MASONRY CONSTRUCTION GUIDE Earthquake Engineering

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CISMID FIC UNI, Construction of Masonry Buildings with appropriated technologies. CONSTRUCTION OF MASONRY BUILDINGS WITH,APPROPRIATED TECHNOLOGIES. Japanese Advisor Committee,Yokohama National University. Dr Yutaka Yamasaki,Center for Better Living,Tsukuba Building Test Laboratory. Dr Mikio Futaki,Ministry of Land Infrastructure and Transport.
National Institute for Land Infrastructure and Management. Mr Takashi Kaminosono,Mr Tetsuro Goto,Building Research Institute. Mr Hiroto Kato,Dr Koichi Kusunoki,Infrastructure Development Institute. Mr Ryokichi Ebizuka,Mr Satoshi Nomura,Peruvian Researchers Committee. Faculty of Civil Engineering Staff CISMID FIC UNI,Dr Carlos Zavala. Eng Patricia Gibu,Eng Claudia Honma,Eng Oscar Anicama.
Eng Jorge Gallardo,Eng Leslie Chang,Bach Eng Guillermo Huaco. Mr German Bautista,Mr Larry Cardenas,CISMID FIC UNI. Construction of Masonry Buildings with appropriated technologies. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, This Guide has been produced upon the basis of the skills and knowledge acquired. through the execution of the Construction Technology Development and Promotion. Program in semi developed and developing countries which is under the supervision of. the Ministry of Land Infrastructure and Transport of Japan. The program is aimed at introducing to and establishing in developing countries those. construction technologies developed by these countries with the adaptation of the state. of the art technologies that have been developed in Japan and bear the likely traditional. methodologies after their effectiveness having been certified in the pilot construction. work in the local places and also through its related experiments. The execution of the program was entrusted to Infrastructure Development Institute. Japan IDI by the Ministry of Land Infrastructure and Transport of Japan and CISMID. compiled the guide with the financial and technological support extended from Japan A. specially organised experts committee discussed and was involved in the technological. assistance, In Peru masonry building with clay brick and adobe is the likely used system in house. construction Those houses suffered severe damages in the past when earthquakes hit. them due to insufficient structural resistance to seismic shocks and unsatisfactory. quality control of construction work and building materials. Under the circumstances the program was planned to improve the situation The project. is intended to contribute to the mitigation of earthquake damages by improving the. earthquake resisting capacity seismic performance of confined masonry construction. Such improvement is to be achieved in a way that is easy to Peruvian people which. becomes possible through adequate selection of materials devices in detail of. reinforcing steel and adequate construction and its control without effecting drastic. changes to the Peruvian conventional construction methods Experiments for checking. the resisting forces of houses and walls will also be carried out by applying force to unit. walls and a real size 2 story house constructed especially for the experiment And local. engineers will profit by seeing and being involved in their construction process Its. ultimate target is to disseminate such improved house construction methods widely. helped by the construction guide derived from the program. This guide represents the accomplishments of the Construction Technology. Development and Promotion Program of Japan that can be expected to contribute a lot. to the improvement to seismic resistance of the houses in Peru. I hereby express my heartfelt appreciation to the Ministry of Land Infrastructure and. Transport of Japan and also to The Infrastructure Development Institute Japan for. their contribution to the improvement of the construction methods of houses in Peru. Dr Carlos ZAVALA,Associate Professor,Universidad Nacional de Ingenier a.
CISMID FIC UNI,CISMID FIC UNI, Construction of Masonry Buildings with appropriated technologies. INITIAL REMARK, Masonry houses with good structural performance may be constructed by appropriate. construction procedures good structural detailing and good quality control This guide. has been divided in fourteen sections following the construction procedure Structural. detailing and quality control are discussed between the Japanese Advisor Committee. and CISMID considering the Peruvian construction system and the Japanese concept. on structural detailing such as anchorages of reinforcements and quality control This. guide should be used for two or single story house because our experiment was. performed with a real size 2 story house, Each section presents questions of how to execute the construction works and also. recommendations to assure the quality in the construction site When an item is very. important signal with a small man appear and shows the recommendation in green color. Also if crucial note appear a signal of stop will appear showing in red color the. recommendation These kinds of recommendations must be follows if the quality wants. to be reach on the construction site, We hope you enjoy the reading of this guide and also spread the knowledge and. recommendations among your colleagues It will help to improve our construction. technology on masonry houses,CISMID FIC UNI, Construction of Masonry Buildings with appropriated technologies.
