Introduction to Plant and Soil Science

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IM,Introduction to,Plant and Soil,Science, CIMC,Teacher Edition. www okcimc com,800 654 4502,14 02356789 AG1008, Upfront. Table of, Contents, Unit 1 Unit 4,1 World Agronomy. Crop Characteristics History of, 77 Plant Nutrition and. Soil Fertility, Crop Production Plant Nutrient Requirements of Plants .
Classification Common Crops and Acquiring Mineral Nutrients Soil. Weeds The Green Revolution pH and Crop Production Soil Test. Reports Using N Rich Strips , Nutrient Cycling Irrigation System. Types, Unit 2, 31 Plant Structures, Free sample, and Functions. 101, Plant Cell Organelles Plant Growth, Stages Plant Vegetative Structures . Unit 5, Tillage and, provided by CIMC, Monocot and Dicot Vascular. Systems Plant Tissues , Reproductive Structures of a Plant .
Conservation, History of Soil Conservation , Erosion Erosion Management and. www okcimc com, Major Plant Processes Plant Prevention Artificial Drainage . Responses to Stimuli Legumes Conventional and Conservation. Grains Root and Tuber Crops Tillage Primary and Secondary. Tillage Conservation Programs, Unit 3, Unit 6, 59 Soil Formation and Use. Soil Formation Soil Composition , 113 Crop Improvement. Soil Particles and Texture Soil Mendel s Law of Genetics . Structures Soil Profile Soil Bulk Punnett Square Methods of. Density Soil Porosity and Water Crop Improvement Genetically. Soil Moisture and Transpiration Soil Engineered Crops Plant Cloning . Chemistry Plant Growth Regulators, iii, Introduction to Plant and Soil Science.
Unit 7 Unit 10,129 Seeding and Planting, Practices. 197 Sustainable, Agriculture, Seed Quality and Selection What is Sustainability Organic. Germination and Live Seed Crop Production Is Organic. Dormancy Seed Viability and Seed Agriculture Sustainable . Vigor Noxious and Common Weed, Seeds Sources of Agricultural Seeds . Planting Seeds Equipment Seeding, Rate Seeding Date and Depth. 205 Glossary,147, Unit 8, Pest Management, 215 Resources.
Plant Pest Categories Pest, Damage Methods for Controlling. Pests Pesticide Labels Pesticide, Free sample, Safety Precautions Plant Pesticides . Pesticide Application and Cost , Pesticide Resistance Integrated Pest. Management, provided by CIMC, www okcimc com, Unit 9. 175 Harvesting and, Marketing, Harvesting Harvesting Methods.
and Equipment Harvest Times , Harvesting Rates Grain Storage . How Grain is Graded Marketing, Channels and Costs Specialty. Crops Adding Value to Crops,iv, Objectives, Describe crop characteristics and how crops are used . Discuss the history of crop production , 1, Compare and contrast classification methods of agricultural. plants , Identify agronomically important world crops and weeds by.
common and scientific names , Discuss the Green Revolution and its impact on agriculture . World, Free Agronomy, sample, provided by CIMC, www okcimc com. Key Terms, agronomy gymnosperm, angiosperm lipids. annual lodging, biennial Malthusian theory, binomial nonvascular plants. nomenclature perennial, carbohydrates phylogenetic trees.
center of origin plant taxonomy, center of production primary producers. common name semi dwarf, cool season plants shuttle breeding. crops species, domestication subspecies, genus vascular plants. green manure warm season plants, Green Revolution. Introduction to Plant and Soil Science, Agronomy the science of crop management and improvement is a global business with.
a long history Crops are plants that provide food feed fiber and fuel They are produced. on every inhabited continent except Antarctica and were essential for the development of. society The ability to produce a reliable food source meant grain could be stored for a season. or fed to livestock which allowed previously nomadic peoples to establish cities The ability. to produce excess crops meant farmers had the ability to trade for goods or services which. allowed the development of economies ,Crop Characteristics . There are two primary characteristics that make a plant a crop One characteristic is that the. plant is domesticated Through the process of domestication a plant becomes genetically. different from related wild plants but the plant also becomes dependent on humans for its. survival Less than 10 of the world s plant species have been domesticated as crops The. second characteristic is that the plant is used to meet peoples daily needs It can be used either. by the individual who grows the crop or it can be sold to someone else who will use the crop . Free sample, Crops meet the daily needs of people by providing one of the four F s food feed fiber. or fuel and are the ultimate source due to their role in the ecosystem Plants are called. primary producers which describes their ability to convert the solar energy in sunlight to. provided by CIMC, chemical energy that is used by all other organisms This energy conversion process is called. photosynthesis , www okcimc com The chemical energy produced in. photosynthesis is stored as carbohydrates, or lipids Carbohydrate molecules are.
composed of carbon hydrogen and, oxygen molecules arranged in different. patterns Sugars like glucose are the, simplest carbohydrates They are combined. to make larger molecules like amylose , which is important for supplying and. storing energy or cellulose which is, important for plant structure Lipids. Vietnamese women working in rice paddy, are also primarily made of carbon and.
