LECTURE 8 SOWING METHODS SEED DRILLS SEED CUM

Lecture 8 Sowing Methods Seed Drills Seed Cum-PDF Download

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iii Seed dropping behind the plough, It is a very common method of sowing followed by farmers in villages This. method is used for seeds like maize gram peas wheat and barley A woman man walk. behind a plough ploughing the land and drop the seeds in the furrows made by the. plough Sowing behind the plough can be done by a device known as malobansa It. consists of a bamboo tube provided with a funnel shaped mouth It is fitted to the handle. of the plough One man drops the seeds through the funnel and other man handles the. plough and the bullocks This method is a slow and laborious method. iv Drilling, Drilling consists of dropping the seeds in furrow lines in a continuous stream and. covering them with soil The spacing between the seeds is not uniform Seed metering. may be done either manually or mechanically The number of rows planted may be one. or more Figs 2 5 This method is very helpful in achieving proper depth of sowing. proper spacing between seeds and proper seed rate Drilling can be done by using seed. drills of tractor drawn and animal drawn types,v Transplanting. Transplanting consists of rising the seedlings in a nursery bed and then planting. the seedlings in another field main field It is commonly done for paddy vegetable and. flowers It is a time consuming operation Equipment used for planting the seedlings in. the main field is called transplanter,vi Hill dropping. In this method few seeds are dropped as a hill at a fixed place and not in a. continuous stream The spacing between hill to hill in a row is constant The equipments. are called planters,vii Check row planting, It is a method of planting in which row to row and plant to plant distance is.
uniform In this method seeds are planted precisely along straight parallel furrows The. rows are always in two perpendicular directions A machine used for check row planting. is called check row planter,SEED DRILL, Seed drill is a machine used for placing the seeds in a continuous stream in. furrows at uniform rate and at controlled depth with an arrangement of covering the. seeds with soil, According to the power source used seed drills may be classified in to i. Bullock drawn seed drills ii Tractor drawn seed drills According to the type of seed. metering done animal drawn seed drills may be classified into i manually metered seed. drills and ii mechanically metered seed drill In manually metered seed drills a person. drops the seeds in the furrows in mechanically metered seed drills a mechanical device. called seed metering mechanism is used to meter the seeds There are many designs of. bullock drawn seed drills and tractor drawn seed drills which are used for sowing. Gorru Bullock drawn seed drill, Tractor drawn seed drills Tractor drawn seed drills. Functions of a seed drill,Seed drill performs the following functions. i To carry the seeds,ii To open furrows at uniform depths.
iii To meter the seeds, iv Todeposite the seeds in furrows in an acceptable pattern. v To cover the seeds and compact the soil around the seed. SEED CUM FERTILIZER DRILL, Seed drills fitted with fertilizer dropping attachments are called seed cum fertilizer. drills They deliver both the seeds and fertilizers simultaneously in an acceptable. pattern Seed cum fertilizer drill has a large seed box which is divided lengthwise into. two compartments one for seed and another for fertilizers distribution. Functions of a seed cum fertilizer drill, Seed cum fertilizer drill performs the following functions. vi To carry the seeds and fertilizer in separate compartments. vii To open furrows at uniform depths,viii To meter the seeds and fertilizers. ix To deposit the seed and fertilizer in the furrows in an acceptable pattern. x To cover the seed and fertilizer and compact the soil around the seed. Seed cum fertilizer drill,Seed cum fertilizer drill.
