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OMS Water for life COUV 15 06 05 10 41 Page 2,Photo credits. WHO Photolibrary, P Steeger Masterfile dripping water faucet on cover. ILO image of well on cover background,OMS Water for life INT 14 06 05 10 41 Page i. WATER FOR LIFE MAKING IT HAPPEN,OMS Water for life INT 14 06 05 10 41 Page ii. ii DECADE FOR ACTION 2005 2015,WHO Library Cataloguing in Publication Data.
WHO UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation. Water for life making it happen, 1 Water supply 2 Potable water supply and distribution 3 Sanitation I Title. ISBN 92 4 156293 5 NLM classification WA 675,World Health Organization and UNICEF 2005. All rights reserved Publications of the World Health Organization can be obtained from WHO Press. World Health Organization 20 Avenue Appia 1211 Geneva 27 Switzerland tel 41 22 791 2476. fax 41 22 791 4857 email bookorders who int Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO. publications whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution should be addressed to WHO Press at the. above address fax 41 22 791 4806 email permissions who int. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression. of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization or UNICEF concerning the legal. status of any country territory city or area or of its authorities or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or. boundaries Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers products does not imply that they are. endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization or UNICEF in preference to others of a. similar nature that are not mentioned Errors and omissions excepted the names of proprietary products are. distinguished by initial capital letters, All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization and UNICEF to verify the infor. mation contained in this publication However the published material is being distributed without warranty of. any kind either express or implied The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the. reader In no event shall the World Health Organization or UNICEF be liable for damages arising from its use. Printed in France, Design and layout L IV Com S rl Morges Switzerland. OMS Water for life INT 14 06 05 10 41 Page 1,WATER FOR LIFE MAKING IT HAPPEN 1.
Foreword 2,Welcome to the action decade 4,Water for life and for living lifelong 10. Making it happen 23,Find out more about the action decade 34. Tapping the sources 35, Meeting the MDG drinking water and sanitation target what increase is needed 36. Regional and global drinking water and sanitation coverage estimates 37. OMS Water for life INT 14 06 05 10 42 Page 2,2 DECADE FOR ACTION 2005 2015. Every day diarrhoeal diseases from easily preventa Improved water and sanitation will speed the. ble causes claim the lives of approximately 5000 achievement of all eight MDGs helping to eradicate. young children throughout the world Sufficient and extreme poverty and hunger achieve universal. better quality drinking water and basic sanitation can primary education promote gender equality and. cut this toll dramatically and simple low cost house empower women reduce child mortality improve. hold water treatment has the potential to save maternal health combat HIV AIDS malaria and. further lives other diseases ensure environmental sustainability. and develop a global partnership for development,As we enter the International Decade for Action.
Water for Life 2005 2015 this report makes clear At US 11 3 billion a year the dollar costs of achiev. that achieving the target of the Millennium ing the MDG drinking water and sanitation target. Development Goals MDGs for access to safe are affordable the human costs of failing to do so. drinking water and basic sanitation will bring a pay are not The International Decade for Action Water. back worth many times the investment involved It for Life provides the incentive for coordinated. will also bring health dignity and transformed lives efforts to prevent the daily disaster of unnecessary. to many millions of the world s poorest people The deaths. humanitarian case for action is blindingly apparent. The economic case is just as strong,OMS Water for life INT 14 06 05 10 42 Page 3. OMS Water for life INT 14 06 05 10 42 Page 4,4 DECADE FOR ACTION 2005 2015. WELCOME TO THE ACTION DECADE of improved drinking water and sanitation Relating. coverage and diarrhoeal disease prevalence shows, World Water Day 22 March 2005 heralded the that meeting the MDG target would avert 470. start of the International Decade for Action pro thousand deaths and result in an extra 320 million. claimed by the United Nations General Assembly productive working days every year Economic. Water for Life calls for a coordinated response analyses are showing that the benefits on investment. from the whole United Nations system The timing is to achieve the target would be considerable. significant the end of the action decade in 2015 is Depending on the region of the world economic. the target date for achievement of many of the benefits can be valued to range from US 3 to. Millennium Development Goals MDGs Those US 34 for each dollar invested. goals were amplified by the 2002 World Summit on, Sustainable Development in the Johannesburg Plan In the International Decade for Action we need to. of Implementation which set the following target find ways of replicating successful actions and insti. gating many more that will bring improved water, HALVE BY 2015 THE PROPORTION OF PEOPLE and sanitation services to all those in need.
WITHOUT SUSTAINABLE ACCESS TO SAFE DRINKING, WATER AND BASIC SANITATION The first part of this report charts the effect that. lack of drinking water and sanitation has on people s. It is not hard to see why providing access to safe lives at different stages childhood adolescence. drinking water and basic sanitation for the world s adulthood and old age highlighting the gender. most deprived populations is moving up the political divide and threat posed by HIV AIDS The second. agenda With 2 6 billion people recorded as lacking part looks at a range of interventions that are being. any improved sanitation facilities in 2002 and 1 1 bil advocated and analyses their potential impact on. lion of them without access to an improved drinking progress towards the MDG drinking water and. water source the resulting squalor poverty and dis sanitation target. ease hold back so many development efforts, Focusing efforts on achievement of the MDG drink To help you to find out more about the action. ing water and sanitation target will speed progress decade the report lists web pages that provide back. towards all eight goals ground reference materials There is also a list of the. main agencies that provide advocacy and technical, The increasing reliability of coverage data has support in the water sanitation and hygiene sector. enabled the WHO UNICEF Joint Monitoring, Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation JMP The report concludes with statistical tables showing. and others to link access to improved drinking the increase needed to achieve the MDG drinking. water sources and improved sanitation with health water and sanitation target Annex 1 and drinking. economic and human development statistics A water and sanitation coverage estimates at regional. growing portfolio of case studies from around the and global level Annex 2. world helps to demonstrate the beneficial effects, INVESTING IN DRINKING WATER AND SANITATION THE EIGHT MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS.
