Healthy Cities and the city planning process a background

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EUROPEAN HEALTH21 TARGET 13,SETTINGS FOR HEALTH, By the year 2015 people in the Region should have greater opportunities to live in healthy physical. and social environments at home at school at the workplace and in the local community. Adopted by the WHO Regional Committee for Europe at its forty eighth session Copenhagen September 1998. EUROPEAN HEALTH21 TARGET 14,MULTISECTORAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR HEALTH. By the year 2020 all sectors should have recognized and accepted their responsibility for health. Adopted by the WHO Regional Committee for Europe at its forty eighth session Copenhagen September 1998. The links between urban planning and health are many and varied Environmental. social and economic conditions in cities can have both positive and negative. influences on human health and centre Urban planning and related professions play. an important role in shaping those conditions Healthy Cities and the City Planning. process is a background paper supporting the developmental work of the WHO. Healthy Cities project on the subject of Healthy Urban Planning The paper explores. and analyses the relationship between urban planning and public health in terms of. history and current issues in cities It puts forward new approaches to develop healthy. urban planning practices and cities examples from across Europe and North America. HEALTHY CITIES,CITY PLANNING,URBAN HEALTH,HEALTH PLANNING methods. HEALTH PROMOTION,UNITED STATES,BANGLADESH,World Health Organization 1999. All rights in this document are reserved by the WHO Regional Office for Europe The document may nevertheless be freely reviewed. abstracted reproduced or translated into any other language but not for sale or for use in conjunction with commercial purposes. provided that full acknowledgement is given to the source For the use of the WHO emblem permission must be sought from the WHO. Regional Office Any translation should include the words The translator of this document is responsible for the accuracy of the. translation The Regional Office would appreciate receiving three copies of any translation Any views expressed by named authors are. solely the responsibility of those authors, This document was text processed in Health Documentation Services.
WHO Regional Office for Europe Copenhagen,Foreword i. Introduction 1, 1 Historical and theoretical foundations of urban planning and public health 2. Historic stages of urban development 2,Historic stages in public health 5. The new public health paradigm theoretical foundation 7. 2 Linking the two fields connections implications and important questions 8. Urban planning and public health links 8, Traditional aspects of health that influence urban planning 8. Health implications of traditional urban planning 10. Healthy urban planning important questions 15,3 Today and tools for tomorrow 16.
Urban health challenges of today 16, Developing health as a key principle in urban planning 18. Alternative approaches tools techniques and outcomes 20. 4 Worldwide healthy urban planning 27,Case studies 27. Healthy Cities projects 30,Conclusion 32, Annex 1 The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion 36. EUR ICP CHDV 03 04 03, The links between urban planning and health are many and varied Environmental social and. economic conditions in cities can have both positive and negative influences on human health. and wellbeing Urban planning and related professions play an important role in shaping those. conditions There is a clear need for urban planners to integrate health considerations fully into. their work both in policy and practical terms and for all sectors in cities to work together to. improve health wellbeing and quality of life, WHO recognizes the importance of these links and healthy and sustainable urban planning is a.
core area of work for Phase III of the WHO Healthy Cities project 1998 2002 This document. has been commissioned by WHO as a background paper to assist the developmental work in this. area It makes a significant contribution to the discussion of the links between urban planning. and health and its contents will feed into new Healthy Cities guidance material for healthy and. sustainable urban planning The paper explores and analyses the relationship between urban. planning and public health in terms of history current issues in cities new approaches and. examples The focus is largely on conditions in cities in the United States but the phenomena. discussed are prevalent in cities throughout the world. I should like to express my appreciation and gratitude to the authors of this paper Professor Len. Duhl and Andrea Kristin Sanchez of the University of Berkeley California Many thanks are due. to Claire Mitcham WHO Centre for Urban Health focal point for urban planning for. coordinating and guiding the preparation of this document Warm thanks are also due to Hugh. Barton Executive director of the WHO collaborating centre for healthy cities and urban policy. University of the West of England Bristol United Kingdom Pierre Dub Chief Urban Planner. for the City of Ottawa Canada and Roderick Lawrence Centre universitaire d cologie. humaine et des sciences de l environnement University of Geneva Switzerland for guidance. and comments on the original draft,Agis D Tsouros,Regional Adviser for Urban Health Policies. Coordinator Healthy Cities project,Head WHO Centre for Urban Health. WHO Regional Office for Europe,EUR ICP CHDV 03 04 03. Introduction, The urban world is changing rapidly Whether in the west or in countries in transition the. changes taking place in our cities are of revolutionary proportions It thus becomes vitally. important to look at how cities develop and how they are planned. To this end this paper will look at the function of urban planners professionals long concerned. with the urban environment and see where the field of urban planning has been what is. happening now and where it is likely to go Like the field of health which is similarly in great. flux urban planning must take into account the broader social economic and political context. The technological revolutions or the information and communication revolutions have along. with increased transport transformed our communities For many these tools have resulted in. many of us living in a virtual world unlimited by geography unbounded by specific. professions a truly global world, For the poor of all nations the changes have resulted in mass movements to cities both on their.