COMPONENTS OF A SEED DRILL, A seed drill with mechanical seed metering device mainly consists of. i Frame ii Seed box iii Seed metering mechanism iv drive transmission system v. Furrow openers vi Covering device vii clutch viii hitch frame and ix Transport. The frame is usually made of mild steel angle section and flats It is strong. enough to withstand all types of loads in working condition All other parts of a seed drill. are fitted to the frame, It is a box like structure made up of either mild steel or galvanized iron and. provided with a lid In some designs a small agitator is provided at the bottom of the box. which agitates the seeds while the drill in operation and prevents clogging of seeds. Seed metering mechanism is placed at the bottom of the box. Seed metering mechanism, The mechanism which picks up seeds from the seed box and delivers them in to. the seed tube is called seed metering mechanism Seed metering mechanism may be. of several types a Fluted feed type b Internal double run type c Cup feed type d. Cell feed type e Brush feed type f Auger feed type g Picker wheel type and h Star. wheel type Usually seed metering mechanism is provided at the bottom of the box. Drive transmission system, The drive transmission mechanism consists of a wheel sprocket chain assembly. and a driven shaft thatcarry the seed picking discs When the seed drill moves in the. field the drive wheel rotates due to its contact with soil and the sprocket wheel also. rotes The chain connecting the drive wheel sprocket and driven wheel sprocket rotates. the shaft carrying the seed metering discs,Furrow openers.
These are the parts which open up furrows in the soil for placing the seeds. Different types of furrow openers in use namely 1 Hoe type 2 Shoe type 3 Stub runner. type 4 Full or curved runner type 5 Single disc type 5 Double disc type etc In. cultivator type seed drills the tines work as furrow openers. Covering device or furrow closer, It is a device which closes the furrow with soil after the seed has been dropped in. it Covering the seeds is usually done by chains bars packers rollers or press wheels. designed in various shapes and sizes,Transport wheel. There are two wheels fitted on an axle for transporting the drill on roads Iron. wheels are used as transport wheels Some manufacturers use pneumatic wheels One. of the transport wheels is fitted with a suitable attachment to transmit the motion of the. wheel to the seed metering mechanism when the drill is in operation. TYPES OF SEED METERING MECHANISMS, Some of the seed metering mechanisms used in seed drills are explained here. a Fluted feed type, The fluted wheel also known as fluted roller is driven by a square shaft There. are horizontal groves provided along the outer periphery of the wheel and wheel can be. shifted sideways depending upon the seed rate These rollers are mounted at the bottom. of the seed box They receive the seeds in the longitudinal groves and pass on to the. seed tube through the seed hole,Fluted feed type seed metering mechanism.
b Internal double run type, The internal double run feed mechanism has a double face wheel One face has. a larger opening for course seeds while other face has smaller openings for small seeds. Flapper gate is provided at the bottom of the box which covers the opening not in use. The rate of seeding is controlled by changing the speed of the internal feed wheels This. is done by meshing appropriate gears,Internal double run. c Cup feed mechanism, The mechanism consists of a circular shaft mounted with many circular discs. Each disc is provided with several cups or spoons in a circular path This arrangement. is kept at the bottom of the seed box When the shaft rotates the discs also rotates. Seeds are picked up by the cups and then dropped in to a funnel from where the seeds. travel through the seed tube and reach the furrows The cups have two faces one for. larger seeds and the other for smaller seeds,Fig 8 Cup feed mechanism. d Cell feed mechanism It is a mechanism in which seeds are collected and. delivered by a series of equally spaced cells engraved on the periphery of a circular. plate or wheel, e Brush feed mechanism It is a mechanism in which a rotating brush.
regulates the flow of seed from the hopper in to the seed tube A number of bullock. drawn planters in the country use brush feed mechanism. g Picker wheel mechanism It is a mechanism in which a vertical plate provided with. radially projected arms picks up and drop the seeds in to the furrow It is suialble for. large size seeds like potatoes, h Star wheel mechanism It is a feed mechanism which consists of a toothed wheel. rotating in a horizontal plane and conveying the fertilizer through a feed gate below the. Star wheel, f Auger feed mechanism It consists of an auger which moves the substance from. the container and delivers in to the field uniformly Fertilizer drills are usually provided. with auger feed mechanism Some manufacturers use this mechanism in seed drills. TYPES OF FURROW OPENERS, The furrow openers are provided in a seed drill for opening a furrow The seeds. travel through the seed tube and reach the furrow, Different type of furrow openers are in use 1 Shovel type 2 Shoe type 3 hoe. type 4 Disc Type single disc double disc etc,1 Shovel Type.
