Ionic Bonding

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Example 2 Use Lewis dot diagrams to predict the formula for the ionic compound formed. from calcium and iodide, 1 Draw the Lewis dot diagrams for calcium and iodine. 2 The calcium atom has two valence electrons The iodine atom has seven valence. electrons The iodine atom only needs one more valence electron to have an octet. The calcium atom will transfer one of its valence electrons to the iodide atom But. what about the other valence electron Another iodide atom will be needed. I Calcium ion Iodide ions, 3 The compound formed will be called calcium iodide One formula unit of calcium. iodide contains one calcium ion and two iodide ions The resulting chemical formula. Example 3 Use Lewis dot diagrams to predict the formula for the ionic compound formed. from barium and sulfur, 1 Draw the Lewis dot diagrams for barium and sulfur. 2 The barium atom has two valence electrons The sulfur has six valence electrons. The sulfur atom only needs two more electrons to have an octet The barium atom. will transfer its two valence electrons to the sulfur atom. Ba S Ba2 S 2,Barium ion Sulfide ion, 3 The compound formed will be called barium sulfide One formula unit of barium. sulfide contains one barium ion and one sulfide ion The resulting chemical formula is. You Try It, 1 Use Lewis dot diagrams to predict the formula for the ionic compound formed from.
lithium and oxygen,Chemical Formula, 2 Use Lewis dot diagrams to predict the formula for the ionic compound formed from. aluminum and nitrogen,Chemical Formula, 3 Use Lewis dot diagram to predict the formula for the ionic compound formed from. magnesium and nitrogen,Chemical Formula,Crystal Lattices. At room temperature crystals of ionic compounds exist as regular three dimensional. arrangements of cations and anions held together by electrostatic attractions These. arrangements are called crystal lattices Here is an example of the crystal lattice for. sodium chloride Note The lines between the ions ARE NOT bonds they are reference. lines showing the relative position of Na and Cl,Naming and Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds. Text Reference 203 210, Previously you learned how to name and write formulas for binary molecular compounds.
Today you are going to learn how to name and write formulas for ionic compounds The. common system for naming ionic compounds is a little different because GREEK PREFIXES. ARE NOT USED Ionic compounds are composed of cations and anions They are named. by writing the name of the cation followed by the name of the anion. Naming and Writing Symbols for Monatomic Ions, Before we can write formulas for binary ionic compounds we must review how to. determine the name and symbol for a monatomic ion ion formed from a single atom. Anions are negatively charged ions formed when an atom gains electrons They are usually. formed from nonmetallic elements The names of monatomic anions end in ide. Elements in Group 15 have five valence electrons They gain 3 electrons and form. anions with a 3 charge,Ex N3 nitride ion, Elements in Group 16 have six valence electrons They gain 2 electrons and form. anions with a 2 charge,Ex O2 oxide ion, Elements in Group 17 have seven valence electrons They gain 1 electron and form. anions with a 1 charge,Ex F fluoride ion, Cations are positively charged ions formed when an atom loses electrons They are usually. formed from metallic elements, Elements in Group 1 have one valence electron They lose 1 electron and form cations.
with a 1 charge,Ex Li lithium ion, Elements in Group 2 have one valence electron They lose 2 electrons and form. cations with a 2 charge,Ex Mg2 magnesium ion, There are a few elements which are not in groups 1 or 2 that you need to memorize. Al3 aluminum ion Zn2 zinc ion,Cd cadmium ion Ag silver ion. There are some elements usually transition metals that form more than one common. ion A Roman numeral is used to indicate the charge on the ion when naming the ions. formed by these elements,Fe2 Iron II ion Fe3 Iron III ion. Cu Copper I ion Cu2 Copper II ion,Hg22 Mercury I ion Hg2 Mercury II ion.
Pb Lead II ion Pb Lead IV ion,Sn2 Tin II ion Sn4 Tin IV ion. Cr2 Chromium II ion Cr3 Chromium III ion Cr6 Chromium VI ion. Mn2 Manganese II ion Mn3 Manganese III ion,Co2 Cobalt II ion Co3 Cobalt III ion. Ni2 Nickel II ion Ni3 Nickel III ion,You Try It,Complete the following table. Symbol of Ion Name of Ion Number of Electrons Lost or Gained. Sulfide ion,Barium ion,Iron III ion,Phosphide ion,Writing Formulas for Binary Ionic Compounds. Ionic compounds are electrically neutral This means that the total number of positive. charges equals the total number of negative charges Ionic compounds are always written. in the lowest whole number ratio of ions See if you can determine how to balance charges. based upon the following examples,1 Lithium fluoride Li F LiF.
