HEATING VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING

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1 Window air conditioner,Capacity 1Ton 3Ton,Applications Small rooms Shops and offices. Many traditional air conditioners in use are single rectangular units window mounted. These are compressor based refrigerant system that uses air to exchange heat with this type of System the. air is dehumidified as it is cooled, Normally outside air is used to cool the condenser section For this reason these units are placed in. windows or through openings in a wall,These units are available up to 2 5 tons capacity. 2 Split Air Conditioning System,Ducted split DX system. Non Ducted,Non Ducted Split A c,Capacity 1Ton 5 Ton.
In ducted split system the condenser and compressor are located in an outdoor unit and the evaporator is. mounted in the indoor unit, When air conditioner is turned on room air is drawn from various parts of the room through return air. outlets This air is pulled through a filter where airborne particles such as dust and lint are removed The. filtered air routed to supply duct through FCU back to the room. Condenser unit is connected to the indoor unit through refrigerant pipes. Fan Coil Unit FCU, A fan coil unit is just as the name implies a small unit with a fan and a chilled and or heating water coil enclosed in. a common cabinet Fan coil units are usually small enough to be located in the space that they serve Fan coil units. typically have a small fan fan motor filters a single water coil and controls mounted inside a decorative cabinet. Fan coil units are usually located in bathrooms toilets are in kitchens. One inch throwaway filters are tight fitting to prevent air bypass Filters are easily removable from the bottom. without the need for tools The filter rack is convertible from rear to bottom return without the need for additional. parts Optional 1 and 2 pleated filters are available for use with the HPP unit. Standard drain pans are externally insulated single wall galvanized steel with an option for stainless steel Drain. pans are available with secondary drain connection On concealed models the HP Series drain pan is easily. removable for cleaning or reversing connections,3 Package Unit System. Package A C or DX direct expansion system single package unit Capacity 5 Ton 100 Ton. Applications Restaurants Villas Hospitals and Corporate Offices. Package units system All components condenser compressor and the evaporator are located in a single. outdoor unit that may be located on the ground floor are on the roof floor. Package unit system doesn t need chilled or refrigerant pipe connections they act as independent cooling. 4 Central Air Conditioning System,Supply Duct,Fan Compartment. Vibration Isolator flex joint,Heating and or Cooling Coil.
Filter Compartment,Mixed re circulated outside Air Duct. Air Handling Unit,Air Handling Unit AHU, Air handling unit is a devise used as part of a HVAC system usually an air handler is a large metal box Containing. a blower heating and or cooling elements filter racks or chambers sound attenuators and Dampers Air handling. units usually connected to ductwork that distributes the conditioned air through the building and returns to the unit. AHU are mounted on anti vibration pads While placing AHU maintenance place should be taken into consideration. to the left or to the right side of the unit,AHU Details. A chiller is a machine that removes heat from a liquid via a vapor compressor or absorption refrigeration cycle. Most often water is chilled this chilled water is used to cool and dehumidify air in mid to large commercial. industrial and institutional facilities,Most chillers are weatherproof. Chilled water is distributed to heat exchangers FCU s AHU s FAHU s and used water is returned to the chiller. Chiller is a huge machine and makes lot of noise so these are mounted on concrete foundations with inertia base. Water Cooled Chiller Air Cooled Chiller,Variable Air Volume VAV.
VAV is an all air HVAC system that has relatively fixed supply air temperature but the volumetric flow Rate of air. varies to meet the thermal load,Thermostat, Thermostats control the operation of HVAC systems It turns on and off or modulating the heating or cooling. systems to bring the building to the set Temperature Usually thermostat location is as shown in the design drawing. input drawing Other wise it has to shown near to the return grill area and near to the door. Fire Damper, Fire damper is used to stop the flow of air when there is any fire hazard These dampers are used when a duct passes. through the kitchen area Sometimes FD s are used when the duct crosses the wall. Volume Control Damper VCD, This damper is used to control the flow of air in the branches The representation of the VCD is shown in fig output. Motorised Damper, Ducting systems must provide a method of adjusting the volume of air flow to various parts of the system. Balancing flow control and fire smoke dampers provide this function besides the regulation provided at the. registers or diffusers that spread air into individual rooms dampers can be fitted within the ducts themselves These. dampers may be manual or automatic,Access doors, Access doors are provided for fire dampers as they need inspection and testing These access doors are fitted to the.
