Henning Janowski Estevez Towards a Conceptual Framework

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see World Bank 2012 for a review The development impact of mobile ICT however goes. further than economic development and examples of positive effects can be shown with regard. to all Millennium Development Goals covering education health environmental sustainability. gender equality and development partnerships OECD ITU 2011 World Bank 2012. Mobile ICT are increasingly also used within the domain of government and public governance. According to the 2014 UN e government survey the number of countries offering mobile. electronic services has doubled in the period from 2012 to 2014 United Nations 2014 This usage. of mobile tools to change either the interactions between users and government or the processes. of government is referred to as mobile government World Bank 2012 Similarly OECD and. ITU have jointly defined mobile government as the adoption of mobile technologies to support. and enhance government performance and foster a more connected society OECD ITU 2011. Mobile Government is tightly linked to e government it can supplement e government adding. new channels expand it reaching more users or innovate it developing new mechanisms. World Bank 2012 Hence it should be seen as a subdomain of e government not something. independent of it OECD ITU 2011 United Nations 2014 World Bank 2012. In reference to similar conceptual debates about the distinction between e government as. government internal usage of ICT and e governance EGOV as the usage of ICT for managing. society by government and external stakeholders such as civil society and the private sector. Gr nlund Horan 2005 this paper uses the term mobile governance MGOV instead of. mobile government MGOV for the purpose of this paper is therefore defined as the. application of mobile ICT by government to transform itself and its interactions with customers. in order to create impact on society based on the EGOV definition in Estevez Janowski 2013. MGOV initiatives can take many forms that include sector or function specific applications that. are initiated by agencies working alone or together as well as government wide strategies that. are coordinated by a central government World Bank 2012 Types of MGOV services include. using mobile devices to provide information to citizens e g using SMS for severe weather. warnings in Moldova mobile services to improve market transparency e g the e Purjee service. which informs farmers of market needs in India mobile payment systems e g payment for. parking or transport in the US services for strengthening accountability and transparency of. public services e g checking school statistics with the CheckMySchool app in the Philippines. citizen participation such as reporting incidents e g Citivox Mexico or public infrastructure in. need of repair e g SeeClickFix USA services for supporting government services e g eSMS. Gateway India or civil society services e g RapidSMS data collection tool of UNICEF. As the above list of examples shows MGOV is not only used by developed countries but finds. many applications in developing countries Whenever MGOV is used with a clear development. goal we speak of MGOV for Sustainable Development MGOV4SD Sustainable Development. SD is defined as development that satisfies the needs of the present without compromising the. ability of future generations to meet their own needs World Commission on Environment and. Development 1987 and Valentin Spangenberg 1999 identified four central dimensions of. SD 1 social 2 environmental 3 economic and 4 institutional An overview of the relation of. EGOV to the concept of Sustainable Development is provided in Estevez and Janowski 2013. Taking into account the relationship between MGOV and EGOV outlined above and in analogy. to the definition for EGOV for Sustainable Development EGOV4SD put forward by Estevez and. Janowski 2013 MGOV4SD is here defined as the use of mobile ICT to support public services. public administration and the interaction between government and the public while making. possible public participation in government decision making promoting social equity and socio. economic development and protecting natural resources for future generations. Whilst MGOV4SD has established itself firmly in policy practice the academic and policy. literature around this concept is still scattered Therefore this paper sets out with the aim of. enhancing our understanding of the MGOV4SD concept by means of three main objectives 1 to. survey the existing literature on the concept 2 to generate an overview of the state of the art in. this area and 3 to synthesise its key dimensions into an integrated conceptual framework The. findings presented in this paper represent an elaborated and expanded discussion of findings. from a research project carried out by the authors Estevez Janowski 2014 Henning Janowski. Zoughbi Estevez 2014 Henning Janowski 2014, The rest of the paper is structured as follows Section 2 presents the methodology adopted to. carry out the research Sections 3 to 5 the present the findings on individual objectives the. literature review is presented in Section 3 the state of the art in Section 4 and the development of. the MGOV4SD conceptual framework in Section 5 Section 6 discusses the key findings Finally. Section 7 presents some conclusions,2 Methodology, This section describes the methodology applied for collecting and assessing data to be used in the. remainder of this paper The methodology comprises the construction of the necessary. frameworks for assessing the MGOV field the collection of the relevant research and policy. literature the analysis of such literature and the synthesis of the findings into the state of the art. and conceptual framework Adapted from Estevez and Janowski 2013 the methodology is. depicted in Figure 1 below,Figure 1 Methodological approach. In the following we discuss the construction of the conceptual and assessment frameworks This. is followed by a description of the method used for data collection including the scope and. procedure for identifying the relevant literature Finally we describe the steps for analysing and. synthesizing the data into the state of the art and conceptual framework. First based on the approach taken by Estevez and Janowski 2013 the relevant conceptual. domains were identified in order to delineate the MGOV4SD research domain Figure 2 Three. primary domains were identified Mobile ICT M ICT Governance GOV and Sustainable. Development SD The intersections of these domains resulted in three secondary domains. Mobile Governance MGOV Mobile ICT for Development M ICT4D and Mobile Governance. for Development MGOV4SD,Figure 2 MGOV4SD research domains. In the next step an assessment framework was constructed to identify and analyse the. publications from the domain of interest MGOV4SD An adapted version of the assessment. framework was used for this derived from the state of the art analysis of the EGOV4SD domain. in Estevez and Janowski 2013 Figure 3 The framework is formed by five constructs 1 Problem. the problem area addressed by a publication governance mobile ICT or development 2. Method the method of data collection and analysis applied qualitative method quantitative. method mixed method theory review or no discernible method 3 Data the data source of the. publication primary or secondary and collection method questionnaire interview document. analysis web content evaluation literature review or case study 4 Results the theoretical and. practical contributions theoretical model schema conceptual framework typology policy. evaluation indicators targets policy recommendations and 5 Publication Type the academic. e g book journal or conference paper or practical e g report nature of the publication. Figure 3 MGOV4SD assessment framework, The next step was a literature search that was carried out in September 2013 by means of the.
