FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTERS

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FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTERS,Sixth Edition,V RAJARAMAN. Honorary Professor,Supercomputer Education and Research Centre. Indian Institute of Science,NEEHARIKA ADABALA,Chief Architect. CybULab Private Limited,Delhi 110092,FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTERS Sixth Edition. V Rajaraman and Neeharika Adabala, 2015 by PHI Learning Private Limited Delhi All rights reserved No part of this book.
may be reproduced in any form by mimeograph or any other means without permission in. writing from the publisher,ISBN 978 81 203 5067 0, The export rights of this book are vested solely with the publisher. Forty fourth Printing Sixth Edition January 2015, Published by Asoke K Ghosh PHI Learning Private Limited Rimjhim House 111 Patparganj. Industrial Estate Delhi 110092 and Printed by Mohan Makhijani at Rekha Printers Private Limited. New Delhi 110020,In memory of,my uncle Dr P S Viswanathan. my aunt Srimati Sitalakshmi,V Rajaraman,Preface xiii. 1 Computer Basics 1,1 1 Algorithms 2,1 2 Simple Model of a Computer 4.
1 3 Characteristics of Computers 5,1 4 Problem Solving Using Computers 6. 1 4 1 Flowchart 7,1 4 2 Program 8,1 4 3 Working of a Computer 9. 1 4 4 Stored Program Concept 12,1 4 5 Hardware and Software 12. Summary 13,Review Questions 13,2 Data Representation 15. 2 1 Representation of Characters in Computers 16,2 2 Representation of Integers 19.
2 3 Representation of Fractions 22,2 4 Hexadecimal Representation of Numbers 23. 2 5 Decimal to Binary Conversion 24,2 6 Error Detecting Codes 27. Summary 28,Review Questions 29,3 Input Output Units 31. 3 1 Traditional Computer Input Output Units 32,3 1 1 Keyboard 32. vi Contents,3 1 2 Display Unit 33,3 1 3 Computer Mouse 34.
3 2 Other Input Technologies 34,3 2 1 Touch Pad 34. 3 2 2 Touch Screen 34,3 2 3 Magnetic Ink Character Recognition MICR 35. 3 2 4 Optical Mark Reading and Recognition OMR 35,3 2 5 Flatbed Scanner 36. 3 2 6 Optical Character Recognizer 37,3 2 7 Bar Code 39. 3 3 Computer Output Devices 40,3 3 1 Flat Panel Display Technology 40.
3 3 2 E ink Display 43,3 3 3 Printers 44,3 3 4 Inkjet Printers 45. 3 3 5 Laser Printers 46,3 3 6 Dot Matrix Printers 46. 3 3 7 Line Printers 47,3 3 8 Plotters 48,3 4 Choosing a Printer 49. Summary 50,Review Questions 50,4 Computer Memory 52. 4 1 Memory Cell 53,4 2 Memory Organization 53,4 3 Read Only Memory 58.
4 3 1 Flash Memory 59,4 4 Serial Access Memory 60, 4 5 Physical Devices Used to Construct Memories 62. 4 5 1 Semiconductor Flip flop 62,4 5 2 Magnetic Surface Recording 65. 4 6 Magnetic Hard Disk 68,4 6 1 Solid State Disks 71. 4 7 Compact Disk Read Only Memory CDROM 72,4 7 1 Digital Versatile Disk Read Only Memory 73. 4 7 2 CDROM R Recordable CDROM or Write Once CDROM. 4 7 3 Blu ray Disc 75,4 8 Magnetic Tape Drive 75,4 9 Memory Hierarchy 76.
Summary 78,Review Questions 79,Contents vii,5 Processor 82. 5 1 Structure of Instructions 82,5 2 Description of a Processor 85. 5 3 Machine Language Program 89, 5 4 Algorithm to Simulate the Hypothetical Computer 93. 5 5 Enhancing Hypcom 95,Summary 101,Review Questions 102. 6 Binary Arithmetic 105,6 1 Binary Addition 105,6 2 Binary Subtraction 106.
6 3 Signed Numbers 107, 6 4 Two s Complement Representation of Numbers 109. 6 5 Addition Subtraction of Numbers in 2 s Complement Notation 110. 6 6 Binary Multiplication 111,6 7 Binary Division 113. 6 8 Floating Point Representation of Numbers 115, 6 9 Arithmetic Operations with Normalized Floating Point Numbers 117. 6 9 1 Addition 117,6 9 2 Subtraction 117,6 9 3 Multiplication 118. 6 9 4 Division 118,Summary 119,Review Questions 120.
7 Logic Circuits 122,7 1 Introduction 122,7 2 Switching Circuits 123. 7 3 AND OR Operations 124,7 4 NOT Operation 125,7 5 Boolean Functions 126. 7 6 Postulates 126,7 7 Duality Principle 126,7 8 Theorems 126. 7 9 Precedence of Operators 128,7 10 Venn Diagram 129. 7 11 Truth Table 129,7 12 Canonical Forms for Boolean Functions 130.
