Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Durability and Fuel Cell

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Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Durability and,Fuel Cell Performance. Jennifer Kurtz Sam Sprik Genevieve Saur,and Shaun Onorato. National Renewable Energy Laboratory,Suggested Citation. Kurtz Jennifer Sam Sprik Genevieve Saur and Shaun Onorato 2019 Fuel Cell Electric. Vehicle Durability and Fuel Cell Performance Golden CO National Renewable Energy. Laboratory NREL TP 5400 73011 https www nrel gov docs fy19osti 73011 pdf. NREL is a national laboratory of the U S Department of Energy Technical Report. Office of Energy Efficiency Renewable Energy NREL TP 5400 73011. Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy LLC March 2019. This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Laboratory NREL at www nrel gov publications 15013 Denver West Parkway. Golden CO 80401, Contract No DE AC36 08GO28308 303 275 3000 www nrel gov. This work was authored by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory operated by Alliance for Sustainable. Energy LLC for the U S Department of Energy DOE under Contract No DE AC36 08GO28308 Funding. provided by U S Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Fuel Cell Technologies. Office The views expressed herein do not necessarily represent the views of the DOE or the U S Government. This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable. Energy Laboratory NREL at www nrel gov publications. U S Department of Energy DOE reports produced after 1991. and a growing number of pre 1991 documents are available. free via www OSTI gov, Cover Photos by Dennis Schroeder clockwise left to right NREL 51934 NREL 45897 NREL 42160 NREL 45891 NREL 48097.
NREL 46526, NREL prints on paper that contains recycled content. Acknowledgements, This work was supported by the U S Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office in the. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL at www nrel gov publications. List of Acronyms,CDP composite data product,DOE U S Department of Energy. EPA U S Environmental Protection Agency,FCEV fuel cell electric vehicle.
FCTO Fuel Cell Technologies Office,NHTS National Household Travel Survey. LD Learning Demonstration, MYRD D Multi Year Research Development and Demonstration Plan. NFCTEC National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center. NREL National Renewable Energy Laboratory,OEM original equipment manufacturer. This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL at www nrel gov publications. The objectives of this project are to validate hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles FCEVs in real. world settings and to identify the current status and evolution of the technology The analysis. objectively assesses progress toward targets and market needs defined by the U S Department of. Energy and stakeholders provides feedback for early stage hydrogen research and development. and publishes results for key stakeholder use and investment decisions Fiscal year 2018. objectives focus on analysis and reporting of FCEV driving range fuel economy drive and fill. behaviors durability fill performance and fuel cell performance This report specifically. addresses the topics of fuel cell stack durability and fuel cell performance. Keywords fuel cell hydrogen FCEV driving range fuel economy fill performance drive and. fill behaviors NFCTEC National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center National Renewable. Energy Laboratory NREL, This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL at www nrel gov publications. Table of Contents,Introduction and Background 1,Durability 3.
Fuel Cell Performance 7,Conclusion 11,References and Publications 12. This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL at www nrel gov publications. Introduction and Background, The National Renewable Energy Laboratory s NREL s objective in this project is to support. the U S Department of Energy DOE in the technical evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell electric. vehicles FCEVs under real world conditions This is accomplished through evaluating and. analyzing data from the FCEVs to identify the current status of the technology compare it to. DOE program targets and assist in evaluating progress between multiple generations of FCEV. technology DOE funds projects for the collection and delivery of data to the National Fuel Cell. Technology Evaluation Center NFCTEC at NREL for analysis aggregation and reporting The. effort has been ongoing since the U S Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office. Learning Demonstration project began in 2005, The project partners include six original equipment manufacturers OEMs General Motors. Honda Hyundai Mercedes Benz Nissan and Toyota Three OEMs Nissan Toyota and. Honda submit data under one DOE project awarded to Electricore Inc Each project partner had. more than one vehicle included in this evaluation project referred to as a FCEV fleet for a total. of six fleets These vehicles are a mixture of pre commercial and commercial vehicles operated. within fleets and by individual drivers with model years from 2005 to 2012 The Toyota Mirai. and Hyundai Nexo were not included in the analysis due to lack of data contribution and or. model year not being available during the evaluation timeline The OEMs supply on road vehicle. data to NREL for evaluation in the following categories fuel cell stack durability deployment. e g number of vehicles included system specifications range fuel economy efficiency fill. performance reliability drive and fill behaviors power and energy management fuel cell. transients e g frequency of rapid increases or decreases in fuel cell power benchmarking. against technical targets and typical gasoline vehicle operation maintenance on board storage. and safety The on road vehicle data are supplied to NFCTEC at least every 3 months More. details about the project and background information can be found in the overview report Kurtz. et al 2018, Evaluation metrics specifically in the categories of fuel cell durability efficiency specifications. and hydrogen storage are derived from the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Multi Year. Research Development and Demonstration Plan 1 MYRD D MYRD D metrics are also. used in some of the composite data products CDPs contained in this report to benchmark. progress against the target This report specifically addresses the topics of fuel cell stack. durability and fuel cell performance, Data from the current technology validation project are incorporated into the results of previous.