THE CONSTRUCTION OF A MASONRY HOUSE,1 Introduction 1. 2 Which materials we use 1,z Sand fine aggregates fine and thick sand. z Crushed Stone thick aggregates,z Sand Gravel natural mix of aggregates. z Masonry units,z Steel Reinforcement, 3 Which elements are the parts of the structural system 3. 4 Where are these elements and materials in a real house 4. 5 How do you know if walls amount is enough 5,z Example of how to check wall density.
6 What should I do before starting the construction 9. z Preparing the ground,z Drawing the structure on the ground. 7 How should I build the foundation 10,z Site conditions. z Digging of trench,z Prepare bottom of foundation. z Place the reinforcement of the columns for walls. z Place the simple concrete in the foundation,z Detail example of foundation. 8 How to build the over footing 12,9 How to build a wall 12.
z Preparation of the bricks,z Preparation of the mortar. z The construction process,z Additional Notes, 10 How to set the confining columns to the wall 15. z Placing the forms,z Placing of concrete,11 How to tie the walls and Columns 16. 12 How to build the slab and beams 17,z Preparing the concrete for beams and slab. z Placing the concrete on beams and slab,13 How to finish the surface of the elements 21.
14 How to control the quality of materials 22,z Obtain samples of fresh concrete. z Quality control of masonry,GLOSSARY 24,Basic Concepts. Tools and Equipment,CISMID FIC UNI, Construction of Masonry Buildings with appropriated technologies. THE CONSTRUCTION OF A MASONRY HOUSE,1 Introduction. Clay brick masonry building is the most likely used type of structural system on. housing in Peru and South America More than 43 of housing are built using this. system In last 2001 Atico Southern Peru quake housing build with masonry. experimented damage Main reason of this damage is the non quality control on the. construction and improper structural configuration Building a house without following. the National Standards of Earthquake design the Masonry design standard and this. Masonry Construction guide could produce damage on the house. 2 Which Materials we use,Coming in bags of 42 5 kg It must be protected.
from humidity for not harden before its use Storage. space should be insulate from soil humidity through. plastic sheets or wood stands,z Sand fine aggregates fine and thick sand. It will use on the mix with cement stone and water. Its mission is to reduce voids between stones Sand. shouldn t contain earth soil mica salt organic,filthy odor iron compounds blackish appearance. Don t damp sand before use,You can prove if sand is bad putting sand. in a recipient with water If too much soil,or dust is present it will separate from the. z Crushed Stone thick aggregates,Stone should be crushed or angular sharp.
Should be hard and compact Stones easily,breakable are not good. CISMID FIC UNI, Construction of Masonry Buildings with appropriated technologies. z Sand Gravel natural mix of aggregates, Sand Gravel is a natural mix of stone of different. sizes and thick sand It is used to prepare concrete. of low resistance or quality like run foundation,over footing false floor. Water shouldn t contain filthy elements should be,clean drinkable and fresh.
