Hayonim Cave a TL based chronology for this Levantine

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N Mercier et al Journal of Archaeological Science 34 2007 1064e1077 1065. presence of centripetal and unidirectionnal removals resulting. in oval quadrangular and subtriangular blanks Retouched. tools include mainly side scrapers on large Levallois blanks. By all these criteria the Upper E assemblages especially units. 1 and 2 with centripetal core preparation show some affinities. with the so called Tabun C type industries found for exam. ple in Tabun unit I Jelinek 1981 in most layers from Qafzeh. Hovers 1997 and Ksar Akil XXVI Marks and Volkman, 1986 In fact the preliminary technological study of these. Upper E assemblages once more illustrates the variability. and flexibility of the Levallois technology resulting in an array. of products of controlled morphology Meignen 1998, Zooarchaeological analyses of the ungulate remains in. Mousterian Layer E indicate that large animals were obtained. by hunting and prey biomass comparisons demonstrate that. large game were the principal sources of meat supplemented. by modest quantities of tortoises and other slow moving small. animals Stiner 2006 The results also indicate significant. expansion in human dietary breadth immediately following. the Mousterian and predator pressure on tortoise populations. implies subtle increases in human population densities around. the time of the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition Stiner. et al 2000 Human populations of the early Middle Paleolithic. appear to have been small and widely dispersed accounting for. the relatively ephemeral nature of the Mousterian occupations at. Fig 1 Location of some Near Eastern Middle Palaeolithic sites including Hayonim Cave in contrast to those documented for the late Mid. Hayonim Cave dle Paleolithic at Kebara Cave Bar Yosef 1998 Stiner 2006. The few Middle Paleolithic hominid remains recovered at. materials and bone residues from both large gazelles fallow Hayonim Cave were concentrated in the central area of the. deer aurochs and small tortoises lizards and rabbits animals cave except for one specimen discovered in the entrance. Stiner 2006 Stiner et al 2000 The sequence is divided area and the majority of them originated from upper strati. into several layers from G bottom to A top containing graphic units of layer E To date the fossil hominid record. a succession of occupations representing Middle Palaeolithic from other Mediterranean Levantine sites i e Amud Geula. Upper Palaeolithic and Natufian periods Bar Yosef 1991 Kebara Qafzeh Skhul and Tabun provides evidence that. Bar Yosef et al 2006 Mousterian assemblages can be associated with distinct human. The excavations carried out between 1992 and 1999 were groups In the past decade there have been contradictory opin. confined to two distinct locations within the site the Central ions expressed on the interpretation of anatomical differences. Area and the Deep Sounding and mainly focused on the Mous between these fossil hominids and especially on the taxonomic. terian sequence During these excavations the otherwise homo designation of the Amud Kebara and Tabun individuals e g. geneous Mousterian deposits of Layer E could be subdivided on Arensburg 2002 Arensburg and Belfer Cohen 1998 Hovers. the basis of lithic densities in order to evaluate chronological et al 1995 Mann 1995 Rak 1998 Tillier 1998 Tillier. changes in the history of human occupation of the cave et al 2003 Trinkaus 1995 Vandermeersch 1995 A major. In Layer F and in the lower part of Layer E units 6e4 the difference between the fossil record from the above mentioned. association of Levallois debitage with true blade technology sites and that from Hayonim site lies in the fact that the latter. Laminar debitage provides a specific aspect to this industry has a low density of hominid remains and is dominated by iso. Meignen 1998 2000 Characterized by the presence of elon lated specimens fragmentary skull remains isolated teeth cer. gated products blades and points often retouched together vical vertebra hand and foot bones parts of long bones that. with short often triangular Levallois blanks the lithic assem are not suitable for precise taxonomic assignment Arensburg. blages closely resemble the material found in Abou Sif et al 1980 Arensburg et al 1990 Moreover in contrast. Neuville 1951 Generally speaking they show global affi with other Levantine sites Hayonim Cave provides no evi. nities in their core reduction strategies with the assemblages dence for mortuary practices within the Mousterian sequence. classically labelled as Tabun D type or Early Levantine. Mousterian found in several sites throughout the Near East 2 Chronometric dating at Hayonim Cave. even if the tool kits show some variations In contrast in the. Upper E assemblages units 1e3 Levallois technology is The chronology of the Hayonim Mousterian sequence. clearly oriented towards the production of short and thin flakes has attracted much attention during the last two decades. Meignen 1998 Core management is evidenced by the Comparisons of micro faunal remains with other Levantine. 