Shovel type furrow openers are widely used in seed drills There are three types. of shovels in use They are a reversible shovel b single point shovel and c spear. head shovel, Shovel type openers are best suited for stony and root infested fields The. shovels are bolted to the shanks at their bottoms Boots are fitted at the back of the. shovels which carry the delivery ends of the seed tubes In cultivator type seed drills. shovel type furrow openers are used,2 Shoe Type, It works well in trashy soils where the seed beds are not smoothly prepared. They are made from two flat pieces of steel welded together to from a cutting edge It is. specially suited for black soils Bullock drawn three tyne seed drills are provided with. shoe type furrow openers,3 Disc Type, They are two types a Single disc and b Double disc types. Single disc type, Disc type furrow openers are suitable to fields where plant residues or trashes. are used as mulches It consists of a curved disc made of hardened steel It is set at an. angle which while working shifts the soil to one side making a small furrow Seeds are. placed in the furrows The disc is kept clean by two scrapers one toe shaped at the. convex side and one T shaped at the concave side It works well in sticky soils also but. the discs are costly and maintenance is bit difficult. Double disc type, In double disc furrow opener there are two flat discs set at an angle to each.
other The discs open a clean furrow and leave a small ridge in the center The seeds. are dropped between the two discs providing more accurate placement It is suitable for. trashy lands Seed drills operated at high speeds usually use this type of furrow. Seed tube Seed tubes are provided at the lower end of the feed cups They conduct. seeds from feed cups to the furrow lines through suitable boots and furrow openers. Polypropylene rubber and steel tubes are used as seed tubes Minimum diameter of. seed and fertilizer tube is 25 mm, Boot It is a part of the sowing equipment which receives the seeds or fertilizers from. the seed tube and delivers to the furrow It is made up of cast iron or mild steel. TYPES OF FURROW CLOSERS, Drag chain drag bars scraper blades steel press wheels zero pressure. pneumatic press wheels disc hillers and various combination of these are used as. furrow closers, Planter is a sowing equipment used for sowing those seeds which are larger. in size and can not be handled by seed drills Row to row and plant to plant spacing is. maintained in a planter Potato planter maize planter cotton planter are popularly used. Functions of a planter,i to open the furrow,ii to meter the seed. iii to deposit the seed in the furrow, iv to cover the seed and compact the soil over the seed.
Components of a planter A planter consists of i hopper ii feed metering device iii. knock out mechanism iv cut off mechanism v furrow opener vi furrow closer vii. Drive mechanism viii clutch etc A planter has separate seed hopper for each row. Hopper is usually made of mild steel or any other suitable material. Seed metering device in a planter There are a number of seed metering devices. available for use in a planter The most common device is a rotating circular plate with. cells which is provided at the bottom of seed hoppers In some planters vertical rotors. inclined rotors canvas belts are also used The circular seed plates have notches or. holes provided along the periphery called cells which pick up the seeds from seed. hopper and drop them in to the seed tube Depending upon the type of notches. provided on the plates the rotor is further classified in to i Edge drop ii Flat drop and. iii Hill drop rotors The cells carry the seeds in the cells of the rotor The flat drop cell. carries the seed on a platform of thickness half of the cell depth Only one seed is. allowed in the cell each time In hill drop rotor the cells are larger in size and admit. many seeds at a time, The rotating plate receives the seeds from the hopper The plate moves. under an arrangement called cut off which allows only those seeds which are. accommodated in the cells, Cut off mechanism It cuts off or brushes out or removes the excess seeds carried. SOWING METHODS SEED DRILLS SEED CUM FERTILIZER DRILLS COMPONENTS AND FUNCTIONS Sowing is an art of placing seeds in the soil to have good germination in the field A perfect sowing gives a Correct amount of seed per unit area b Correct depth of sowing c Correct spacing between row to row and plant to plant d Correct seed rate SOWING METHODS i Broadcasting ii Dibbling iii

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