Medicinal plants nda agric za

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Medicinal plants,of South Africa,Compiled by,Directorate Plant Production. Compiled by,Directorate Plant Production 1 Aloe ferox 1. Design and layout by 2 African ginger 2,Directorate Communication Services. 3 Wild rosemary 3,4 Cancer bush 4,5 Devil s claw 5. 6 African potato 6,7 Hoodia gordonii 7,8 Kooigoed 8.
9 Kougoed 9,10 Wild ginger 10,11 African wormwood 11. For further information please contact 12 Pepperback tree 12. Directorate Plant Production 13 Pineapple flower 13. Private Bag X250,14 Pelargonium sidoides 14,PRETORIA 0001. Tel 27 12 319 6072 15 Moringa 15,Fax 27 12 319 6372 16 Acknowledgement 16. E mail DPP daff gov za,17 Organisation involved 17. www daff gov za,18 References 17,Introduction 1 Aloe ferox.
Medicinal plants are plants which are used in herbalism and thought to have certain Scientific name Aloe ferox Mill. extractable compound in their leaves stems flowers and fruit for medicinal purposes Common names Bitter aloe tap aloe cape aloe red aloe English bitteraalwyn. These extracts are used as inputs in the pharmaceutical nutraceutical insecticide. tapaalwyn bergaalwyn Afrikaans inlaba isiZulu ikhala. and other chemical industries The booklet is a guide to the most commonly utilised. medicinal plants in South Africa isiXhosa,Family Aloaceae. Description Aloe ferox is a succulent plant that reaches 2 to 3 m in height It has. a perennial strong and adventitious fibrous root system and is a robust single. unbranched woody stemmed plant The leaves are broad dull green to greyish. green but turn reddish in colour when under drought stress. Production areas In South Africa Aloe ferox is distributed throughout the Western. Cape Eastern Cape southern KwaZulu Natal south eastern part of the Free State. Parts used Leaves, Climatic and soil requirements Aloe ferox grows well in warm climates with a. temperature ranging between 12 oC and 21 oC The plant also grows well on a well. drained sandy soil, Propagation It may be grown from seeds and stem cuttings Seeds can be. collected in winter or spring, Planting It can be planted in spring 1 5 to 2 m from each other. Fertilisation A small quantity of manure is required to enhance the growth of the. plant and organic compost to speed up growth, Pests The major insects identified in Aloe ferox include aloe snout beetle scale.
insects mealy bug and mites, Diseases The plant is prone to a variety of diseases including aloe cancer also. called galls leaf spots bacterial infections and aloe rust. Harvesting The crop is ready for harvesting after 18 months of cultivation Only 10. to 15 of the lower leaves of an adult plant are harvested once a year The leaves. are cut with a sickle, Uses Leaves have been traditionally used for stomach complaints arthritis eczema. conjunctivitis hypertension and stress They are also used to treat skin irritations and. 2 African ginger 3 Wild rosemary,Siphonochilus aethiopicus. Scientific name Scientific name Eriocephalus africanus. Common names, Natal ginger african ginger English wildegemmer Afrikaans Common names Wild rosemary marsh rosemary moorwort cape snowbush. indungulo isiphephetho isiZulu English pokbos Afrikaans. Family Zingiberaceae,Family Labiatae, Description African ginger is a herbaceous perennial plant of the forest floor The.
