MCDP 1 3 Tactics

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Downloaded from http www everyspec com,DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY. Headquarters United States Marine Corps,Washington D C 20380 1775. 30 July 1997, This publication is about winning in combat Winning requires. many things excellence in techniques an appreciation of the. enemy exemplary leadership battlefield judgment and focused. combat power Yet these factors by themselves do not ensure. success in battle Many armies both winners and losers have. possessed many or all of these attributes When we examine. closely the differences between victor and vanquished we draw. one conclusion Success went to the ar mies whose leaders. senior and junior could best focus their efforts their skills. and their resources toward a decisive end Their success. arose not merely from excellence in techniques procedures. and material but from their leaders abilities to uniquely and ef. fectively combine them Winning in combat depends upon tac. tical leaders who can think creatively and act decisively. This book pertains equally to all Marine leaders whether. their duties entail combat service support combat support or. combat arms It applies to the Marine air ground task force. commander as well as the squadron commander and the fire. team leader All Marines face tactical decisions in battle. Downloaded from http www everyspec com, regardless of their roles Tactical leaders must develop and. hone their warfighting skills through study and practice This. publication serves as a guide for that professional development. It addresses the theory of tactics and its application in a chaotic. and uncertain environment, The concepts and ideas within this publication are battle.
tested Throughout our history one of the most important rea. sons for the success of the United States Marine Corps has. been the military skill of our leaders at every level of com. mand Through their tactical skill and battlefield judgment our. commanders achieved tactical and operational advantage at the. decisive time and place, This publication is a revision of Fleet Marine Force Manual. 1 3 Tactics of 1991 and supersedes it Marine Corps Doc. trinal Publication MCDP 1 3 fully retains the spirit scope. and basic concepts of its predecessor MCDP 1 3 further de. velops and refines some of those concepts in particular a new. chapter has been added on exploiting success and finishing. and some of the original material has been reorganized and. Tactics is in consonance with MCDP 1 Warfighting and. the other Marine warfighting publications Presuming an un. derstanding of maneuver warfare MCDP 1 3 applies it specifi. cally to the tactical level of war Like MCDP 1 it is not. prescriptive but descriptive providing guidance in the form of. Downloaded from http www everyspec com, concepts and ideas This publication establishes the Marine. Corps philosophy for waging and winning battles,C C KRULAK. General U S Marine Corps,Commandant of the Marine Corps. DISTRIBUTION 142 000002 00, 1997 United States Government as represented by the Secre.
tary of the Navy All rights reserved,Downloaded from http www everyspec com. Downloaded from http www everyspec com,Chapter 1 Understanding Tactics. An Art and A Science The Environment How,We View Combat and How We Fight Marine. Corps Tactics Conclusion,Chapter 2 Achieving a Decision. Anzio A Model of Tactical Indecisiveness Cannae,A Clear Tactical Decision Achieved Understanding.
Decisiveness Military Judgment Understanding the,Situation Acting Decisively Conclusion. Chapter 3 Gaining Advantage,Combined Arms Maneuver Exploiting the. Environment Terrain Weather Periods of Darkness, or Reduced Visibility Complementary Forces Surprise. Trapping the Enemy Developing an Ambush,Mentality Asymmetry Conclusion. Downloaded from http www everyspec com,Tactics MCDP 1 3.
Chapter 4 Being Faster,Speed in Combat What is Speed Speed and Time. Timing Relative Speed Continuing Speed Speed,and Change Becoming Faster Conclusion. Chapter 5 Adapting,Anticipation Improvisation Flexible Plans. Decentralization Conclusion,Chapter 6 Cooperating, Control in Combat Cooperation Discipline Conclusion. Chapter 7 Exploiting Success and Finishing,Building on Advantage Consolidation Exploitation.
and Pursuit Finishing the Enemy Use of the Reserve in. Combat Conclusion,Chapter 8 Making it Happen,Doctrine Education Training Training and. Educational Methods Professional Reading and,Historical Study Tactical Exercises Wargaming. Terrain Walks Competition Critiques Conclusion,Downloaded from http www everyspec com. Understanding Tactics, In tactics the most important thing is not whether you go. left or right but why you go left or right 1, There is only one principle of war and that s this Hit the.
other fellow as quick as you can and as hard as you can. where it hurts him the most when he ain t looking 2. Sir William Slim,Downloaded from http www everyspec com. Downloaded from http www everyspec com,MCDP 1 3 Understanding Tactics. T his book is about winning in combat Winning requires a. thorough understanding and knowledge of tactics But. what is tactics,AN ART AND A SCIENCE, Tactics is the art and science of winning engagements and. battles It includes the use of firepower and maneuver the inte. gration of different arms and the immediate exploitation of suc. cess to defeat the enemy 3 as well as the sustainment of forces. during combat It also includes the technical application of. combat power which consists of those techniques and proce. dures for accomplishing specific tasks within a tactical. action 4 This description is from Marine Corps doctrine and. reflects our approach to tactics What does it tell us. Tactics refers to the concepts and methods we use to accom. plish a particular objective in either combat or military opera. tions other than war In war tactics is the application of. combat power to defeat the enemy in engagements and battles. Combat power is the total destructive force we can bring to. bear against the enemy it is a unique product of a variety of. physical moral and mental factors 5 Tactics results in the ac. tions and counteractions between opposing forces It includes. the use of maneuver supported by the application and coordi. nation of fires to gain advantage in order to defeat the enemy. Downloaded from http www everyspec com,Tactics MCDP 1 3. In military operations other than war tactics may be the. schemes and methods by which we perform other missions. such as to control a crowd or to provide a secure environment. for the delivery of food medicine or supplies to a nation or. people in need, As stated in the definition tactics is a combination of art.
