE 9781783476572 M3696 G indd 123 22 04 2015 16 13. 124 The multi generational and aging workforce, Age effects refer to changes in individuals views attitudes and behav. iors as they mature e g greater loyalty to their employers Taylor. and Walker 2013 while period effects refer to changes in individu. als views attitudes and behaviors as a result of influences during a. time period e g the internet globalization van Dijk 2006 Thus. researchers have used time lagged empirical data e g cross temporal. meta analyses or CTMA to help untangle the age and period effects to. ascertain true changes that occur within a generation Gentile et al 2010. Twenge 2013 Twenge and Campbell 2001 Twenge et al 2008a In this. chapter we review key areas of differences in terms of the Millennials per. sonalities and work values as these have implications for work and careers. to document how the Millennials are different from previous generations. Personalities, Researchers have generally accepted personality traits and attitudes as.
predictive of behaviors Ajzen 1991 Costa and McCrae 1978 also see. Sur and Ng 2014 Personality traits are considered to be relatively stable. and consistent and can be developed during adolescence McCrae et al. 2000 2002 Smola and Sutton 2002 Twenge et al 2010 The environment. vis vis biology can also play an important role in shaping personality. traits and character adaptations For example peers culture media and. the education system all play a direct role in character adaptation McCrae. et al 2002 Therefore it is conceivable for personality to shift over time. and across generations in response to changes in the external environment. For example the digital age has given rise to a generation who display. greater impatience and dependency Leung 2004 Parker Pope 2010 as a. result of changes in one s use of cognitive resources e g literacy numer. acy informacy van Dijk 2006 van Dijk and Hacker 2003 Twenge. and Campbell 2008a 2008b using CTMA documented the changes. on a number of personality traits among U S high school students from. the 1930s to the 2000s They found that high school students in 2006 i e. Millennials reported higher levels of self esteem1 and were more satisfied. with themselves although they also reported lower self competence than. students from the 1970s Likewise Lyons and Kuron 2014 reviewed. evidence on other personality trait changes among the Millennials and. they also found rising levels of neuroticism narcissism self confidence. and self assuredness in their review The shift in personalities may be. explained in part by the fact that the Millennials were raised in a relatively. middle class environment 2 where they were taught to be assertive and to. question everything and were often told that they could do anything they. wanted if they put their minds to it Twenge and Campbell 2008b Twenge. BURKE 9781783476572 M3696 G indd 124 22 04 2015 16 13. Millennials who are they how are they different and why should we care 125. et al 2008a The popularity of social media sites such as Facebook and. MySpace also contributed to positive self views and self enhancements. among the Millennials Barker 2012 Gentile et al 2012 and as a result. egos are on the rise and Millennials have been reported to self describe. themselves as more individualistic Twenge and Campbell 2012. On the other hand Millennials are frequently told to focus on effort. over achievement and are often rewarded for participation rather than. performance For instance in highly competitive activities such as sports. there are no winners or losers and everyone gets a ribbon cf Alsop 2008. Success and failure are less important and this praise for anything atti. tude also promotes the development of high self esteem a high need for. constant praise and a strong sense of entitlement among the Millennials. Hill 2002 Twenge 2010 2013 As a result the Millennial genera. tion has a tendency to equate effort with performance a fallacy that. has led Hill 2002 to coin the term ability performance nexus problem. As an example Millennials frequently bemoan a B grade when they. have worked all weekend on a paper demonstrating the Millennials. inability to relate performance with skills or abilities Likewise Twenge. et al 2012b reported that Millennials positive self views have not. been accompanied by objective performance such as SAT scores in the. academic arena This characterization by Hill 2002 also corroborates. Twenge and Campbell s 2008a 2008b other findings that Millennials. have low levels of self competence despite reporting high levels of self. esteem and self evaluations, The shift in personalities has also shaped the work and career expecta. tions of the Millennials In Canada Ng et al 2010 examined the career. expectations among Millennial post secondary students and uncovered. several noteworthy findings First the Millennials form inflated expecta. tions on pay and advancements Two thirds of the Millennials surveyed. expect a promotion within the first 15 months of their first job They also. expect an average 63 percent increase in their salaries in five years note the. average salary increase is 1 3 percent a year or a cumulative 5 15 percent. increase over five years In the same study Millennials also indicate. opportunities for advancement as their foremost priority when deciding. on an employer in the study Likewise Ng and his colleagues 2010 also. found no relationship between the Millennials academic achievement i e. GPA and their pay and advancement expectations where B students. form the highest expectations further corroborating Hill s 2002 ability. performance nexus characterization of the Millennials In another study. Westerman et al 2011 found Millennials rising levels of narcissism to. be related to expectations of ease in job search salary and promotions. Taken together these studies suggest a generation who are impatient to. BURKE 9781783476572 M3696 G indd 125 22 04 2015 16 13. 126 The multi generational and aging workforce, succeed and have high expectations with respect to their careers but those. expectations are often not matched by their abilities. Work Values, Lyons et al 2010 defined work values as generalized beliefs about the. desirable aspects of work While personality traits and attitudes are. Millennials who are they how are they different and why should we care 123 As a generation Millennials are heavily influenced by the trends that affected them and their Boomer parents such as increases in divorce rates a greater number of women in labor force participation and rapid techno logical change Lancaster and Stillman 2009 Statistics Canada 2011a Socioeconomically

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