Do not use dirty,z Masonry units,They are clay bricks and lime siliceous bricks. Masonry units can be solid hollow or tubular To,consider solid section without holes must more. than 75 of the geometrical area The minimum,compression stress of bricks is 50 kgf cm2. Do not use uncooked clay bricks or irregular,bricks Clay bricks which are so white must. not be used,z Steel Reinforcement,For confined reinforced concrete elements.
corrugated bars of 9 15m length and diameters of,3 8 and 1 2 should be used For stirrups or hoops. can be used flat bars of 1 4 diameter For tying,reinforcement bars black wire n 16 is used. To prevent oxidation storage of bars can be cover,by plastic sheets of wood boards. Wood boards and braces are used as form mold,Forms should be dry and protected from water. otherwise it remains humid wet swells up and,becomes soft It is used to apply a cover of oil.
petroleum in the surface of wood board before its,use as a form. CISMID FIC UNI, Construction of Masonry Buildings with appropriated technologies. 3 Which elements are part of the structural system. RC slab RC one way,Reinforcement small beam,of RC frame. horizontal member Light weight,clay brick,Clay brick. Lintel unit,Reinforcement Mortar,of RC frame,Stirrup panel.
Horizontal head joint,Castellated,Vertical head joint. Unreinforced,concrete beam,L Foundation,If soil conditions are not good. like soft sand or flexible soil,the over footing must have. minimum steel reinforcement,CISMID FIC UNI, Construction of Masonry Buildings with appropriated technologies. 4 Where are these elements and materials in a real house. Beam and slab light block slab,Confining column detail.
reinforcement,Continuous run foundation,And over footing. vertical extension of foundation,before layering of masonry units in. order to protect them from humidity,Detail of the,Column in its. whole length,Main structural element,Masonry Bearing Walls. Masonry and its confining,Elements beams and columns work jointly.
CISMID FIC UNI, Construction of Masonry Buildings with appropriated technologies. 5 How do you know if walls amount is enough, Structural design project is necessary to compute the reinforce elements confinement. elements walls amount footings and others, A preliminary computation usually used in the design phase of the project is the. procedure known as wall density ratio This procedure is very simple and consists in. finding the ratio between walls area and story area The ratio should be examined on. each floor It should also be examined severally in the vertical direction and in the. horizontal direction A wall whose length is under 30 cm shouldn t be counted because it. isn t effective enough, As a result value the ratio must be compare with a threshold value proposed by the. Peruvian committee of masonry standards which are as follows. Soil Type Zone 3 Zone 2 Zone 1, Here the minimum wall density ratio is presented as a percent and is given for each soil.
type and each earthquake zone in Peru,z Example of how to check wall density. As an example we will consider the two story masonry house experimented in. CISMID FIC UNI during this project, In the Figure on the next page the plan of each story is presented We will developed the. first story wall density requirement as example, a Check in the vertical direction on the 1st floor. Each wall is named with two nearest horizontal axis and is own vertical axis Then each. wall is identified its length which is length of the wall including confined columns and the. effective thickness of the wall without finishing We already know the area of the story is. 51 m2 and the results of the computations are presented in the following table. Block in Material Wall L m L cm t cm e cm h m h cm Awall m2. Side Masonry AB1 1 50 150 00 15 00 13 00 2 50 250 00 0 20. Side Masonry B C1 0 50 50 00 15 00 13 00 2 50 250 00 0 07. width Masonry AB2 2 50 250 00 25 00 23 00 2 50 250 00 0 58. Side Masonry AA 3 0 70 70 00 15 00 13 00 2 50 250 00 0 09. side Masonry CD 1 2 70 270 00 15 00 13 00 2 50 250 00 0 35. side Masonry DD 3 0 80 80 00 15 00 13 00 2 50 250 00 0 10. side Masonry D E3 0 80 80 00 15 00 13 00 2 50 250 00 0 10. width Masonry D E2 1 20 120 00 25 00 23 00 2 50 250 00 0 28. Awall 1 76 m2, If wall density is less than the minimum required Ahouse m2 51 00 m2. wall density can be increase increasing the, thickness of the wall or increasing stiffness Wall Density 3 5 4 0.
Construction of Masonry Buildings with appropriated technologies ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Guide has been produced upon the basis of the skills and knowledge acquired through the execution of the Construction Technology Development and Promotion Program in semi developed and developing countries which is under the supervision of the Ministry of Land Infrastructure and Transport of Japan The

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