flowers are broadly funnel shaped pink and white in colour The leaves are light Description The plant is a small multi branched evergreen shrub of up to 1 to. green heart shaped and borne on the end of stem like leaf bases The stems reach 1 5 m in height It has woody stems with brown tough bark The root system is well. a maximum height of 2 m It has thick roots whitish or buff coloured in appearance developed with a taproot that can penetrate the soil to a depth of 6 m and lateral. roots that extend about 2 m around the plant The evergreen leaves are about 2. Production areas In South Africa African ginger is distributed in Mpumalanga and. 54 cm long, Parts used Secondary roots and rhizomes Production areas In South Africa wild rosemary is distributed throughout the Western. Cape and Eastern Cape Province, Climatic and soil requirements A soil temperature of between 20 and 22 oC and. air temperature of around 20 oC are suitable It grows best in a well drained red and Parts used The young tops leaves flowers seed and stems sprigs. yellowish brown soil rich in organic matter The best soil pH for african ginger is 6 0. Climate and soil requirements Wild rosemary prefers night temperatures of. between 10 to 13 oC day temperatures of between 20 and 22 oC and well drained. Propagation African ginger is propagated by seeds rhizomes or tissue culture soil that is sandy loamy and quite dry. Propagation of rhizomes can be done in spring, Propagation Wild rosemary is propagated by seeds cuttings layering and division. Planting Spring or summer is the ideal time for planting african ginger Seeds should of roots. be planted in 2 or 3 furrows approximately 15 cm deep into the soil with a spacing. of 18 cm apart and 72 cm between the rows Planting The seeds can be sown in spring or autumn and the cuttings can also. be taken in spring or autumn however in the Western Cape it is planted in the wet. Fertilisation High levels of organic matter are required Light application of organic. winter months Cultivated plants are planted in rows and spaced 1 2 m x 0 5 m. fertiliser e g N P and K should be made, Pests The major insects and pest identified in african ginger include nematodes. aphids caterpillars leaf miner leaf spots and mites Fertilisation Nitrogen phosphorus potassium and sulphur should be applied. annually according to the soil analysis, Diseases The most frequent diseases in african ginger include damping off.
powdery mildew rust and leaf spot Pests The major insects identified in wild rosemary include aphids spider mites gall. midge and rosemary leaf beetle, Harvesting The harvesting method is determined by the purpose for which the plant. is grown African ginger can be harvested by hand or mechanically with a rotary Diseases The major diseases identified in wild rosemary include box blight root. cutter It can be harvested by digging it up and removing all of the plant from about disease and powdery mildew. 10 cm below the crown or it can be lifted by hand and the green leaves stem and. root broken off Harvesting The plant is ready for harvesting 2 to 3 years after planting. Uses Fresh roots or rhizomes can be chewed to treat influenza It can also be used Uses The leaves are rubbed and smoked for asthma and other infections of the. for colds asthma to treat malaria and by women during menstruation The plant throat and lungs. has also been traditionally used as an appetite suppressant and sedative. 4 Cancer bush 5 Devil s claw, Scientific name Sutherlandia frutescens Lessertia frutescens Scientific name Harpagophytum procumbens. Common names Sutherlandia cancer bush turkey flower balloon pea English Common names Wood spider grapple plant devil s claw English Sengaparile. umnwele unwele isiXhosa and isiZulu kankerbossie Setswana. blaasbossie blaas ertjie eendjies gansiekeurtjie klappers Family Pedaliaceae. hoenderbelletjie Afrikaans phetola mokakana Setswana. Description Devil s claw is a prostrate mat forming perennial herb and it is. lerumo lamadi Sepedi musa pelo motlepelo Sesotho, considered as a weed The plant grows up to 1 5 m in length It has creeping. Family Fabaceae, stems Devil s claw has a central taproot and secondary root tubers storage roots. Description Cancer bush is a hardy perennial shrub that can grow up to 3 m tall It branching off horizontally The roots are found up to 2 m deep and the secondary. has a remedy stem The leaves are pinnately compound The flowers are orange storage roots are up to 25 cm long and 6 cm thick The leaves are greyish green. red up to 3 cm long The tubular flowers are either yellow and violet or uniformly dark violet. Production areas In South Africa the plant is found in the Northern Cape Eastern Production areas In South Africa devil s claw grows in the North West and Northern. Cape KwaZulu Natal Western Cape and Mpumalanga provinces Cape provinces and in the western Free State. Parts used Leaves and young stems Parts used Root tuber. Climate and soil requirements Cancer bush prefers full sun well drained soils and Climate and soil requirements The plant grows well in temperatures of between 17. a location receiving substantial moisture The optimum day temperature should be and 30 oC It grows best on well drained deep red light sandy to rocky soils. about 25 oC It prefers a soil pH of 7 6 to 8 1, Propagation The plant is propagated from seeds or planted from secondary tubers.
