How can we make better use of Competency Based Assessment

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Session 3 Competency Based Assessment in Functional Safety. 1 INTRODUCTION,1 1 Why worry about competence, Over the past 40 years we have seen one disaster after another. Flixborough UK June 1974,Seveso Italy July 1976,Bhopal India December 1984. Grangemouth 1987,Piper Alpha 1988,Pasadena 1989,Longford 1998. Texas City Refinery 2005,Buncefield 2005,Montara 2009. Deepwater Horizon 2010,Venezuela 2012, Fire after an explosion at the Amuay Oil refinery Venezuela August 2012.
Photo Reuters, 2013 Safety Control Instrumented Systems Conference. Session 3 Competency Based Assessment in Functional Safety. 1 2 Systematic Failures, Disturbingly the stories often seem to be so similar How can we avoid. repeating the mistakes of the past, Out of 35 major incidents 1987 to 2012 at least 90 were due to multiple. systematic failures rather than due simply to random failures of equipment 1. IEC 61508 4 defines systematic failures, Most systematic failures result from human error in specification design. installation and in operation, To some extent failures might be avoided by providing better training for.
engineers and technicians but the underlying problems tend to be managerial. or organisational rather than technological Functional safety training courses. have been directed almost exclusively at technologists rather than managers or. The long history of major accident events reveals recurring problems in these. Safety culture and leadership, Clarity in organisational roles responsibilities and interfaces. Competencies and in particular management competencies. 2013 Safety Control Instrumented Systems Conference. Session 3 Competency Based Assessment in Functional Safety. 1 3 Management in functional safety, Effective management is essential for the avoidance and control of systematic. failures Both IEC 61508 and IEC 61511 begin with the requirements for. management The requirements are similar in both standards. Successful application of functional safety depends on clear policy an. established management system assignment of responsibilities and on. competence Refer for example to IEC 61511 1 section 5. Management System,Responsibilities,Competence,1 4 Competence. Competence is not simply about understanding standards theory and. technology, Competence must match accountability The participants must be. competent specifically to carry out the activities for which they are. accountable, Competence in management and leadership must be addressed.
2013 Safety Control Instrumented Systems Conference. Session 3 Competency Based Assessment in Functional Safety. IEC 61511 2 gives further guidance,The key points are. Identify skills and knowledge for each activity,Define the level of competence required. Assess the resources against the requirements,Address the differences manage the shortfalls. IEC 61508 1 reinforces the same principles and emphasising competence in. functional safety management and functional safety assessment. Persons must have appropriate competence relevant to the specific. duties and there must be continued assessment of competence. The responsibilities of the person and the level of supervision required must. be considered, 2013 Safety Control Instrumented Systems Conference. Session 3 Competency Based Assessment in Functional Safety. 2 TRAINING AND QUALIFICATIONS, At least 5 different internationally recognised qualifications have been.
established to support the management of functional safety competencies. CFSP T V S d,FS Engineer T V Rheinland,FS Expert T V Rheinland. ISA84 SIS Expert includes 3 separate certificates, Other training courses are available For instance IDC Technologies offers a. course covering material similar to the T V S d CFSP T V Rheinland FSEng. and ISA SFS courses Underwriters Laboratories Inc UL offers an. introductory 1 day workshop in functional safety systems development 2. 2 1 CFSE Governance Board,2 1 1 Certified Functional Safety Expert CFSE. The CFSE qualification was the first internationally recognised certification. program The web page3 at http www cfse org describes its history. The CFSE Certified Functional Safety Expert concept was originally. developed by engineers from T V S D and exida with the support of other. international safety experts to ensure that personnel performing SIS. lifecycle activities are competent as required by the IEC 61508 61511 and. 62061 standards The program is the now administered by exida. Certificates are issued by exida Certification S A. The program was originally developed in 2000 It is intended to provide. the proof of competence demanded by safety standards and the. confidence that their personnel have truly mastered an understanding of. functional safety and the safety lifecycle, The required core competencies are derived from the various phases of. the IEC61508 standard s lifecycle and the activities involved in each of. those phases Core competencies are also derived from IEC61511 for. process safety and IEC62061 for machine safety, The Expert level is achieved by scoring at least 80 in an exam which is.
reputed to be comparatively difficult The CFSE certification is intended to. demonstrate an elite level of knowledge and skill, CFSE remains the gold standard of all programs It has remained so. because of its unmatched consistency and integrity as well as its. unwavering focus on developing the knowledge and skills to be successful. The CFSE is the higher level certification and is aimed at professionals. who actively lead coordinate and review the more complex and demanding. activities in the Safety Lifecycle in leadership positions including SIL. selection and SIL verification, 2013 Safety Control Instrumented Systems Conference. Session 3 Competency Based Assessment in Functional Safety. 2 1 2 Certified Functional Safety Professional CFSP. T V S d launched the Functional Safety Certification Program FSCP in. The CFSP is targeted at professionals who need a thorough understanding. of the Safety Lifecycle activities at the execution level without necessarily. leading coordinating or reviewing the more complex and demanding. activities, The requirement for experience is reduced by 3 years for candidates who hold. a bachelor degree in engineering The requirement for CFSE is further. reduced by 1 year for Licensed Professional Engineers. As with the CFSE program CFSP is administered by exida on behalf of the. CFSE Governance Board,2 2 T V Rheinland, The T V Rheinland Functional Safety Program was started in 20045 Details. are published on the T V ASI website at http www tuvasi com. Qualifications are available at 2 levels Engineer and Expert. The T V Rheinland program is distinctly different from the T V S d exida. program in that T V Rheinland does not prepare or prescribe the course. material or examinations It provides a certification service as a neutral third. Course presenters develop their own material and examinations T V. Rheinland assesses the material for completeness consistency and. compliance with the standards T V Rheinland reviews the examination. results and assesses candidates against the prescribed eligibility requirements. before issuing the FS Engineer certificate,2 2 1 FS Engineer T V Rheinland.
