LANGUAGE ECOLOGY RE ORIENTATION IN A CONTEMPORARY

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pedagogies including many current replacement and appropriateness paradigms could be. ineffectual given contemporary metrolingual realities of many Albanian languagers and learners. Word count 265, Key words Albanian critical applied linguistics critical language pedagogies Albanian. metrolingualism polycentrism heteroglossia language ecology linguistic diversity linguistic. variation standard and non standard linguistic varieties language policy and planning standard. language ideology,1 Introduction, Throughout the past few decades various language scholars have commented that in. order for Unified Literary Albanian ULA to withstand the test of time like other normative. living languages it must be permitted to undergo considerable reform Changes could involve. ULA incorporating various excluded elements e g Gegisms during the 1972 standardization. process at the Congress of Orthography thereby resulting in a more cultivated language Such. modifications would distance ULA from its homogeneous and monocentric pedigree and. accentuatepoly context and interlocutor centric linguistic practices see Byron 1976. 2 Standard Language Ideology Polycentrism and Heteroglossia in Light of ULA. As numerous scholars have observed standard language ideology plays a considerable. but often implicit role in how many languagers perceive language especially standardization. polices and planning and thus non standard ized forms e g Ag J rgensen 2012 Heller. 2008 Leeman 2005 Milroy 2001 Milroy Milroy 2012 Watts 2010 Milroy 2001 p 531. explains Standardization works by promoting invariance or uniformity in language. structure and consists of the imposition of uniformity upon a class of objects T his. definition assumes that the objects concerned including abstract objects such as language are. in the nature of things not uniform but variable This inherent variability is frequently made. invariable when language policies are imposed Standard language ideology often views. languages as discrete fixed objects consisting of stable synchronic finite state idealization s. Milroy 2001 p 540 while endorsing invariance homogeneity1 strict notions of correctness2. proper use campaigns post hoc justifications of legitimacy 3 native speaker ownership. hegemony modernist notions of one nation one standard national language Ricento 2000. p 198 language purity and monoglot ideologies Such agendas implicitly and explicitly. discourage incorrect e g non standard forms regularly regarded as immoral often refuse to. acknowledge standard factual variability and endeavor to eliminate fragmentation within the. standard As Milroy 2001 p 534 remarks however There cannot be in practical use any such. thing as a wholly standardized variety as total uniformity of usage is never achieved in. practice For Milroy 2001 standardization involves a process that is continuously in progress. in those languages that undergo the process p 534 4 Moreover speakers who fall prey to. standard language ideology and culture often attribute elevated prestige to standard dialects. Prestige however is a sociocultural construct not inherent to language5 J rgensen Karreb k. Madsen M ller 2011, Standard language ideology discussions are of relevance to ULA In 1972 at the Congress. of Orthography ULA standardizers alongside various language guardians and gatekeepers. advocated homogeneity invariance strict ortholinguistic adherence proscribed form eradication. and linguistic purism at the cost of linguistic diversity in pluricentric alternatives similar to what. Gramsci envisioned across the Adriatic for Italian see Carlucci 2013 Ives 2004 so as to. codify the communicative practices that likely involved flexible passive reciprocal bilingualism. and other accommodations concerning written and spoken literary Albanian varieties see. Byron 1976 Gramsci advocated an inclusive pluricentric language regime originating and. resonating with the voices of the languagers of the various dialects of Italian such an approach. allows languagers to more cogently articulate their thoughts than when limited to imposed. monocentric unitary systems Gramsci understood the importance of working towards. linguistic unification through a careful consideration of linguistic diversity not through its. denigration or coercive elimination Carlucci 2013 p 200 linguistic ecology was paramount. Bakhtin s heteroglossia 6 multispeechedness inclusion of multiple voices so as to. represent authentic language is also pertinent to Albanian Heteroglossic language practices 7. involve employing different languages and or varieties often within and or between spoken. and or written utterances and strings of language Bakhtin s heteroglossia is governed by two. opposing forces the centripetal toward the single center implied in the notion of an official. or national language and the centrifugal away from that center in the direction of the. regional dialect as well as the languages used by different classes generations and professions. that comprise a community of speakers Bakhtin s work tends to stress the centrifugal. Hayward 2001 Heteroglossia 8 involves myriad linguistic components beyond standard. versus non standard possibilities e g their interweaving e g Alb duke shku e tu e j shkuar. while going cf duke shkuar ULA Tosk tue tuj shku e Geg semantic plasticity e g Alb. mollatarta pat llxhan i kuq tomato cf domate dru pem wood tree fruit tam l milk cf. qum sht tyln butter cf gjalp and morphological inhibitioneasing including frequently. stigmatized forms e g Geg infinitive Alb me shku e to go cf t shkoj that I go among. others Actual language practices e g sociolects of various speech communities in Tirana and. Prishtina are multifaceted including societal and contextual elements9 Tjupa 2009 which play. pivotal roles in influencing which forms e g standard non standard formal casual informal. real life languagers J rgensen et al 2011 p 29 employ10 Heterglossia allows multiplicities. of evolving dynamic viewpoints to be conveyed through such authentic speech acts rooted in. speech diversity Dentith 1994 especially concerning authentic expressions of style and self. Often the case for ULA however dominant political and ideological pressures keep. languages and varieties11 pure and separate Lemke 2002 p 85 Heller 2007 J rgensen et. al 2011 Languages including varieties are often politically prevented from mixing. meshing and blending Creese Blackledge 2010 12 Various ULA gatekeepers have attempted. to hermetically seal and guard it from unsanctioned leakage e g of non standard Gegisms. 