following procedure First in line with the identified research domain two relevant search. strings were created by combining the search term develop with the terms mobile. government and its different notations m government m gov mgov and mobile. governance in its different notations These search strings were then applied on three academic. databases Thomson Reuters Web of Science Scopus Google Scholar as well as on the Google. search engine To filter out the most relevant publications the results were limited by 1 time. frame only the publications from the last ten years were taken into account with a preference to. the most recent publications 2 publication type limiting the results to academic publications. and practice oriented publications and 3 thematic relevance including only publications that. cover the MGOV M ICT4D or MGOV4SD domains but excluding the GOV4SD domain. In total 35 publications resulted from this literature search They were subsequently analysed. and synthesized in three steps The results of each step are discussed in the following sections. 3 MGOV4SD Literature Review, This section reports the findings from the literature review For the literature review each. publication was assessed along the constructs and coded with the values defined by the. assessment framework discussed above and its key findings and policy recommendations were. separately summarized Figures 4a to 4f show the results for the five assessment constructs. a Problem primary domain b Problem secondary domain. 18 Mobile ICT,35 Governance 14,17 M ICT4D,Development MGOV4D. c Method d Data source,Qualitative,16 Quantitative. 10 Primary,Theoretical,9 Mixed 22,f Publication type. Theoretical 0 Book none,17 Journal,23 Practice 15,Conference.
Figure 4 Results from the MGOV4SD literature analysis N 35 multiple codes possible. The constructs are separately discussed as follows. o Problem As Figure 4a shows the primary problem domains addressed most in the selected. literature sample are Mobile ICT 35 and Governance 31 followed by Development 18 It. should be noted that there is a significant amount of multiple assignment of codes stemming. from the fact that the selection procedure purposely included publications that address more. than one dimension With regard to the secondary domains Figure 4b the most studied. domain is MGOV 17 followed closely by MGOV4SD 14 followed by M ICT4D 4. o Method As Figure 4c shows most of the publications in the sample 19 use a theoretical. approach The reason for this is that most of the empirical studies in the sample also include a. significant theoretical section or literature review and hence many publications were coded. with this value in addition to another method The results also show that there is a larger. share of qualitative 16 and mixed method approaches 10 over quantitative methods 9. This suggests that the MGOV4SD field is still in an early phase where exploratory and. theory building studies based on qualitative methods are more prevalent than quantitative. research that might aim at testing and validating existing theory This is also reflected by the. observation that a number of studies 5 have not been based on any clearly discernible. method which suggests that MGOV4SD is an emergent research area with lack of orientation. regarding suitable methodological approaches, o Data As Figure 4d shows the majority of studies in the sample is based on secondary data. 22 and only 12 use primary data This again might suggest that MGOV4SD is an emergent. research area where no much empirical work has been produced yet Together with. literature reviews the most prominently used method for data collection were case studies. that involved document analysis and interviews A few publications in the sample also were. based on questionnaires Other methods that were identified in the sample were public. statistical datasets and web content analyses but these were used to a much lower degree. o Results The results displayed in Figure 4e show that the selected publications are. predominantly oriented towards contributing to policy practice 23 and much fewer aim. theoretical contributions 17 One reason might be that the majority of the studies are case. studies and experience reports which by their nature focus more on policy recommendations. than theory building, o Publication Type Figure 4f shows the results regarding the analysis of the Publication Type. construct Again the results suggest that MGOV4SD is an emergent research area high share. of conference papers 13 and no dedicated books However the significant share of journal. articles in the sample 15 indicates that the academic community has begun to address the. MGOV4SD area The important role of practice oriented research in the MGOV4SD field. discussed in Section 3 4 above is also reflected within this construct with 7 of the. publications in the sample being reports published by international organizations and. research institutions,4 MGOV4SD State of the Art, This section reports the findings from the state of the art analysis The findings in this section. were derived from the documentation and assessment of the selected publications by identifying. the key themes and aspects of MGOV4SD investigated in the literature and consolidating the. documented key findings and policy recommendations for each of these themes In the following. the findings for each of the seven key MGOV4SD themes identified are presented MGOV4SD. conceptualizations and definitions Section 4 1 MGOV4SD evolutio. Towards a Conceptual Framework for Mobile Governance for Sustainable Development JANOWSKI Tomasz2 ESTEVEZ Elsa2 Abstract

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