History of Guitar Music Culture History

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It would also be passing strange if a square framed seven string lap. harp had given its name to the early Spanish 4 string quitarra. Dr Kasha turns the question around and asks where the Greeks got. the name kithara and points out that the earliest Greek kitharas. had only 4 strings when they were introduced from abroad He. surmises that the Greeks hellenified the old Persian name for a 4. stringed instrument chartar See below,The Ancestors. The earliest stringed instruments known to archaeologists are. bowl harps and tanburs Since prehistory people have made bowl. harps using tortoise shells and calabashes as resonators with a bent. stick for a neck and one or more gut or silk strings The world s. museums contain many such harps from the ancient Sumerian. Babylonian and Egyptian civilisations Around 2500 2000 CE. more advanced harps such as the opulently carved 11 stringed. instrument with gold decoration found in Queen Shub Ad s tomb. started to appear,Queen Shub Ad s harp,from the Royal Cemetery in Ur. A tanbur is defined as a long necked stringed instrument with a. small egg or pear shaped body with an arched or round back. usually with a soundboard of wood or hide and a long straight. neck The tanbur probably developed from the bowl harp as the. neck was straightened out to allow the string s to be pressed down. to create more notes Tomb paintings and stone carvings in Egypt. testify to the fact that harps and tanburs together with flutes and. percussion instruments were being played in ensemble. 3500 4000 years ago,Egyptian wall painting Thebes 1420 BCE. Archaeologists have also found many similar relics in the ruins of. the ancient Persian and Mesopotamian cultures Many of these. instruments have survived into modern times in almost unchanged. form as witness the folk instruments of the region like the Turkish. saz Balkan tamburitsa Iranian setar Afghan,panchtar and Greek bouzouki. The oldest preserved guitar like instrument,At 3500 years old this is the ultimate vintage.
guitar It belonged to the Egyptian singer Har,Mose He was buried with his tanbur close to the. tomb of his employer Sen Mut architect to, Queen Hatshepsut who was crowned in 1503 BCE Sen Mut. who it is suspected was far more than just chief minister and. architect to the queen built Hatshepsuts beautiful mortuary. temple which stands on the banks of the Nile to this day. Har Moses instrument had three strings and a plectrum suspended. from the neck by a cord The soundbox was made of beautifully. polished cedarwood and had a rawhide soundboard It can be. seen today at the Archaeological Museum in Cairo,Queen Hatshepsut. What is a guitar anyway, To distinguish guitars from other members of the tanbur family. we need to define what a guitar is Dr Kasha defines a guitar as. having a long fretted neck flat wooden soundboard ribs and a. flat back most often with incurved sides, The oldest known iconographical representation of an instrument.
displaying all the essential features of a guitar is a stone carving at. Alaca Huyuk in Turkey of a 3300 year old Hittite guitar with. a long fretted neck flat top probably flat back and with. strikingly incurved sides,The Lute Al ud Oud,The Moors brought the oud to Spain The tanbur. had taken another line of development in the,Arabian countries changing in its proportions and. remaining fretless, The Europeans added frets to the oud and called it a. lute this derives from the Arabic Al ud,literally the wood via the Spanish name laud. A lute or oud is defined as a short necked, instrument with many strings a large pear shaped body with.
highly vaulted back and an elaborate sharply angled peghead. Renaissance lute by Arthur Robb, It is hard to see how the guitar with a long fretted neck flat. wooden soundboard ribs and a flat back most often with incurved. sides could possibly have evolved from the lute with its short. neck with many strings large pear shaped body with highly. vaulted back and elaborate sharply angled peghead,The Guitar. The name guitar comes from the ancient Sanskrit word for. string tar This is the language from which the languages. of central Asia and northern India developed Many stringed folk. instruments exist in Central Asia to this day which have been used. in almost unchanged form for several thousand years as shown by. archeological finds in the area Many have names that end in tar. with a prefix indicating the number of strings,two Sanskrit dvi modern Persian do. dotar two string instrument found in Turkestan,three Sanskrit tri modern Persian se. setar 3 string instrument found in Persia Iran, cf sitar India elaborately developed many stringed.
four Sanskrit chatur modern Persian char,chartar 4 string instrument Persia. most commonly known as tar in modern usage,cf quitarra early Spanish 4 string guitar. modern Arabic qithara Italian chitarra etc,five Sanskrit pancha modern Persian panj. panchtar 5 strings Afghanistan,Indian Sitar, The Indian sitar almost certainly took its name from the Persian. setar but over the centuries the Indians developed it into a. completely new instrument following their own,aesthetic and cultural ideals.
Persian Setar,Chartar Tar, Tanburs and harps spread around the ancient world with travellers. merchants and seamen The four stringed Persian chartar note. the narrow waist arrived in Spain where it changed somewhat in. form and construction acquired pairs of unison tuned strings. instead of single strings and became known as the,quitarra or chitarra. From four to five to six string guitar,As we have seen the guitar s ancestors came to. Europe from Egypt and Mesopotamia These early, instruments had most often four strings as we have. seen above the word guitar is derived from the Old. Persian chartar which in direct translation means,four strings Many such instruments and variations.
with from three to five strings can be seen in, mediaeval illustrated manuscripts and carved in stone. in churches and cathedrals from Roman times through. till the Middle Ages Right Roman guitar c a 200 CE. Mediaeval psalter c a 900 CE,Angel with guitar St Stephen s church 1591. By the beginning of the Renaissance the four course 4 unison. tuned pairs of strings guitar had become dominant at least in most. of Europe Sometimes a single first string was used The earliest. known music for the four course chitarra was written in 16th. century Spain The five course guitarra, battente left first appeared in Italy at around the same time and. gradually replaced the four course instrument The standard tuning. had already settled at A D G B E like the top five strings of the. modern guitar, In common with lutes early guitars seldom had necks with more. than 8 frets free of the body but as the guitar evolved this. increased first to 10 and then to 12 frets to the body. 5 course guitar by Antonio Stradivarius 1680, A sixth course of strings was added to the Italian guitarra.