own continents and to places of opportunity in the west However the main concerns for the. poor are focused on the basic issues of life food water sewage housing and jobs. The outcomes of this revolution like the ones mentioned above have created cities of great. diversity and increased gaps between poor and rich Diversity and conflict abound Often the. result is closed communities blockaded against a feared and hostile world It means too that. cities are planned no longer simply by planners but also by the people themselves When new. buildings are provided they are often altered by the inhabitants Thus the planners are forced to. change from focusing solely on geography to considering human needs as well Healthy Cities. offers them an opportunity to join hands in a new approach 1 3 The WHO Healthy Cities. Project after tens years of experience in planning and community action has developed a strong. understanding that the prime determinants of health status are social and economic conditions. 4 moreover that ensuring health for all should not be exclusive to one political party or a. singular profession 5 In this paper we will cover the history of public health and urban. planning and show how Healthy Cities a project that arose out of an awareness of the links. between public health and urban planning offers planners a set of allies and tools to help them in. their new work as facilitators and catalysts, At one time the disciplines of public health and urban planning were closely aligned With the. introduction of a better understanding of bacteria infectious disease and vaccinations however. the focus of public health shifted away from community engineering and urban design and. towards a model based on medical principles Following this shift the two disciplines have stood. on their own across the world However as the world continues to become more complex and. less linear the challenge is how to design processes and systems that ensure both health for all. and sustainable development This new shift calls for a framework in which people from. multiple disciplines can effectively work towards creating healthy sustainable and economically. vital cities Healthy Cities We contend that the complexities embedded in the fabric of. communities across the world resonates from and thus warrants a discussion of the very origins. of both public health and urban planning,EUR ICP CHDV 03 04 03. Meeting the new urban health challenges depends upon reuniting public health and urban. planning in the academic world in the professional arena in community development and in. government From this paper we hope to foster a dialogue that delves into the fundamental. interconnections between community wellbeing and the role of planners The paper will explore. and establish links between public health and urban planning It will help practitioners make. more appropriate policy decisions enable universities to educate professionals better and most. importantly provide a conceptual framework for and guidance on how to go about integrating. health considerations into the practice of urban planning. A discussion regarding re establishing links between these professions must begin with an. examination of the historical background This paper will explore the historical stages of urban. planning followed by a look at the history of the field of public health The next step is to link. the two disciplines This is followed by a brief look at the traditional health considerations of. urban planning and the impact that the field has had on individual and community health The. paper continues with important questions planners must ask themselves in order to ensure. healthy urban planning Next the urban health challenges of today are presented along with. tools and techniques that we contend are crucial to promoting health and sustainable. development Finally we present world wide examples of healthy urban planning It is important. to note that this paper is not intended to dictate uniform answers to myriad modern day urban. concerns but rather to provide evidence of the need to link these professions and to put forward. ideas on how to take the first steps towards building Healthy Cities. 1 Historical and theoretical foundations of urban planning and public. Historic stages of urban development, There are critical stages and rationales in the history of urban planning that provide insight into. the past and more importantly into how the lessons of the past can be employed today. Historically there have been two main rationales for urban planning The foundation for the first. is based on utopianism idealism symbolism and the expression of authority The second is. based on the need for corrective measures due to natural disasters human health hazards and the. need to circulate goods and people throughout an urban area 6 What follows is a brief profile. of the various stages in the history of the field The overview we provide does not cover every. stage but does help to demonstrate changes over time Additionally the stages discussed can. help guide future planning scenarios that pay careful consideration to issues of public health. The early years, In the earliest times planning was a process of pure survival Hunter gatherers subsisted by their. understanding of available resources Where is food Where is shelter How do we protect. ourselves against harm Their answers determined whether or not they were able to sustain. themselves the alternative was death, These same questions are continually with us What changes is the understanding of our.
relationship to the surrounding environment If we believe that our fate is determined by the. whim of the gods we establish ways to affect that unknown power Early community leaders. and shamans interceded with the unknown to guarantee the safety of the group Leadership. meant understanding oneself the group the environment and the unknown. EUR ICP CHDV 03 04 03, Once food became more easily available the mobile community found a geographic base The. locations chosen had certain criteria safety places for farming and storage and locales for. interaction and communication For example the cities of the Greeks and Romans were based on. the allocation of land to the individual and the establishment of main streets in a grid pattern 7. Rivers and natural trade routes were other important considerations The earliest permanent. communities straightened out their land removing rocks and making sites linear They protected. their sites from damage by the elements through barricades against flooding and planning for the. event of drought The dominant word was control controlling the environment resources and. Additionally most early communities were designed around common spaces where people. considered their relationships with the spiritual universe A prime example of this is the church and. other religious institutions The role of the church or templ. AND THE CITY PLANNING PROCESS A BACKGROUND DOCUMENT ON LINKS BETWEEN HEALTH AND URBAN PLANNING by L J Duhl amp A K Sanchez 1999 EUROPEAN HEALTH21 TARGET 13 14 EUROPEAN HEALTH21 TARGET 13 SETTINGS FOR HEALTH By the year 2015 people in the Region should have greater opportunities to live in healthy physical and social environments at home at school at the workplace and in the local

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