2 Lithium oxide Li O Li2O,3 Lithium nitride Li N Li3N. 4 Barium chloride Ba Cl BaCl2,5 Barium sulfide Ba S BaS. 6 Barium phosphide Ba P Ba3P2,7 Iron II iodide Fe I FeI2. 8 Iron II oxide Fe O FeO,9 Iron II nitride Fe N Fe3N2. 10 Tin IV chloride Sn Cl SnCl4,11 Tin IV sulfide Sn S SnS2.
12 Tin IV phosphide Sn P Sn3P4,You Try It, Write the formulas for the following binary ionic compounds Hint First determine the. symbols for the ions involved Always write the cation first The first one has been done. for you as an example,1 Sodium bromide Na Br NaBr,2 Magnesium sulfide. 3 Copper I chloride,4 Calcium bromide,5 Strontium fluoride. 6 Sodium oxide,7 Lead II bromide,8 Zinc sulfide,9 Aluminum oxide. 10 Chromium VI nitride,Naming Binary Ionic Compounds.
As you can see from the examples above naming binary ionic compounds is fairly easy The. only tricky part about naming binary ionic compounds involves the use of the Roman. numerals There are two things you must consider, 1 When do you use a Roman numeral when naming a compound. You use a Roman numeral when the metallic element forms more than one common. ion This is common of the transition metals Never use Roman numerals when the. metallic element is from Group 1 Group 2 or with aluminum cadmium zinc or silver. 2 How do I determine the charge of the Roman numeral. To determine the charge of the Roman numeral you have to work backwards and. identify the ions making up the compound, a FeCl2 You know that the chloride ion has a charge of 1 There. are two chloride ions so the total negative charge is 2. This means that the total positive charge must be 2 The. compound must have been formed from Fe2 Cl The name. of the compound is Iron II chloride, b Fe2O3 Since both elements have a subscript you can just uncross. the charges This compound was made from Fe3 O2 The. name of the compound is Iron III oxide, c Cu2S You know that the sulfide ion has a charge of 2 That. means the total positive charge must equal 2 Since. there are two coppers written in the formula each copper. ion must have a charge of 1 The compound must have. been formed from Cu S2 The name of the is Copper I. d SnO Since neither of the elements have a subscript you know. that the positive ion must be equal in value to the negative. ion Since you know that the oxide ion has a charge of 2. the tin ion must have a charge of 2 The compound must. have been formed from Sn2 O2 The name of the,compound is Tin II oxide.
You Try It, 1 Circle the compounds below that would need a Roman numeral when naming them. CuCl2 Fe2O3 BaCl2 LiF,MgS CaO SrF2 CoI3, 2 Write names for the following binary ionic compounds Do not use prefixes. Remember to use a Roman numeral when appropriate, Naming and Writing Formulas for Ternary Ionic Compounds. Ternary ionic compounds contain one or more polyatomic ions. To name a ternary ionic compound you name the cation followed by the anion. Then ending of a polyatomic ion should never be changed. Ex Li2SO4 Lithium sulfate,Ba NO2 2 Barium nitrite, FeCO3 Iron II carbonate Since CO3 has a 2 charge the Fe. To write the formulas for ternary ionic compounds you do the same thing you did when. writing the formulas for binary ionic compounds The only difference is that you must. sometimes use parentheses Parentheses are used to indicate that you need more than one. of a polyatomic ion,Ex Barium chlorite Ba2 ClO2 Ba ClO2 2.
Calcium sulfate Ca2 SO42 CaSO4,Ammonium nitrate NH4 NO3 NH4NO3. Copper II phosphate Cu2 PO43 Cu3 PO4 2,You Try It, 1 Name the following ionic compounds Remember to use Roman numerals when. appropriate The first one has been done as an example. a Li2SO3 Lithium sulfite,e Ba ClO3 2,j AgC2H3O2, 2 Write the chemical formula for the following ionic compounds Hint First. determine the symbols for the ions involved The first one has been done as an. a Sodium nitrate Na NO3 NaNO3,b Barium sulfide,c Copper II carbonate. d Lithium perchlorate,e Tin IV oxalate,f Iron III sulfide.
g Ammonium bromide,h Potassium phosphate,i Copper I nitride. j Magnesium phosphide,k Magnesium phosphate,Naming and Writing Formulas for Acids and Bases. Text Reference 454 455, Acids are compounds that produce hydrogen ions H in water If a compound has an H. listed as the first element we will name it as an acid. Naming and Writing Formulas for Binary Acids, Binary acids are composed of two elements hydrogen and a nonmetal The name is. composed of the prefix hydro stem and suffix of ic Here are a few examples. HCl Hydrochloric acid,HBr Hydrobromic acid,H 2S Hydrosulfuric acid.