7 13 Logic Circuits 132,7 14 Parallel and Serial Adders 135. 7 15 Physical Devices Used to Construct Gates 136,viii Contents. 7 16 Transistors 140,7 17 Integrated Circuits 142,Summary 145. Review Questions 146,8 Computer Architecture 148,8 1 Interconnection of Units 149. 8 2 Processor to Memory Communication 151,8 3 I O Devices to Processor Communication 153.
8 4 Interrupt Structures 157,8 5 Bus Architecture of Personal Computers 159. 8 6 Multiprogramming 162,Summary 163,Review Questions 165. 9 Programming Languages 167,9 1 Why Programming Language 168. 9 2 Assembly Language 168,9 2 1 Executing Assembly Language Program 170. 9 3 Higher Level Programming Languages 171,9 4 Compiling A High Level Language Program 176.
9 4 1 Tools to Build Compilers 179,9 5 Some High Level Languages 179. 9 6 Conclusions 187,Summary 188,Review Questions 189. 10 Operating Systems 191,10 1 Why Do We Need an Operating System 191. 10 2 Batch Operating System 193,10 3 Multiprogramming Operating System 196. 10 4 Time Sharing Operating System 203,10 5 On line and Real Time Systems 205.
10 6 Other Facilities Provided by Operating Systems 206. 10 7 Personal Computer Operating System 208,10 8 UNIX Operating System 210. 10 8 1 UNIX System Layers 211,10 9 Microkernel based Operating System 213. 10 9 1 Windows XP Operating System 214,10 9 2 Windows 7 214. Summary 215,Review Questions 216,Contents ix,11 Microcomputers 219. 11 1 Ideal Microcomputer 220,11 2 Actual Microcomputer 220.
11 2 1 CPU 221,11 2 2 Data Bus 223,11 2 3 Address Bus 224. 11 2 4 Control Bus 224,11 3 Memory Systems for Microcomputers 226. 11 4 Minimum Microcomputer Configuration 227,11 4 1 Interrupts 228. 11 4 2 Parallel to Serial and Serial to Parallel Conversion 229. 11 4 3 Direct Memory Access 230,11 5 Evolution of Microcomputers 230. 11 6 Reduced Instruction Set Computers 231,11 7 Special Purpose Microprocessors 232.
11 7 1 Digital Signal Processors 232,11 7 2 Microcontrollers 236. 11 8 Special Purpose Microcomputer Software 238, 11 9 Special Purpose Applications of Microcomputers 239. 11 9 1 Microcomputer as a Furnace Input Feed Controller 239. 11 9 2 Other Applications 240,11 10 Smart Cards 241. 11 10 1 Memory Cards 241,11 10 2 Microprocessor based Smart Cards 242. 11 11 Radio Frequency Identification 243,Summary 244.
Review Questions 246,12 Computer Generations and Classification 249. 12 1 First Generation of Computers 249,12 2 Second Generation 250. 12 3 Third Generation 251,12 4 Fourth Generation 251. 12 4 1 First Decade 1976 1985 251,12 4 2 Second Phase 1986 2000 252. 12 5 Fifth Generation 253,12 6 Moore s Law 254,12 7 Classification of Computers 257.
12 8 Distributed Computer System 260,12 9 Parallel Computers 260. Summary 261,Review Questions 262,x Contents,13 Computer Networks 265. 13 1 Need for Computer Communication Networks 265,13 2 Communication Protocols 267. 13 3 Local Area Networks 270, 13 3 1 Ethernet Local Area Network Bus Topology 271. 13 3 2 Ethernet Using Star Topology 272,13 3 3 Layer 2 and Layer 3 Switches 273.
13 4 Using Public Switched Telephone Network to Connect Computers 275. 13 5 Interconnecting Networks 277,13 5 1 IP Address and Datagram 277. 13 5 2 Operation of TCP IP 278,13 5 3 Packet Switching with TCP IP 280. 13 5 4 Internet and Intranet 281,13 6 Internet and the World Wide Web 281. 13 7 Internet Security 283,13 7 1 Extranets and Virtual Private Networks 284. 13 8 The Future of Internet Technology 285,Summary 286.
Review Questions 289,14 Voice and Data Communications 292. 14 1 Characteristics of Communication Channels 293. 14 2 Allocation of Communication Channel 297,14 2 1 Space Division Multiplexing 297. 14 2 2 Frequency Division Multiplexing 297,14 2 3 Time Division Multiplexing 299. 14 3 Physical Communication Media 300,14 3 1 Bounded Media 300. 14 3 2 Unbounded Media 303,14 4 Public Switched Telephone Networks 308.