duct vertically down on either side of the duct,Supply Air Diffuser. This is a air distribution medium used to supply air It is connected to ducts and Available in standard sizes of. 150x150 225x225 300x300 375x375 450x450 etc Factors to be considered while designing SAD sizes are CFM. Noise level Type of false ceiling,Return or Exhaust Air Diffuser. Return Exhaust air diffusers are used for extracting air from the conditioned area Return air diffusers RAD or. Exhaust air diffusers EAD are available in standard sizes of 150x150 225x225 300x300 375x375 450x450 etc. Factors to be considered while designing RAD or EAD sizes are CFM Noise level Type of false ceiling. Grills and Registers Grills and Registers, Grilles are louvered or perforated covering for an opening in an air passage which can be located in a sidewall. ceiling or floor, Registers are the combination of grille and damper assembly over an air opening. Flexible Ducts, Flexible duct are the medium used for the connection of diffusers from Main duct Branch duct and it is also used for.
connect two ducts at different levels It is made up of Fiber Glass wool and available in different standard sizes. DEFINITIONS, AXIAL FAN Type of fan where pressure is produced due to an increase In air velocity thorough the rotating. impeller The air flow through the fan is parallel to the impeller axis. CENTRIFUGAL FAN Type of fan where pressure and velocity are produced by the centrifugal action of the. rotating impeller and the velocity of air leaving the tip of the impeller. COMPRESSOR A refrigerant compressor converts input electricity Into mechanical energy In order to. remove heat from air, CONDENSER The heat exchanger In a mechanical refrigeration cycle it removes heat from the hot high. pressure refrigerant vapor the removal of heat converts the vapor into a liquid. CHILLER A machine which uses mechanical shaft energy to chill water through the vapor compression. refrigeration cycle Chillers can be air or water cooled and typically have centrifugal reciprocating or screw. compressors, CONDENSATION Condensation occurs when water vapor is converted to liquid. COOLING COIL A coil which is used to lower the temperature of an air stream heat is transferred from the air. stream to chilled water or refrigerant circulating through the coil tubes. DUCT A passageway made of galvanized sheet metal or other suitable material that is used to distribute the air. needed to heat ventilate or cool the conditioned spaces. DAMPER A devise used to control the flow of air within a duct. DEHUMIDIFICATION Process where moisture is removed from the air. DEHUMIDIFIER A devise which removes moisture from the air. DIFFUSER A devise which evenly distributes high velocity supply air into the conditioned space. DISTRIBUTION The transport of conditioned air or water throughout a facility Also refers to the equipment. which performs this function, DUCT A passageway made of galvanized sheet metal or other suitable. EXHAUST AIR Building air which is expelled of exhausted from the building to balance the incoming fresh. outside air Exhaust air removes airborne contaminants. FAN COIL UNITS Fan coil units FCU are typically mounted In the ceiling at each zone and contain a blower. air filter and water coil or coils, FILTER A devise which removes particulate contaminants from an air stream.