Writing the formulas for binary acids is easy You simply write down the symbols for the. ions involved and balance the charges Here are a few examples. Hydroiodic acid H I HI,Hydroselenic acid H Se2 H2Se. Naming and Writing Formulas for Oxyacids, Oxyacids are composed of hydrogen and a polyatomic ion that contains oxygen. The name for the most common form of a polyatomic ion ends in ate When naming the. acids containing the polyatomic ion ate you simply replace the ate ending with ic acid. DO NOT USE THE PREFIX HYDRO Here are some examples. ClO3 chlorate HClO3 chloric acid,NO3 nitrate HNO3 nitric acid. SO42 sulfate H2SO4 sulfuric acid,PO43 phosphate H3PO4 phosphoric acid. What about the names of acids containing the other forms of the polyatomic ions The. polyatomic ion making up the acid is compared to the most common form of the polyatomic. ion in terms of number of oxygen atoms Prefixes and suffixes are used to name them. Let s look at an example using the acids of chlorine. ClO3 chlorate most common form of the polyatomic ion HClO3 chloric acid. ClO4 perchlorate one more oxygen than the ate form HClO4 perchloric acid. ClO2 chlorite one less oxygen than the ate form HClO2 chlorous acid. ClO hypochlorite two less oxygens than the ate form HClO hypochlorous acid. Here are the steps you need to take to write the names for oxyacids. 1 First determine the symbol for the polyatomic ion making up the acid. 2 Determine the name of the polyatomic ion If the polyatomic ion is not on the list. you were given find the most common form of the polyatomic ion ate form How. does the polyatomic ion on the list compare to the one in the acid. One more oxygen per ate polyatomic ion,One less oxygen ite polyatomic ion.
Two less oxygens hypo ite polyatomic ion,3 Add the appropriate prefixes and suffixes. ate ic acid,Per ate per ic acid,ite ous acid,Hypo ite hypo ous acid. Example 1 HBrO3, 1 What is the symbol for the polyatomic ion making up the acid. 2 What is the name of the polyatomic ion, Ans This happens to be the form given on the list of the polyatomic ions The name. of the ion is bromate,3 What is the name of the acid.
Ans Since it is the ate form of the polyatomic ion the acid is bromic acid. Example 2 H2CO2, 1 What is the symbol for the polyatomic ion making up the acid. 2 What is the name of the polyatomic ion, Ans This form of the polyatomic ion is not on the list However CO32 is on the list. as carbonate Since this form has one less oxygen it must be carbonite. 3 What is the name of the acid, Ans Since it is the ite form of the polyatomic ion the acid is carbonous acid. Example 3 H2SO3, 1 What is the symbol for the polyatomic ion making up the acid. 2 What is the name of the polyatomic ion, Ans This happens to be one of the forms given on the list of the polyatomic ions.
The name of the ion is sulfite,3 What is the name of the acid. Ans Since it is the ite form of the polyatomic ion the acid is sulfurous acid. Writing the Formulas for Oxyacids, In order to write formulas for the oxyacids you must first identify the symbols of the. ions involved Then you balance the charges Here are a few examples. Example 1 Phosphoric acid, Since the name ends in ic you know it came from the phosphate polyatomic ion What is. the symbol for the phosphate polyatomic ion Answer PO43. The ions involved are H PO43 Therefore the formula for phosphoric acid is H3PO4. Example 2 Oxalous acid, Since the name ends in ous you know it came from the oxalite polyatomic ion What is. the symbol for oxalite polyatomic ion The closest thing to oxalite on the polyatomic ions. list is oxalate C2O42 Oxalite will have one less oxygen Therefore the symbol for oxalite. The ions involved are H C2O32 Therefore the formula for o. Ionic Bonding Text Reference 176 from barium and sulfur 1 Draw the Lewis dot diagrams for barium and sulfur Copper II phosphate Cu2 PO 4 3 Cu 3 PO 4

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