Propagation The plants are propagated from seeds and cuttings. Planting It can be planted in late spring or early summer The seeds should be. Planting Planting should be done in spring or autumn Seeds should be sown 1 m scattered evenly over the prepared beds or should be sown in a furrow of 20 cm. apart in groups of three to five deep and 60 cm wide The small tubers should be planted 10 cm deep and 50. Fertilisation The soil mixture should contain two parts sand and one part compost. Fertilisation A lime fertiliser or compost is needed. Pests There are no known pests that damage cancer bush plants. Pests The only pests of concern are animals feeding on the tubers e g porcupines. Diseases Damping off and rot disease could lead to damage to the plants and antelope such as duiker and steenbok Birds are attracted to freshly seeded. Harvesting Cancer bush can be harvest in spring to early summer The entire plant wildflower beds. is harvested using manual or mechanical cutting Diseases Over watering could lead to fungus problems. Uses Leaves have been traditionally used to treat fever poor appetite indigestion Harvesting Only the secondary root tubers are harvested Harvesting can be done. gastritis peptic ulcer dysentery cancer diabetes colds and flu cough asthma by hand or cutting the fresh root tubers into slices using a stainless steel knife or. chronic bronchitis kidney and liver conditions rheumatism heart failure urinary tract digging stick. infections as well as stress and anxiety, Uses Tubers have been traditionally used for treating diseases of the liver kidneys. and bladder It can also be used to stimulate appetite and for indigestion. 6 African potato 7 Hoodia gordonii, Scientific name Hypoxis hemmerocallidea Scientific name Hoodia gordonii Asclepiadaceae. Common names Yellow star star lily african potato English sterretjie afrika patat Common names Bobbejaanghaap bergghaap bitterghaap bokhoring. Afrikaans inkomfe ilabatheka isiZulu inongwe isiXhosa moli Afrikaans khobab Khoi ghaap hoodia queen of the. kharatsa lotsane Sesotho,Namib african hats milkweed English. Family Hypoxidaceae Family Apocynaceae, Description African potato is a perennial geophytic herb It is a very attractive Description Hoodia is a spiny succulent leafless plant that can grow to a height of. hardy garden plant of about 100 to 500 mm tall The plant has an unbranched stem 1 m Stems are greyish brown in colour with the new growth being light green and. and an underground rootstock called the corm The leaves are deciduous and up it is usually erect from 0 3 to 2 2 m in length It has saucer shaped flowers that are. to 30 cm x 3 2 cm in width The flowers are star shaped yellow in colour 70 to 100 mm in diameter and pale purple in colour. Production areas The plant is common in the Eastern Cape KwaZulu Natal Production areas In South Africa it is distributed in the north eastern part of the. Mpumalanga Limpopo Gauteng North West and Free State provinces Western Cape the north and north western regions of the Northern Cape. Parts used Tuber corm leaves and bulbs Parts used Leaves and stem. Climate and soil requirements The plant prefers a full sunlight It grows well in warm Climate and soil requirements Hoodia thrives in extremely high temperatures of. and cold subtropical areas It needs a well drained soil African potato is planted on up to 50 oC and it prefers light shade A minimum winter temperature of 10 oC is. different soil conditions as the best suited soil for planting not found yet needed It prefers a well drained red sandy loam soil with a pH of 6 2. Propagation Propagation of the plants is done from seeds tissue cultures and bulbs Propagation Propagation is mainly from seeds. Planting The seeds should be sown in early spring and planted 1 mm deep The. one year old corms have to be planted 10 cm apart in rows and 20 cm between Planting Hoodia can be planted in spring The seeds should not be planted deeper. the rows More than three years corms have to be planted 20 cm apart in rows and than 0 5 cm. 50 cm between rows Fertilisation Fertilisers should be applied twice a year once in April and once in July. Fertilisation No chemical additives no chemical fertilisers or insecticides are used Pests The major insects identified include mealy bug snail slug scale red spider. in the cultivation of african potato mites and nematotes eelworm Registered pesticides can be used. Pests African potato is attacked termites and other pests such as American Diseases The major diseases identified include rot and damping off The use of a. bollworm spotted maize beetle stink bug and grasshopper Porcupines dig up the registered fungicide is recommended. corns and centipedes eat the outer covering,Harvesting Wet plant ma.
Medicinal plants are plants which are used in herbalism and thought to have certain extractable compound in their leaves stems flowers and fruit for medicinal purposes These extracts are used as inputs in the pharmaceutical nutraceutical insecticide and other chemical industries The booklet is a guide to the most commonly utilised

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