Thinkstock Photos hydrogen They are more energy dense. than carbohydrates and are important for, storing energy When crops are harvested they are processed to extract the carbohydrates and. lipids For example wheat flour contains amylose canola oil is made of lipids and a cotton. fiber is made of cellulose The carbohydrates lipids as well as amino acids and vitamins stored. in the plants are the most important source of nutrients for people whether the plants are. eaten directly or indirectly through meat from animals that consumed the plants . 2, Unit 1 World Agronomy,History of Crop Production. Have you ever considered the history behind,the wheat in your pasta or the corn in your. tortilla chip The food crops grown today,have a long history Gathering was the first. step in domesticating many of the crops relied,upon today Historians believe that wheat.
was one of the first crops to be domesticated ,about 10 000 years ago in the Fertile. Crescent near modern day Turkey Other,civilizations developed additional cereal crops. for example corn in Central America and, rice in Asia Today these crops have spread Crop harvesting using a sickle. Thinkstock Photos,around the world and represent the major. sources of calories for people with wheat,being the most produced most consumed.
cereal grain , Free sample, How did the development of these crops occur Imagine a person walking through a grassy. meadow foraging for grain to feed her family What characteristics will she look for Her past. experience has taught her which plants produce tasty and nutritious seeds She will likely be. provided by CIMC, looking for plants that produce numerous seeds that are easy to collect relatively large and. have not shattered dropped from the plant She may also be looking for seeds that are easy. to make into food Now imagine that as she makes her way home some of her collection drops. www okcimc com, to the ground These lost seeds may germinate and produce plants similar to the one from. which they were harvested Eventually the foraging person learns to plant the seeds near the. camp establishing a crop and civilization Increased crop yields meant excess food to trade for. goods and other services in prehistoric civilizations Even today crops are an important part of. the global economy ,Origin and Production, The place where a crop was first domesticated is called its center of origin These regions are. also called centers of diversity The centers of origin theory was developed by a Russian scientist. named Nikolai Vavilov He developed this theory in 1926 and traveled around the world. collecting plants Unfortunately because of the politics in his country Vavilov was arrested in. 1940 and died in prison in 1943 His scientific theory was later validated and several Russian. institutes and societies are named in his honor One of the scientists who carried on the work. begun by Vavilov was a man named Jack Harlan who worked for a time at Oklahoma State. University In 1971 Harlan expanded Vavilov s theory to better describe crop origins . 3, Introduction to Plant and Soil Science, If a person was to travel to the center of origin of.
one of the important food crops he or she would, probably see a lot of variety in the crop Consider. corn as an example Corn is believed to have,been developed in central Mexico over 5 000. years ago It was an important food source in,the Mayan culture which was dominant in the. area between 1800 BC and 900 AD The Mayans,planted corn in combination with other native. plants like beans The combination of corn and, Corn varieties.
beans provided energy and protein that was Thinkstock Photos. the base of their diet Corn was so important to,the Mayans that they even had a corn god as a. religious figure Corn is still vital to the farmers of Central America Many small farmers take. a great deal of pride in the corn they grow The seeds they plant today were passed down to. them from their fathers and grandfathers Farmers can tell you when and why their ancestors. selected the seeds that developed the corn they grow today Many individuals collecting plants. with unique traits resulted in tremendous diversity in corn crops that exists today In the United. States most of the corn eaten and fed to animals is yellow and wedge shaped Among small. Free sample, farmers in Central America you are just as likely to find red white or blue corn being grown. for food , provided by CIMC, A center of production is a region where a crop is produced on a large scale Modern centers. of production are not the same as the centers of origin For example the U S is a center of. production for soybean corn and wheat But these crops have centers of origin in China . www okcimc com, Central America and the Middle East Countries that are centers of production are typically. exporters of the crops they produce , Eastern US, Sahel Fertile Crescent.
China, Mesoamerica West Africa, New Guinea, Ethiopia. Andes and Amazonia, Centers of Origin, Centers of Production. 4, Unit 1 World Agronomy,Plant Classification, The practice of naming plants based on characteristics has occurred for thousands of years . and many of the same methods are used today The science of categorizing plants is called. plant taxonomy which uses the hierarchical taxonomic scheme that groups plants at seven. levels with each level becoming more specific than the last The levels are kingdom broadest . phylum class order family genus and species most specific . All living things are initially grouped into one of two scientific kingdoms plant or animal . Each plant within the kingdom Plantae is further classified as vascular or nonvascular plants . Vascular plants such as ferns trees and flowering plants have tubelike cells in their roots . stems and leaves that carry water and nutrients throughout the plant Nonvascular plants do. not have tubelike cells and take up water by osmosis via hairlike cells Liverworts and mosses. are examples of nonvascular plants , Vascular plants are further classified by how they reproduce seed or seedless Seedless. vascular plants such as ferns produce spores while seeded plants include trees crops and. other flowering plants Plants that produce seeds are further classified as angiosperms and. Free sample, gymnosperms An angiosperm is a plant that produces seeds in a flower and a gymnosperm .
produces seeds in a cone such as the pine tree This classification continues until plants can. no longer be separated The most specific level of scientific classification is species with some. species having several varieties , provided by CIMC. Plants have two names common and scientific ,according to their classification The common. Corn Taxonomy, Kingdom, www okcimc com, Plantae,name is most often used to identify plants . However common names vary from region to, region For example the common name for corn Phylum. in non English speaking countries is maize Because Anthophyta. the difference of names can be confusing scientists. require a system of scientific naming known as, Class.
nomenclature Plant nomenclature which is based Monocotyledoneae. on plant form and structure results in universal,names Taxonomists use binomial nomenclature . Order, a type of naming system using two Latin names Poales. for the scientific names of plants The first name is. the genus or group name Therefore the genus of, Family. both corn and maize is Zea All Zea genera plural Poaceae. of genus belong to a botanical family Within a,genus plants may have differe. 2 Introduction to Plant and Soil Science Agronomy the science of crop management and improvement is a global business with a long history Crops are plants that provide food feed fiber and fuel

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