Liner Shipping Markets Networks and Strategies

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Liner Shipping Markets Networks and,Strategies,The implications for port development. on the West Coast of South America,The case of Chile. Discussion Paper No 2013 22,Prepared for the Roundtable on. Port Investment and Container Shipping Markets,7 8 November 2013 Santiago Chile. Gordon WILMSMEIER, Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean ECLAC.
THE INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT FORUM, The International Transport Forum at the OECD is an intergovernmental organisation. with 54 member countries It acts as a strategic think tank with the objective of helping. shape the transport policy agenda on a global level and ensuring that it contributes to. economic growth environmental protection social inclusion and the preservation of. human life and well being The International Transport Forum organises an annual. summit of Ministers along with leading representatives from industry civil society and. The International Transport Forum was created under a Declaration issued by the Council. of Ministers of the ECMT European Conference of Ministers of Transport at its Ministerial. Session in May 2006 under the legal authority of the Protocol of the ECMT signed in. Brussels on 17 October 1953 and legal instruments of the OECD. The Members of the Forum are Albania Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus. Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Canada Chile People s Republic of China. Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Former Yugoslav Republic of. Macedonia Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland India Ireland Italy Japan. Korea Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Mexico Republic of Moldova. Montenegro the Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian. Federation Serbia Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey. Ukraine United Kingdom and United States, The International Transport Forum s Research Centre gathers statistics and conducts. co operative research programmes addressing all modes of transport Its findings are. widely disseminated and support policymaking in Member countries as well as. contributing to the annual summit,Discussion Papers. The International Transport Forum s Discussion Paper Series makes economic research. commissioned or carried out at its Research Centre available to researchers and. practitioners The aim is to contribute to the understanding of the transport sector and to. provide inputs to transport policy design, ITF Discussion Papers should not be reported as representing the official views of the ITF. or of its member countries The opinions expressed and arguments employed are those. of the authors, Discussion Papers describe preliminary results or research in progress by the author s.
and are published to stimulate discussion on a broad range of issues on which the ITF. works Comments on Discussion Papers are welcomed and may be sent to International. Transport Forum OECD 2 rue Andr Pascal 75775 Paris Cedex 16 France. For further information on the Discussion Papers and other JTRC activities please email. itf contact oecd org,The Discussion Papers can be downloaded from. www internationaltransportforum org jtrc DiscussionPapers jtrcpapers html. The International Transport Forum s website is at www internationaltransportforum org. This document and any map included herein are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any. territory to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory city or. LINER SHIPPING MARKETS NETWORKS AND STRATEGIES,TABLE OF CONTENTS. 1 SETTING THE SCENE 5,2 PORT THROUGHPUT DEVELOPMENT 6. 3 LINER SHIPPING 9,Technological change 9,Structural change reefer trade 13. Market structure 15,4 CONCLUSIONS AND OUTLOOK 18,5 REFERENCES 19.
G Wilmsmeier Discussion Paper 2013 22 OECD ITF 2014 3. LINER SHIPPING MARKETS NETWORKS AND STRATEGIES,1 SETTING THE SCENE. This paper predominantly on the challenges for port development in some important. sense cannot help but also be about the deeper phenomena of structural change in the. maritime industry and geographical shift The main objective is to analyse the evolution. of symptoms of change in the liner shipping industry within South America and more. particularly on the West Coast as these changes are direct drivers of port infrastructure. and port system development which is both economically interesting and a matter of. serious policy significance in its own right, Port infrastructure and the quality of shipping services in a region or country are. important determinants of countries integration in the global market and their. competitiveness Given the sustained growth in emerging economies despite the recent. crisis port infrastructure development has emerged as a crucial issue for future. economic growth The West Coast of South America WCSA and particularly Chile have. experienced significant economic expansion over the last two decades However the role. of infrastructure and its contribution to continued economic and social development has. only recently returned to political agendas, Growth in demand for port infrastructure structural changes in the maritime industry. and the changing geography of trade have clearly revealed the limits of the current. transport infrastructure in the region and the country Infrastructure development. decisions particularly as concerns port infrastructure expansion are politicised full of. historicism and case specific empiricism Thus this work tries to stimulate a more. systemic view to support more contextual integrated and long term policy decisions. Wilmsmeier et al 2013 identified critical moments in port development in Latin. American and the Caribbean LAC Their work focused on the evolution of the port. system in the region and its sub regions Their findings are the starting point for the. present paper which moves beyond the port to analyse the evolution of and changes in. the maritime industry and more particularly liner shipping services on the WCSA. Beyond the critical moments identified in the previous work this paper particularly. focuses on the elements of technological change related to ships network strategies. and liner shipping market structures, G Wilmsmeier Discussion Paper 2013 22 OECD ITF 2014 5. LINER SHIPPING MARKETS NETWORKS AND STRATEGIES, Figure 1 Critical Moments in LAC port development 1990 2013.