HEATING COIL A coil used to increase the temperature of an air stream heat is transferred to the air stream. from hot water circulating through the coil tubes, PACKAGED UNITS HVAC units that contain all components for a complete air cooled refrigeration cycle in. PLENUM An enclosure that is part of the air distribution system and is distinguished by having almost uniform. air pressure, BOTTOM OF PIPE BOP is the distance between the finished floor level to the bottom of the pipe. BOTTOM OF DUCT BOD is the distance between the finished floor level to the bottom of the duct. Types of Ducts, Ducts are mainly two types One is rectangular duct and the other one is round duct. RECTANGULAR DUCT, The rectangular duct has three dimensions which are length width and height Here we represent only. width and height The first dimension represents the width of the duct and the other dimension is height which is on. the other side of the duct So we can not see that dimension in drawing and it is written as Width x Height The units. we use for the representation of the duct are mm inches The calculation of the duct size depends upon the flow rate. of the air The sizes of the duct should be even numbers only It is not suggested to take odd numbers If we get odd. numbers while calculating the duct size it should be rounded to next even number. For example,ROUND DUCT, Round duct which is in circular shape It has low rate of friction when compared to rectangular duct These.
are used according to the client requirement,TYPES OF ELBOWS. These are used when duct takes a diversion There are two types of elbows they are concentric elbows. eccentric elbow,Concentric Elbow, Concentric elbow is used to connect the duct of same size during diversion Generally we take the inner. radius as 150mm 6 or half of the width of duct and similarly the outer radius of the elbow will be the width of the. Eccentric Elbow, Eccentric elbow is used to connect two ducts having different width and height and it is taking a diversion. The inner radius of the duct is taken 150mm 6 The outer radius of the duct is calculated as follows. 6 widht1 width2 2,Where Width1 it is the width of the first duct. Width2 it is the width of the second duct for which the elbow is going to connect. The example for the eccentric elbow is shown below. Here width of the first duct is 12 width of the second duct is 14 Add 12 14 6 and divide the value by 2 The. value which we got after the calculation will be the outer radius of the elbow. is used to connect two different sizes of duct Reducer should be placed after every branch The length of. the reducer should be in increments of feet i e 1 1 etc. It is advisable that the length of the reducer is taken 1 450mm There are two types of reducers they are. eccentric reducer and concentric reducer,Types of reducers.
The angle between the two faces of Concentric reducer at diverging is 45 Max at converging is 60 Max. and the maximum length L of reducer is 1500mm,Concentric Reducer. The total reduction of Duct width is 200 Since this is the concentric reducer the size reduction is 200 200. on both the sides So the given values are,Tan 1 7 0 143 Opposite side Adjacent side. Opposite side 100, Adjacent side L this is the length of reducer we need to find out. 800 700 Approx is the Length of reducer, The Slope of Reducer is 1 7 Allowable Slope is 1 4 The Maximum and minimum length of reducer are 1500mm. We know the slope angle Tan 1 7 0 143,From above we can calculate the angle Tan 0 143.
Eccentric Reducer, The total reduction of Duct width is 200 Since this is the eccentric reducer the size reduction 200 is on only one. side And the remaining process is same as above,Duct splitter yee. Follow the given method while splitting the duct For example the Supply duct dimensions are AxB with an airflow. a l s and the two branches information is CxD with an airflow b l s ExF with an airflow c l s These two. branch ducts divides the main duct at X Y distance To find the X distance follow the method given below. For better understanding refer the example given below. The Supply duct information,Dimensions AxB 1000x800. Airflow a l s 2550 l s,The branches information,Dimensions CxD 800x650. Airflow b l s 2000 l s,Dimensions ExF 300x250,Airflow c l s 550 l s.
To get the x value A x b a,1000x2000 2550,Nearly consider it as 785mm. It means that the duct 800x650 CxD splits the main supply duct at a distance 785mm. Duct is used to carry medium with respect to the direction of flow. In HVAC Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning the main ducts used are. Supply Air Duct,Return Air Duct,Fresh Air Duct,Exhaust Air Duct. Supply Air Duct, This duct is used to supply air which is coming from the FCU AHU I. HEATING VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING HVAC A simple definition of air conditioning is the simultaneous control of Temperature humidity cleanliness and motion of air Applications of HVAC Systems HVAC Systems are used for either human comfort or for process control and it is also used to provide some conditions that some process requires

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