battente in the 17th century and guitar makers all over Europe. followed the trend The six course arrangement gradually gave. way to six single strings and again it seems that the Italians were. the driving force The six string guitar can thus be said to be a. development of the twelve string rather than vice versa. as is usually assumed, In the transition from five courses to six single strings it seems. that at least some existing five course instruments were modified. to the new stringing pattern This was a fairly simple task as it. only entailed replacing or re working the nut and bridge and. plugging four of the tuning peg holes An incredibly ornate guitar. by the German master from Hamburg Joakim Thielke 1641. 1719 was altered in this way Note that this instrument has only. 8 frets free of the body, At the beginning of the 19th century one can see the modern guitar. beginning to take shape Bodies were still fairly small and narrow. 6 string guitar by George Louis Panormo 1832, The modern classical guitar took its present form when the. Spanish maker Antonio Torres increased the size of the body. altered its proportions and introduced the revolutionary fan top. bracing pattern in around 1850 His design radically improved the. volume tone and projection of the instrument and very soon. became the accepted construction standard It has remained. essentially unchanged and unchallenged to this day. Guitar by Antonio Torres Jurado 1859,Steel string and electric guitars. At around the same time that Torres started making his. breakthrough fan braced guitars in Spain German immigrants to. the USA among them Christian Fredrich Martin had begun. making guitars with X braced tops Steel strings first became. widely available in around 1900 Steel strings offered the promise. of much louder guitars but the increased tension was too much for. the Torres style fan braced top A beefed up X brace proved equal. to the job and quickly became the industry standard for the flat top. steel string guitar, At the end of the 19th century Orville Gibson was building archtop.
guitars with oval sound holes He married the steel string guitar. with a body constructed more like a cello where the bridge exerts. no torque on the top only pressure straight down This allows the. top to vibrate more freely and thus produce more volume In the. early 1920 s designer Lloyd Loar joined Gibson and refined the. archtop jazz guitar into its now familiar form with f holes. floating bridge and cello type tailpiece, The electric guitar was born when pickups were added to Hawaiian. and jazz guitars in the late 1920 s but met with little success. before 1936 when Gibson introduced the ES150 model which. Charlie Christian made famous, With the advent of amplification it became possible to do away. with the soundbox altogether In the late 1930 s and early 1940 s. several actors were experimenting along these lines and. controversy still exists as to whether Les Paul Leo Fender Paul. Bigsby or O W Appleton constructed the very first solid body. guitar Be that as it may the solid body electric,guitar was here to stay. Some history of Guitar and a brief Timeline, The guitar s roots are in Spain Realistically it cannot be traced. back further than the 15th Century It is thought to have been. invented by the people of Malaga This early instrument was a. four course guitar from which the ukulele is derived The first. guitars were very small and were originally strung with four. pair of strings Each pair was call a course, During the Renaissance the guitar never had the respect the lute.
enjoyed It was not considered a serious instrument The first. publication for guitar is thought to have been Alonso Mudarra s. Tres Libros de Musica en Cifras para Vihuela Eventually the. guitar began to attract players more publications and music began. During the During the Baroque period A fifth course was added. Even more music became available It s repertoire and the. complexity of the music increased,The fifth course was tuned in one of three ways. 1 A low A as it is now, 2 A low A plus an octave for the second part of the course. 3 Both strings an A an octave higher than the modern guitar. If a modern player really wants to have a complete accurate. repertoire of the Baroque Guitar it would be necessary to either re. string for different pieces or have at least three instruments for the. different tunings, At the end of the Baroque period two significant changes were. made The double strings were replaced by single strings and. instead of five pari there were six single strings. During the Classical period there were many publications. composers and performers Fernando Sor Mauro Guilliani Matteo. Carcassi Fernando Carulli and many others wrote music. published methods and performed concerts The guitar was very. popular and guitar concerts were common, Sor played the guitar as a solo instrument at the London. Philharmonic Concert in 1817 In memoirs George Hogarth stated. He astonished the audience by his unrivaled execution. Paganinni was also active playing and writing for the guitar as. well as the violin Stradivarius made guitars as well as violins. At the end of the 19th century the guitar had fallen out of favor. but was resurrected by Francisco Tarrega His best piece in my. opinion is the now very famous Receurdos De La Alhambra He. did few public performances and chose to perform for friends at. his home He did compose and he wrote a method for teaching. guitar He also transcribed many pieces of music for the guitar. Segovia was one of many guitarists that were influenced by him. Tarrega began the tradition of playing with the fingernails. Up until this point the instrument itself was small and narrow. Antonio de Torres 1817 1892 worked with the design and. construction of the guitar He increased the size and experimented. with anything that would improve the sound and was especially. interested in volume He was the first maker to use fan bracing. underneath the top He once built a Guitar with a spruce top and. paper mache back and sides to prove his theory that it was the top. that produced most of the volume He was the father of the modern. Some well known composers who played the guitar are Carl Maria. History of Guitar A Brief History of the Guitar by Paul Guy The guitar is an ancient and noble instrument whose history can be traced back over 4000 years Many theories have been advanced about the instrument s ancestry It has often been claimed that the guitar is a development of the lute or even of the ancient Greek kithara Research done

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