14 4 1 Digital Communication on the Local Loop with Modems 309. 14 4 2 Half Duplex and Full Duplex Transmission 312. 14 4 3 Asynchronous and Synchronous Transmission 312. 14 4 4 Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Lines 313,14 5 Cable Modems 315. 14 6 Multiplexing Techniques in Wireless Communication 316. 14 7 Modulation Methods Used in Wireless Communication 317. 14 8 Cellular Communication Systems 317, 14 8 1 Architecture of GSM Cellular Mobile Phone System 318. 14 8 2 Basics of Frequency Management in GSM 321,14 8 3 Other Services Available in GSM 322. 14 9 Basics of Spread Spectrum Technology 322,14 9 1 Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum 323. 14 9 2 Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum 324,Contents xi.
14 10 Code Division Multiple Access Telephone System 325. 14 11 Wireless LAN 326,14 12 Personal Area Network Bluetooth 328. 14 13 WiMAX 328, 14 14 Mobile Communication Among Portable Computers 329. Summary 330,Review Questions 333,15 Advanced Input Output Interfaces 337. 15 1 Graphical User Interface 337,15 2 Vector Graphics 338. 15 3 Raster Graphics 339,15 4 Accelerated Graphics with GPU 340.
15 4 1 Rendering Pipeline 340,15 4 2 Programmable Rendering Pipeline 341. 15 5 Stereo Display Units 342,15 6 Other Visual Displays 343. 15 6 1 Head Mounted Displays 344,15 6 2 3D Projection Systems 344. 15 7 Input Devices for Interaction 345,15 7 1 Accelerometers 345. 15 7 2 Gesture Recognition 346, 15 7 3 Digital Cameras with Computer Vision Technologies 346.
15 8 Speech and Audio Interface 347,15 9 Tactile Interfaces 348. 15 9 1 Haptic Technology 348,15 10 Other Emerging Technologies 350. Summary 351,Review Questions 353,16 Multimedia Data Acquisition and Processing 354. 16 1 Image Acquisition and Storage 355,16 1 1 Flatbed Scanner 355. 16 1 2 Acquiring Monochrome Pictures 356,16 1 3 Acquiring Colour Pictures 356.
16 2 Storage Formats for Pictures 357,16 3 Image Acquisition with a Digital Camera 360. 16 4 Capturing a Moving Image with a Video Camera 362. 16 5 Compression of Video Data 362,16 6 MPEG Compression Standard 364. 16 7 Acquiring and Storing Audio Signals 364,16 8 Compression of Audio Signals 366. xii Contents,16 9 Audio Signal Processing 366,16 9 1 Transforming Audio Signals 366. 16 9 2 Generation of Audio Signals 367,16 9 3 Generation of Speech from Text 368.
16 9 4 Recognition of Audio Signals 369,Summary 370. Review Questions 372,17 Emerging Computing Environments 375. 17 1 Current Computing Scenario 376,17 2 Peer to Peer Computing 377. 17 3 Grid Computing 378,17 3 1 Enterprise Grid 381. 17 4 Cloud Computing 382,17 4 1 Cloud Types 383,17 4 2 Cloud Services 383.
17 4 3 Advantages of Cloud Computing 384,17 4 4 Risks in Using Cloud Computing 384. 17 4 5 Applications Appropriate for Cloud Computing 385. 17 5 Conclusions 386,Summary 387,Review Questions 388. References 391,Glossary 397, A student must understand how a computer functions in addition to knowing how to program it. The main objective of this book is to explain to a beginner how a computer works Computer. salesmen and advertisers have a tendency of using numerous obscure technical terms to impress. customers Very often such jargon overwhelms many managers and computer users because they. do not understand them hence another objective of this book is to explain in a simple language. what many of these terms really mean Hardware and software components of a computer are. important for its functioning and thus both these aspects are explained in this book. This book is intended as a text for a course on Fundamentals of Computers to be taught. concurrently with courses on programming It would therefore be useful for the first course. in computers taught in undergraduate and postgraduate courses in computer applications BCA. and MCA Rapid advances in computer technology have made it imperative for all engineers. to understand the hardware features of computers besides knowing how to program them in a. high level language A core course is being introduced in undergraduate engineering curricula. on fundamentals of computers and this book would be appropriate for this course In view of. the extensive use of computers in business and industry students in schools of management. require a course on computers and this book would be appropriate for such a course There. is a trend to introduce computer science as a subject in B Sc courses again this book can be. used as a text in this course, Besides its use as a text this book would provide managers engineers and scientists a. basic introduction to the hardware and software of computers This knowledge is essential to. appreciate the power and deficiencies of computers and to select appropriate applications and. This book has evolved from a set of notes the first author used in various courses which. have been thoroughly class tested These notes have been used for concurrent reading in short. intensive programming courses in computer appreciation courses for managers and engineers. and in undergraduate programmes for engineers,The first five editions of this book rec.
FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTERS Sixth Edition V RAJARAMAN Honorary Professor Supercomputer Education and Research Centre Indian Institute of Science Bangalore NEEHARIKA ADABALA Chief Architect CybULab Private Limited Bangalore Delhi 110092 2015

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