vehicle technology validation projects 2 The FCEV Learning Demonstration also referred to as. the Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project has. been ongoing since 2005 and is currently in the fourth phase The current FCEV technology. advancements and technology generations are varied between the OEMs due to their individual. DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Multi Year Research Development and Demonstration Plan. https www energy gov eere fuelcells downloads fuel cell technologies office multi year research development. National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demonstration Final Report. https www nrel gov hydrogen learning demo html, This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL at www nrel gov publications. development and production schedules These different phases of the Learning Demonstration. project can show the trend of newer generations of FCEVs but don t necessarily correspond to. the newest technology for a given year, This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL at www nrel gov publications. Durability, On road FCEV durability has been studied by NREL for more than 10 years with multiple. vehicle manufacturers and over several vehicle fuel cell generations Fuel cell durability results. were initially published in 2006 after one year of data collection under the first generation of the. Learning Demonstration project and then reported on for each analysis phase of the project. FCEVs in a fleet and a reporting period are of the same generation and design. FCEVs have made steady progress toward the DOE MYRD D 2020 target of 5 000 hours with. less than 10 loss of performance with an ultimate target of 8 000 hours at 10 loss of. performance This performance loss is characterized by the point at which 10 voltage. degradation occurs when a new fuel cell stack enters service Fuel cell power systems must be. equivalently durable and reliable to compete with internal combustion engines therefore a target. of 5 000 hours was chosen as it is equivalent to approximately 150 000 miles of conventional. vehicle driving range It is important to note that the DOE voltage degradation targets are not. necessarily representative of what vehicle OEMs or industry consider end of life performance or. indicative of catastrophic fuel cell stack failure. As of spring 2018 the Learning Demonstration projects have analyzed the data from more than. 230 vehicles from the six OEMs These vehicles have generated operational data for more than 7. million miles traveled and more than 83 000 hours of fuel cell stack operation time As a note. most vehicles included in this study were early generation demonstration and pre production. models dating back to 2006 Data from the latest generation of commercially available FCEVs. were not included in the analysis due to restrictions in contract or a lack of a contributing data. partner Figure 1 shows fuel cell stack operation hours from the start of the evaluation to present. The figure includes both in service vehicles and those that have been retired during the. evaluation Vehicles were retired due to performance loss end of fuel cell life end of vehicle. test or other catastrophic failure unrelated to the fuel cell system As of spring 2018 more than. 22 of the fuel cell stacks tested had more than 2 000 hours of operation with a maximum. operation time of 5 648 hours which exceeds the DOE 2020 operation hour target of 5 000. hours Most of the in service vehicles fall within the operation range of 1 500 to 2 000 hours as. observed in Figure 1 It is worth noting that in service vehicles may have low operation hours. due to length of service not operational problems, Two parameters used in this evaluation to track and validate system durability are actual. operation hours and projected operation time to 10 voltage degradation The voltage durability. trend from four unique reporting periods is shown in Figure 2 which compares fuel cell. durability in operating hours to 10 voltage degradation across the various evaluation years The. operation time to 10 voltage degradation for each stack in a fleet is used to determine the fleet. average voltage degradation value This allows a comparison across fleets comprising different. numbers of vehicles Since the onset of the Learning Demonstration project in 2006 through. 2016 the average fleet durability has increased 162 from 1 000 hours to 2 000 hours and the. max fleet average durability has increased 129 from 2 000 hours to 4 000 hours see Figure 2. As fuel cell durability and the underlying fundamental technology improve extrapolating the. current trend shows that the maximum fleet durability should meet the DOE MYRD D 2020. durability target in the next 2 4 years However the average fleet durability is currently not on. This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL at www nrel gov publications. track to meet the MYRD D 2020 durability target Durability is expected to increase as older. model vehicles retire and newer models are added to the fleet data. Figure 1 Fuel cell stack operation hours CDP FCEV 104. Figure 2 Fuel cell operation hours and voltage degradation trend CDP FCEV 31. This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL at www nrel gov publications. Figure 3 shows the relationship between average fleet fuel cell stack voltage durability as a. function of voltage drop levels This CDP was developed to understand the progressions at. higher levels of voltage degradation above the 10 voltage degradation metric and towards stack. end of life A fairly linear relationship indicates that fleet average hours of fuel cell operation. may be a good predictor of overall fleet voltage drop The data shows for the average fleet. projection that 10 degradation occurs at approximately 2 000 hours and approximately 30. degradation occurs at 5 000 hours OEMs will need to significantly improve performance to meet. the DOE MYRD D 5 000 hour target DOE metrics may not be reflective of what OEMs. consider acceptable end of life performance or related to catastrophic stack failure. Figure 3 Fuel cell stack voltage durability as a function of voltage drop levels CDP FCEV 23. Figure 4 quantifies voltage degradation predictions made by NREL and breaks them down into. percentages of fuel cell power plants with greater and less than 10 voltage degradation The. analysis supports the findings in previous figures that show a large percentage of fuel cell stacks. experienced greater than 10 voltage degradation past the 1 000 hour operation time In. contrast 63 6 of all stacks submitting data have not operated past the 10 voltage degradation. shows fuel cell stack operation hours from the start of the evaluation to present The figure includes both in service vehicles and those that have been retired during the evaluation Vehicles were retired due to performance loss end of fuel cell life end of vehicle test or other catastrophic failure unrelated to the fuel cell system As of spring 2018 more than 22 of the fuel cell stacks

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