3 Present Dynamics of Language Fluid Hybridity and Linguistic Repertoires. Let s consider the various consequences of globalization e g the migration of people. and ideas on current linguascapes Blommaert Rampton 2011 including Albanian. languagers As Ag and J rgensen 2012 explain superdiversity involves the diversification of. diversity in which populations become increasingly ethnically and linguistically. heterogeneous and the expanding transnational as well as transborder communication over the. internet or other new technological phenomena contributes to the dismantling of the idea of. simple and clear communications pp 527 8 This superdiversity entails the emergence of. rules and norms and their observance and the appearance of alternative norms Blommaert. 2013 e g in various linguistic landscapes in the Americas and Europe including previously. imposed ULA confines Multiple forms of truncated multilingualism and linguistic repertoires. participate Blommaert 2010 Kramsch 2014 where intrinsic polycentricity characterizes. sociolinguistic systems Blommaert 2013 p 11 as exhibited in many ULA users linguistic. practices Varied linguistic elements enter into the discourse where polylingualism 13 involving. languagers employ ing whatever linguistic features at their disposal to achieve their. communicative aims Ag J rgensen 2012 p 528 and receptive multilingualism when. each interlocutor communicates in his her mother tongue in the case of Albanian native. variety while comprehending the utterances of the other individual may surface including in. virtual linguistic landscapes of new and emerging media Blommaert 2013 2014 involving. semiotic fluidity Kramsch 2014 which brings us to metrolingualism. Metrolingualism highlights the intersections of linguistic structures semiotics identity. new media local polycentric linguistic practices multilingualism among others in linguascapes. that celebrate diversity multiplicity and hybridity Metrolingualism14 embodies ways in which. people of different and mixed backgrounds use play with and negotiate identities through. language it does not assume connections between language culture ethnicity nationality or. geography but rather seeks to explore how such relations are produced resisted defied or. rearranged its focus is not on language systems but on languages as emergent from contexts of. interaction Otsuji Pennycook 2010 p 246 When languagers blend often divergent. communicative repertoires in spoken and or written utterances codemeshing and. translanguaging results linguistic systems leak and contaminate others thereby. undermining ortholinguistic practices Otsuji Pennycook 2010 p 245 and challeng ing. particular hierarchies and hegemonies Creese Blackledge 2010 p 104 From the lens of. metrolingualism 15 the languagers are not bastardizing the language s or dialect s These. disruptions and destabilizations of dominant ideologies and re negotiations of identity are. integral components of metrolingualism16 which is interested in the queering of ortholinguistic. practices across time and space that may include urban and rural contexts elite or minority. communities local or global implications Otsuji Pennycook 2010 p 246 Germane to the. emergent Albanian norm this hybridity oriented pluralizing strategy p 251 embraces. production s of new possibilities p 247 of language as an emergent property of various. social practices p 248 while rejecting rigid cultural fixity e g ortholinguistic ideologies17. 4 Considering Linguistic Regime Re orientation for ULA. The current dynamics of Albanian involve codemeshing and translanguaging among. others unsurprising given the diglossic18 reality where ULA and the Tosk variety enjoys overt. prestige compared to often stigmatized Geg sub varieties ULA is presently undergoing. speaker motivated change from below where varied sub dialects have been in the process of. leaking into it where multiple linguistic structures merge with others e g Alb duke shku e. tuj shkuar while going Such dialect meshing cross dialectal language transfer of linguistic. elements e g lexical items and structural features is well known in dialect contact contexts. especially when the linguistic systems have been in intense contact situations Lofi 2007. ULA s current situation illustrates how when the languagers are in the drivers seats language. can exhibit fluid and dynamic characteristics particularly given speaker driven pluricentric and. heteroglossic practices where urban provincial and archaic un orthodox and innovative. features are woven into the linguistic repertoires19 Such multi dialectal multi polylingual and. transidiomatic practices Blommaert 2013 p 8 including dialect ideology spurts Watts. 2010 exemplify language choices exhibiting metrolingual speaker agency. Late modern mediascapes metrolingual landscapes amongst other contributing factors. have influenced and been shaped by a generation or more of languagers who attribute less. saliency to national identity than to emerging translocal sets of shared virtual experiences. values interests and ways of life on and off the grid Lepp nen et al 2009 Priorities are less. oriented toward modernist nation state notions than other langaugers with whom they share. common understandings regarding similar notions of de territoriality hybrid communities and. hybrid communication practices largely navigated online Instead of being identified by what. some langaugers associate with affiliations of the modern state e g rigid monocentric standard. languages and monoglot ideologies some prefer to be identified by and identify themselves. with more dynamic and fluid semiotic metrics promoting perpetual malleability given the. demands of the day allowing them to determine their own emergent orders of normativity. Lepp nen et al 2009 p 1080 including regarding static standard languages. Some may criticize such re orientations for lacking rigid rules and fixity Decisions. involving which rules to follow however are up to the languagers not a handful of. academicians in a conference chamber or stone tower isolated from humans who use the. language and possess communicative translingual and symbolic competence see Kramsch. 2014 Such positioning de emphasizes prescriptivism not normativity and reinforces diversity. rather than replacement and appropriateness paradigms thereby permitting langaugers to redraw. their final horizon s to fit a global world of increased semiotic uncertainty and symbolic power. struggles as an adaptive practice that interacts with its cultural and technological mediations. Kramsch 2014 p 306 while recognizing decentered knowledge sources and reflective. situated choices p 308, 5 Implications and Conclusions A Critical Paradigm Shift. Less than five decades ago when ULA was approved by language authorities at the. Congress of Orthography and had begun to be promulgated to the masses Byron 1976 p 120. metrolingualism polycentrism heteroglossia language ecology linguistic diversity linguistic variation standard and non standard linguistic varieties language policy and planning standard language ideology 3 1 Introduction Throughout the past few decades various language scholars have commented that in order for Unified Literary Albanian ULA to withstand the test of time like

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