1066 N Mercier et al Journal of Archaeological Science 34 2007 1064e1077. archaeological sequences Tchernov 1988 Tchernov 1998 based on dosimetric measurements of these ionizing radiations. indicated that the faunal assemblages from Upper E in Hay Short ranged a and b particles w20 mm and w2 mm respec. onim Cave predated those discovered in Qafzeh Cave Abso tively emitted from radioisotopes within the flint itself provide. lute dating methods have also been applied extensively the an internal dose An external dose from long range. U series method was applied to a speleothem unearthed w40 cm max g rays as well as from cosmic radiations. from the Mousterian deposits and provided the first reliable necessitate consideration of the immediate environment of the. date Schwarcz et al 1980 Optical dating of sediments flints. was attempted Godfrey Smith personal communication. and preliminary results were obtained from the Thermolumi 3 1 Burnt flint specimens and dosimetric measurements. nescence TL study of burnt lithics Valladas et al 1988. In parallel the Electron Spin Resonance ESR dating More than 100 flint artefacts showing signs of heating were. method was applied to tooth enamel Schwarcz and Rink selected during the excavation campaigns at Hayonim Cave. 1998 More recently combined ESR U series analyses The sample preparation followed the protocol defined by. yielded detailed radiometric information indicating that the Valladas 1992 After the outermost 2 mm of each flint. age of the Upper E Mousterian layer is around 180 ka and were removed the remaining core was crushed and subjected. not younger than 155 ka Rink et al 2004 to chemical treatment and its TL emission was analyzed Only. In this paper we report the results of a study initiated 77 flints had been heated at temperatures sufficient to ensure. 10 years ago whose aim was to provide a TL based chronology a complete resetting of the TL signal and only these were se. for the Hayonim Mousterian sequence A total of 77 age esti lected for further analyses Fig 2 shows the TL emissions of. mates obtained on heated flints is presented with associated sample HAY 7 as well as the equivalent dose ED The nat. radiometric information Particular attention is given to envi ural and regenerated growth curves are typical of the sub. ronmental dose rate variations through space and time and to linear behavior observed for most of the Hayonim samples. their possible correlations with the distribution of authigenic These samples come from the Deep Sounding squares D E. minerals formed as a result of diagenetic processes Weiner F 28 27 26 and from the southern squares I J K 24 23 22. et al 2002 It is shown how these data can be combined in and northern parts squares G H I J 20 19 18 of the Central. order to discard some TL results and to increase the reliability Area of the excavations Fig 3. of the remaining TL ages As the excavations covered a relatively large area. w23 m2 great effort was made to obtain detailed information. 3 Samples and methods on spatial variations in environmental dosimetry A total of 76. calcium sulfate dosimeters were placed in different sections of. During the last 30 years the TL method has been extensively the cave and remained in place for approximately 1 year Most. used for the dating of burned flints discovered in archaeological of them were inserted horizontally in the newly exposed pro. sites in particular those sites beyond the range of radiocarbon files close to squares containing numerous burnt flints G18. Huxtable and Aitken 1988 Mercier et al 1991 1995a b c H19 and I20 e North section K23 24 and I24 e South section. 2000 Valladas et al 1986 1987 1988 1998 The utility of and in the Deep Sounding squares D E F27 and F28 A few. the method is based on the fact that flints behave as excellent dosimeters were also inserted vertically at the end of the field. natural dosimeters which record doses delivered by the differ season in squares where excavation was scheduled in subsequent. ent types of radiation coming from the decay of radioisotopes years see Fig 3 Additional dosimetric countings were carried. such as the U and Th series and potassium The TL method is out on site using a portable g detector inserted in natural holes. HAY 7 300000,250 250000,200 200000,15000 150000,10000 100000. 5000 50000 1st growth curve,2nd growth curve,180 240 300 360 420 0 500 1000 1500. Temperature C Dose Gy, Fig 2 a TL emission of sample HAY 7 for doses 0 281 562 843 Gy The equivalent dose ED calculated as a function of temperature plateau test is.