and science to gain victory over the enemy The art of tactics. lies in how we creatively form and apply military force in a. given situation It involves the creation positioning and ma. neuver of combat power When do we flank the enemy and. when do we ambush him When do we attack and when do we. infiltrate How do we use speed and momentum to achieve a. decisive advantage This creativity is a developed capacity ac. quired through education practice and experi ence, The science of tactics lies in the technical application of. combat power It includes mastering the techniques and proce. dures that contribute to the development of warfighting skills. such as marksmanship navigation gunnery and close air sup. port The execution of these techniques and procedures must. become second nature for us this requires intensive and con. tinuous training Without mastery of basic warfighting skills. artistry and creativity in their application are impossible. Downloaded from http www everyspec com,MCDP 1 3 Understanding Tactics. Now that we have examined the art and science of tactics. let us look at how we use tactics to complement strategy and. campaigning Strategy and campaigning bring our forces to a. particular place at a particular time We use tactics to win in. combat A war typically involves many individual engagements. that form a continuous fabric of activity Sometimes a cluster. of engagements flows together to make up a battle that may. last for hours days or even several weeks Tactical compe. tence is indispensable to victory in such engagements and bat. tles Leaders at the operational and strategic levels use tactical. victories to bring about success in the campaign and ulti. mately in the war as a whole, In combat our objective is victory Sometimes this involves. the complete destruction of the enemy s forces at other times. achieving victory may be possible by attacking the enemy s. will to fight The Marine Corps must be equally prepared to. win during both situations those in which the enemy forces. must be completely destroyed as during World War II and. those in which the complete destruction of the enemy s forces. may not be necessary or even desirable As the Commanding. General of the 1st Marine Division in Des ert Storm stated. Our focus was not on destroying everything Our focus was. on the Iraqi mind and getting behind it 6 He knew that the. path to victory did not lie in the total destruction of the Iraqi. forces but in undermining their will to fight,Downloaded from http www everyspec com. Tactics MCDP 1 3,THE ENVIRONMENT, The tactical arena is a dynamic ever changing environment.
The complexity of this environment makes combat chaotic and. unpredictable As an example of confusion and chaos on the. battlefield consider the amphibious assault on the island of Ta. rawa in November 1943, During the assault the combination of high casualties lack. of effective communications and disruption of the 2d and 8th. Marine Regiments landings on the assault beaches led to a. chaotic and nearly disastrous situation for the 2d Marine Divi. sion Units were decimated under heavy fire Surviving. Marines huddled together under a coconut log sea wall in inter. mingled units without effective communications Landing craft. carrying reinforcements and supplies could not make it over a. coral reef to the landing beaches Only through daring leader. ship initiative and teamwork were Marines able to get off the. beach and annihilate the defending Japanese force 7. The violence of combat only increases the level of confusion. and chaos Robert Sherrod a Time and Life correspondent at. Iwo Jima gave testimony to this chaos in what he called war. at its worst, The first night on Iwo Jima can only be described as a night. mare in hell About the beach in the morning lay the. Downloaded from http www everyspec com,MCDP 1 3 Understanding Tactics. dead They had died with the greatest possible violence No. where in the Pacific have I seen such badly mangled bodies. Many were cut squarely in half Legs and arms lay fifty feet. from any body 8, Battle is the collision of opposing forces animate interac. tive and unpredictable in behavior Performance varies from. week to week day to day and even hour to hour as a unit in. teracts with its environment and the enemy, Military forces are complex systems consisting of individu.
als and equipment They interact internally and externally in. seemingly chaotic ways As Clausewitz wrote A battalion is. made up of individuals the least important of whom may. chance to delay things or make them go wrong 9 As, Marines we believe the actions of single individuals can have. great impact in combat and can also make things go right For. example Sergeant John Basilone as a machine gunner at Gua. dalcanal contributed in large measure to the virtual annihila. tion of a Japanese regiment 10 He steadfastly manned his. position in the face of repeated wave type assaults and was in. strumental in breaking the enemy s ability to press the attack. forcing them to retreat without achieving their goals. Battle is also influenced by a variety of external condi. tions directions and missions established by authorities ter. rain weather attitudes of the civilian populace that often. cannot be foreseen The outcome of combat can only be antici. pated in terms of probabilities,Downloaded from http www everyspec com. Tactics MCDP 1 3, Technology also affects the tactical environment but not. always as anticipated Technology may reduce uncertainty and. it also may increase it The Spartans organized into phalanxes. attacked in close formation making it easy to see and control. one s forces Today tactical formations are less well defined. as distances between elements have increased complicating. command and control Increased weapons lethality communi. cations range and tactical mobility cause us to disperse forces. over greater distances War is more fluid as a result of technol. ogy While the machine gun bogged down warfare in World. War I tactical innovations like the tank the airplane and the. aircraft carrier made warfare more rapid and free flowing in. World War II, Future battle is likely to become even more chaotic Al. though combat in Operation Desert Storm was between fairly. well defined forces in a well defined space the forces and op. erating areas in Vietnam Somalia and Grenada were far less. well defined Enemy units were dispersed and often hidden. within the civilian population making them hard to detect and. As stated in the definition tactics is a combination of art and science to gain victory over the enemy The art of tactics lies in how we creatively form and apply military force in a given situation It involves the creation positioning and ma neuver of combat power When do we flank the enemy and when do we ambush him When do we attack

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