Economic changing change in the,geography of structure of. growth volumes,trade cargoes,Port influx of renegotiation of. interterminal,port reform international concession. devolution competition,private operators contracts. transhipment,Port function gateway ports hybrid ports.
new terminal,diversification geographical,development. Port system one main port,interterminal,emergence of shift emergence. secondary ports of new ports,competition,Technological automatisation logistics. ship size of information,change superstructures systems. Network liner specific,transhipment,direct services transhipment.
strategy strategies,Liner shipping establishing co opetition and. mergers and,market market presence,acquisitions,competition behaviour. structures,Source Based on Wilmsmeier et al 2013,2 PORT THROUGHPUT DEVELOPMENT. Port throughput in Latin America and the Caribbean has grown from 10 4 million TEU. 1997 to almost 43 million TEU 2012 At a compound annual growth rate of 9 9 this. development has put enormous pressure on port infrastructure in the region However in. a global context LAC ports are only responsible for 7 2 of throughput with all WCSA. ports combined moving only about 1 6 of the TEU of the port of Shanghai. The analysis of the WCSA port system by Wilmsmeier et al 2013 hints that ports. represented by their actors either public or private were able to make use of critical. moments more or less successfully The port reform processes in the 1990s notably in. Chile made it possible to advance port infrastructure development particularly in terms. of port productivity and to initiate significant container terminal development through. the involvement of the private sector However the sustained growth has brought the. prevalent lack of port and transport and logistics infrastructure in the hinterland to light. 6 G Wilmsmeier Discussion Paper 2013 22 OECD ITF 2014. LINER SHIPPING MARKETS NETWORKS AND STRATEGIES, Thus far the focus has been almost exclusively on the development of main container. ports with only residual attention paid to secondary port development in the region. Similarly port expansion planning is still usually port focused not developed. systemically Hinterland transport infrastructure and logistical development are also not. fully taken into account, Path dependency and contingency are important elements in the evolution of a port.
system and its subsystems Port devolution competition and hinterland integration. strategies as well as public planning approval are determinants in this context. Path dependency is often created by historicism and institutional sclerosis In Latin. America the devolution process in many countries has left port development in the hands. of the private sector Wilmsmeier et al 2013 refer to Swyngedouw 1992 p 424e. who argues that the production of locational effects as a result of capital investment in. space left to private investors ignores important aspects when creating new ports. Fleming and Hayuth 1994 have also noted how the virtues of centrality and. intermediacy that create strategic locations can be manufactured The question is how. this affects future private investment and institutional capacities of current development. particularly in a region where government investment in ports is almost absent There. seems to be clear evidence from the above analysis that the manufacturing of strategic. locations can be successful and may have initiated the emergence of secondary ports in. Ports and port systems undergo lifecycles Cullinane and Wilmsmeier 2011 and on the. WCSA the traditional main ports have reached maturity Thus the current discussion on. port development needs to be whether it is possible to extend the lifecycle of current. locations and what solutions are available or whether the development of a completely. new site in terms of a locational shift is the best option to cater for future development. and expansion of the existing port system, Studies and political discussion on port development in the region have typically focused. on the development of a single port usually a country s main port thus failing to. recognise changes in the overall port system Wilmsmeier et al 2013 analyse the. evolution of the LAC port system as a whole Particularly for the subregion WCSA and its. East Coast counterpart ECSA the authors find clear indications of decentralisation. processes Over the last decade secondary ports have evolved much faster than the long. established main gateway ports in both subregions Thus there is a diversification of. ports serving the demand for containerised trade which is also accompanied by a. geographical dispersion of ports, In the case of Chile the ports of San Antonio and Valparaiso handled more than two. thirds of the total containers moved within the country in 1997 By 2012 these two ports. had more than tripled their throughput to over 1 8 million TEU However the overall. share in container throughput of these two ports has fallen to just above 50. G Wilmsmeier Discussion Paper 2013 22 OECD ITF 2014 7. LINER SHIPPING MARKETS NETWORKS AND STRATEGIES, Figure 2 Evolution of container throughput in Chile by port 1997 2011. 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011. Antofagasta Arica Chacabuco Coquimbo Coronel, Iquique Lirquen Puerto Angamos Puerto Montt San Vicente SVTI. Talcahuano Ventanas Punta Arenas San Antonio Valparaiso. Source Wilmsmeier et al 2013, The ports of Talcahuano San Vicente Terminal Internacional SVTI and Lirqu n all.
located in very close proximity have evolved much faster than the traditional ports of. San Antonio and Valpara so In 1997 SVTI did not even exist and the others only played. a minor role in the port system In 2012 these three ports moved over one third of all. Chilean container trade, Such diversification and geographical shift in the port system has occurred in parallel in. Brazil and Mexico Wilmsmeier et al 2013 This diversification is being driven by the. changes in the export structures and thus the emergence of new production centres in. the South especially for perishable products Additionally secondary ports are starting. to engage in more integrated development strategies which include consideration of. logistics development connected to the port e g Manaus Brazil Puerto Angamos. The changes in the port system are relevant for Chile s future port development strategy. for two reasons a expansion of production centres especially in the South but also in. other parts of the country leads to a significant increase in hinterland traffic not only to. regional ports but also to the traditional main gateway ports and b the shift of economic. activity can be expected to result in population increase in the affected regions creating. a new pattern of demand, Strategies to deal with both factors include infrastructure development to cope with. emerging and expanding markets and production centres This can be achieved by. Liner Shipping Markets Networks and Strategies The implications for port development on the West coast of South America 22 Discussion Paper 2013 22 Gordon Wilmsmeier Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean ECLAC Liner Shipping Markets Networks and Strategies The implications for port development on the West Coast of South America The case of Chile Discussion Paper No

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