indicated b Growth curves for sample HAY 7 natural given doses 1 and regenerated 2 are typical of the sub linear behavior observed for most of the. Hayonim samples, N Mercier et al Journal of Archaeological Science 34 2007 1064e1077 1067. Fig 3 Schematic map of Hayonim Cave showing boundaries of excavations the Deep Sounding and the Central Area The location of the dosimeters and flints are. indicated with crosses and circles respectively, burrows present in some profiles a few other measurements diagenesis Note that the siliceous aggregates themselves. were made in the laboratory with a high purity germanium as well as one of the common authigenic phosphate minerals. detector In this case about 100 g of sediment were analyzed leucophosphite contain potassium Schiegl et al 1996 As. by g spectrometry for obtaining information on possible dise noted above the formation of the LMVS assemblage also re. quilibria in the radioactive decay chains and investigating the sults in the dissolution of bones which are composed of dahl. repartition of the g dose rate between the U and Th series lite a relatively unstable mineral with respect to the LMVS. and potassium group The third identified mineral assemblage consists of. the most highly altered sediments in which clays have bro. 3 2 Fourier Transform Infrared analyses of sediments ken down and silica has been released. The extensive study of sediment mineralogy in the field. Mineralogical analyses were carried out on site during the also provided a detailed map of the spatial distribution of. excavation of Hayonim Cave using Fourier transform in the three mineral assemblages This map showed sharp varia. frared FTIR spectroscopy in order to better understand tion in sediment mineralogy over distances as short as a few. the archaeology via sediment diagenesis and site formation centimeters Weiner et al 2002 see their Figs 10 and 11. processes Weiner et al 2002 This method is capable of for instance. identifying mineral assemblages using only a few tens of mi At this stage it is interesting to notice that the local differ. crograms of sample Weiner et al 1993 More than 2100 ences in sediment chemistry and rates of diagenetic activity. samples were analyzed It was shown that three major min based on a combination of taphonomic methods and Fourier. eral assemblages are present in the archaeological assem transform infrared FTIR spectroscopic analyses of sediment. blages at Hayonim the first termed CD Weiner et al and bones Stiner et al 2001 Weiner et al 2002 correlate. 2002 is composed mainly of calcite and secondarily of closely with the distribution of bones in the sediments at Hay. dahllite Calcite is the main residue of the fresh ash which onim Cave The quality of bone preservation follows an all. originally made up the bulk of the sediments Schiegl or nothing pattern in the central area with relatively abrupt. et al 1994 Dahllite also known as carbonated hydroxyap changes in bone abundance rather than gradual transitions be. atite results from interaction of calcite with phosphate rich tween good to poor preservation The areas of good bone. solutions The second assemblage termed LMVS represents preservation are extensive and associate consistently with. sediments that are more diagenetically altered In the course CD mineral assemblages dominated by calcite dahllite or. of the diagenetic process the dahllite dissolves and is replac both Bone preservation in Layer E was best within 2e3 m. ed by other more stable phosphate minerals such as of the cave walls in the central area especially between. leucophosphite montgomeryite and variscite Due to the 420 and 500 cm below datum Very few bones were preserved. dissolution and transport of other minerals the relative pro anywhere in Layer F where secondary mineral assemblages. portions of so called siliceous aggregates and phytoliths mi LMVS and. Hayonim Cave were concentrated in the central area of the cave except for one specimen discovered in the entrance area and the majority of them originated from upper strati graphic units of layer E To date the fossil hominid record from other Mediterranean Levantine sites i e Amud Geula Kebara Qafzeh Skhul and Tabun provides evidence that Mousterian assemblages can be associated

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