Human Adaptations Environmental Science amp Policy

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Evolution of Human Adaptations, Humans face basically the same adaptive challenges as all organisms. But humans are unique in having most of their adaptations transmitted culturally. Culture has a biological basis imitativeness sociability inventiveness. Cultural adaptations built up incrementally over a long time spans of time. Other social animals have simple cultural adaptations but only humans have spectacularly. complex ones, Because of cultural adaptations people have adapted to almost all of the. earth s terrestrial habitats,Expansion of NE Asian people into the. Americas around 14 000 years ago,Polynesian expansion the last great spread of. humans to the undiscovered remote Pacific 200,BC 1000 AD.
Highlanders,Some human genetic adaptations,Body form adapted to climate as in other animals. Tropical people tall and lean to lose heat, Arctic and mountain people short and wide to conserve heat. Pale skin adapted to vitamin D photosynthesis in dim climates. First modern human immigrants to, Neanderthals lived during the ice age West Eurasia brought taller leaner African. Eurasia and had very thick body form Physique,Many gene culture coadaptations. Disease resistance genes,Diet related genes,Adult lactose absorption and dairying.
Alcohol metabolism and grains and grapes for alcoholic beverages. How does culture evolve A Darwinian view,Random variation. Natural selection, Decision making forces Only humans do this on a large scale. Individual learning teaching and imitation,Biased teaching. Biased imitation,Perceived quality of variants,Perceived quality of person opinion leaders. Public opinion,Natural selection on culture,Today fertility in most human.
populations is falling and is below,replacement in many areas. Analogous to a disease,Amish and a few other groups are. sealed off from modern culture by,their religion,Amish have very traditional family. Women gain all of their status from,raising a family and so mostly do. Amish have natural fertility average,7 kids per family.
Amish population is growing very,Humans may have been in. equilibrium with the,prevailing environment from,40 000 BP to 15 000 BP in. No detectable progress after,moderns replaced,Neanderthals until the ice. began to melt,Dale Guthrie in a recent,book argues that the cave. art of the ice was very,strange very naturalistic no.
supernatural images no war,Since the ice humans have. evolved toward greater,social and technical,complexity albeit at different. rates in different places,Human subsistence systems. Humans are tied to the environment by the way the gain. their subsistence, Subsistence systems are often highly adapted to local. conditions,Broad types,Hunting and gathering,Big animal intensive.
Plant intensive,Food production,Horticulture gardening hand tools. Agrarian production use of plows and other labor saving tools. Pastoralism specialization on raising livestock, Industrial industrially produced machines drastically lower use of. labor on farms,Inuit Eskimo marine hunters and fishers. Hunter gatherers illustrate the craftiness of,Anatomically Modern people A small selection of. the gear made by Inuit and their neighbors The,parka illustrated is a summer raincoat made of.
tanned fish skin High arctic people took,thousands of years to evolve this toolkit. Kalahari San plant intensive foragers, The San are every bit as crafty as the Inuit though they don t need fancy clothes or boats Men use tiny. bows and arrows to kill large animals using poisons Women have clever ways of rendering low quality plant. foods edible Archaeology suggests that this specific set of strategies is also only a few thousand years old. as with the Eskimo and is very different from the strategies used by more ancient hunter gatherers. Origins of food production,production,independently. in 6 12 places,starting about,11 500 years,ago in the. Horticulture, Swidden slash and burn shifting field horticulture still.
widely practiced in evergreen and deciduous tropical. forest biomes Adapted to use the plant nutrients in the. ash left after firing Forest trees store considerable. nutrients as they grow and horticulturalists take,advantage of this on otherwise very poor soils. However crops can be grown in this way for only 1 3. before letting the forest regrow On poor soils 50 years. or more may be required before the forest can be cut. again for a field Fancier than it looks,Agrarian production. The plow is the signature technology of agrarian production The first plows were developed in. Mesopotamia perhaps 6 000 years ago The plow symptomatic of the ongoing increases in the. sophistication of farming that raised the food output per farmer in this case by supplementing human labor. with animal labor With fewer people needed on the farm the number of people available for other. occupations increased and hence the complexity of human societies increased In the poorer parts of the. world quite complex civilizations are still in the transition to industrial technology Agrarian style production. Evolution of Human Adaptations Humans face basically the same adaptive challenges as all organisms Buthumans are unique in having most of their adaptations transmitted culturally Culture has a biological basis imitativeness sociability inventiveness Cultural adaptations built up incrementally over a long time spans of time Other social animals have simple cultural

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