The FS Engineer course is typically presented over 3 days with the. examination following on the 4th day,Different training specialisations are available. Safety Instrumented Systems,Hardware Software System Design. Functional Safety of Machinery,Automotive System Design ISO 26262. 2013 Safety Control Instrumented Systems Conference. Session 3 Competency Based Assessment in Functional Safety. The FS Engineer qualification is restricted to engineers only an engineering. degree or equivalent is a pre requisite Candidates must have at least 3. years of experience specifically in the practice of functional safety. 2 2 2 FS Expert T V Rheinland, It is a requirement that FS Engineer course presenters must be qualified as FS. Experts To qualify as an Expert, Applicants have to submit documents which substantiate their experience.
and competencies These documents will be assessed acc to the. necessary requirements In case of a positive assessment the applicant will. obtain a certificate including the T V Functional Safety Expert logo The. certificate confirms his specific knowledge and his competencies. Furthermore he is an acknowledged trainer within the T V Functional. Safety Program and can perform trainings courses according to his special. Only by means of support from these experts who have a qualified. education and many years of intensive experience a qualification program. like the T V Functional Safety Program will be successful. Rather than passing an exam to become an Expert candidates have to. develop their own complete FS Engineer course and examination materials that. meet the standard set by T V Rheinland, Experts must be qualified engineers and in addition have at least 10 years of. experience in the field of functional safety They are required to demonstrate. that they have achieved the level of expert through their career achievements. 2 2 3 T V Functional Safety Management, T V Rheinland offers certification of company safety management systems6. but this does not extend to training or certification for managers. 2 3 International Society of Automation, The ISA functional safety certificate program was launched in 2008 Details. can be found through the ISA website at www isa org 7. ISA and the Automation Standards Compliance Institute ASCI introduce. three certificate programs that are designed to increase knowledge and. awareness of the ISA84 standard, The ISA84 specialist certificates are awarded to those who successfully. complete a designated training program prerequisites for Certificates 2. and 3 and pass a multiple choice exam offered through the Prometric. testing centers,The 3 certificates are, Certificate 1 ISA84 SIS Fundamentals Specialist 4 day course.
Certificate 2 ISA84 SIL Selection Specialist 2 day course. Certificate 3 ISA84 SIL Verification Specialist 2 day course. 2013 Safety Control Instrumented Systems Conference. Session 3 Competency Based Assessment in Functional Safety. The ISA confers the designation of ISA84 SIS Expert on individuals who. achieve Certificates 1 2 and 3,2 4 Comparison, All 3 schools are well respected The relative merits of the courses and. qualifications have long been a topic of discussion Each has its advocates. Both CFSE4 and ISA8 have published comparisons of the various qualifications. though it may be argued that the comparisons are not entirely disinterested. The differences between the various qualifications are mainly in these areas. Prescriptive or interpretive,Entry level or expert level. Self guided study versus classroom learning,Prescribed or varying exams. Pre requisites for qualifications and experience,Requirement for references. 2 4 1 Prescriptive or interpretive, The differences seem to stem from whether a prescriptive or interpretive.
approach is taken, The T V Rheinland approach is consistent with the view that the standards are. subject to interpretation Users are allowed some degree of latitude in applying. the standards and many of the questions in functional safety do not have a. single correct answer, The CFSE and ISA approach is consistent with a more prescriptive philosophy. The correct application of the standards is taught and assessed against a. prescribed benchmark,2 4 2 Entry level or expert level. All of the programs CFSE T V Rheinland and ISA distinguish between entry. level or fundamental training and expert level accreditation. At the entry level all of the qualifications require passing an examination to. demonstrate knowledge and understanding, For the expert level CFSE and ISA require the successful completion of. additional examinations T V Rheinland requires experts to demonstrate that. they have been working at the level of an expert in industry. 2013 Safety Control Instrumented Systems Conference. Session 3 Competency Based Assessment in Functional Safety. 2 4 3 Self guided study versus classroom learning, Both CFSE CFSP and ISA allow self guided learning Attending classes in.
person is not mandatory and on line learning is supported. T V Rheinland insists on learning in a classroom environment with face to face. discussion and debate On line training is not supported because T V. Rheinland considers that it does not provide sufficient interaction between. students and between the students and their trainers. 2 4 4 Prescribed or varying exams, CFSE CFSP and ISA both prescribe fixed exams Each institution has its own. fixed curriculum This ensures that the successful candidates understand one. common interpretation, The T V Rheinland approach allows for more variability interpretation and. adaptation Differences between experts and between courses are accepted. but the courses are assessed for completeness and consistency. 2 4 5 Pre requisites for qualifications and experience. The CFSE CFSP program gives credit for engineering qualifications and. professional registration in lieu of practical experience The USA based. qualifications are not restricted to engineers the CFSE Governance Board s. Session 3 Competency Based Assessment in Functional Safety 2013 Safety Control amp Instrumented Systems Conference 4 1 3 Management in functional safety Effective management is essential for the avoidance and control of systematic failures Both IEC 61508 and IEC 61511 begin with the requirements for management The requirements are similar in

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