The estimated economic benefit comes in several forms Eradicate extreme hunger and poverty. Health care savings of US 7 billion a year for health agencies and US 340 million for individuals Achieve universal primary education. 320 million productive days gained each year in the 15 59 year age group an extra 272 million school Promote gender equality and empower women. attendance days a year and an added 1 5 billion healthy days for children under 5 years of age together Reduce child mortality. representing productivity gains of US 9 9 billion a year Improve maternal health. Time savings resulting from more convenient drinking water and sanitation services totalling 20 billion work Combat HIV AIDS malaria and other diseases. ing days a year giving a productivity payback of some US 63 billion a year Ensure environmental sustainability. Value of deaths averted based on discounted future earnings amounting to US 3 6 billion a year Develop a global partnership for development. The WHO study from which these figures are taken shows a total payback of US 84 billion a year from the. US 11 3 billion a year investment needed to meet the MDG drinking water and sanitation target It shows too. some remarkable additional returns if simple household water treatment accompanies the drinking water and. sanitation improvements, Source Evaluation of the costs and benefits of water and sanitation improvements at the global level Geneva World Health. Organization 2004,OMS Water for life INT 14 06 05 10 42 Page 5. WATER FOR LIFE MAKING IT HAPPEN 5, DRINKING WATER AND SANITATION An increase to 138 million a year from 2002 to. A FORMIDABLE CHALLENGE 2015 is needed if the MDG sanitation target is to be. met a 58 acceleration Sub Saharan Africa will, The charts of drinking water and sanitation coverage need almost to double the annual numbers of addi. in Figures 1 and 2 remind us of the huge progress tional people served with drinking water and quad. made from 1990 to 2002 They show also that too ruplicate the additional numbers served with basic. many people in the world still live in squalid demean sanitation if the MDG target is to be reached So. ing conditions that rob them of dignity and the means reaching the target means going faster and investing. to escape from poverty considerably more That is being recognized by the. world community in political proclamations and in, In 2002 there were 2 6 billion people without even increased commitments to the sector in some of.
the most basic sanitation facilities Providing improved the poorest countries There is a strong case to do. sanitation for an additional 1 8 billion from 2002 to even more. 2015 will achieve the MDG target to halve the pro, portion unserved by 2015 But because of rising pop Lack of drinking water and sanitation kills about. ulation there will still be 1 8 billion people having to 4500 children a day and sentences their siblings. cope with unhygienic sanitation facilities at that time parents and neighbours to sickness squalor and. enduring poverty Improvements bring immediate, The population benefiting from improved sanitation and lasting benefits in health dignity education. went up by 87 million a year from 1990 to 2002 productivity and income generation. Figure 1 100,Drinking water 100,coverage by region in 88 90 89 88. 83 83 84 83,1990 and 2002 79 78 79 77,71 73 72 71,1990 51 52. Northern Africa,Latin America Caribbean,Western Asia.
South Asia,South Eastern Asia,Eastern Asia,Sub Saharan Africa. Developed Countries,Developing Countries,Figure 2 100. Sanitation coverage,by region in 84 83,1990 and 2002 79 79. 1990 48 49 49,2002 37 36,Western Asia,Latin America Caribbean. Northern Africa,South Eastern Asia,Eastern Asia,South Asia.
Sub Saharan Africa,Developed Countries,Developing Countries. OMS Water for life INT 14 06 05 10 42 Page 6,6 DECADE FOR ACTION 2005 2015. MONITORING WATER SUPPLY AND Household surveys used by the JMP include USAID. SANITATION supported Demographic and Health Surveys DHS. UNICEF supported Multiple Indicator Cluster, In its 2004 report Meeting the MDG drinking water Surveys MICS national census reports WHO. and sanitation target a mid term assessment of supported World Health Surveys and other reliable. progress the WHO UNICEF Joint Monitoring national surveys that allow data to be compared. Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation JMP, presented 2002 coverage data for most countries of Earlier coverage data came from the water utilities. the world The figures revealed the glaring contrasts and ministries in charge of drinking water and sanita. between rich and poor nations and between rural tion services Definitions of safe water and basic. and urban populations sanitation differed widely from region to region and. country to country Commonly too a village water, In this report the JMP focuses on the changes that point was deemed to provide coverage for the.
simple improvements in water and sanitation whole village population although in many cases. services can make to people s lifestyles health and quite a number of villagers did not use it for one. economic prospects and the relatively small invest reason or another. ments needed to make those improvements In, doing so it exposes the cost of inaction From 2000 coverage assessments of the JMP using. population based data gathered through household, Target 10 of the Millennium Development Goals surveys and national censuses give a much clearer. MDGs is to halve by 2015 the proportion of peo comparison between countries as they record the. ple without sustainable access to safe drinking water percentage of people . start of the International Decade for Action pro Eradicate extreme hunger and poverty Figure 2 Sanitation coverage by region in 1990 and 2002 1990

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