Financing higher education in Africa Kiva

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Financing Higher Education in Africa,Financing Higher Education. 2010 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development The World Bank. 1818 H Street NW,Washington DC 20433,Telephone 202 473 1000. Internet www worldbank org,E mail feedback worldbank org. All rights reserved,1 2 3 4 13 12 11 10, This volume is a product of the staff of the International Bank for Reconstruction and. Development The World Bank The findings interpretations and conclusions expressed in this. volume do not necessarily reflect the views of the Executive Directors of The World Bank or the. governments they represent, The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work The boundaries.
colors denominations and other information shown on any map in this work do not imply any. judgement on the part of The World Bank concerning the legal status of any territory or the. endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries,Rights and Permissions. The material in this publication is copyrighted Copying and or transmitting portions or all of. this work without permission may be a violation of applicable law The International Bank for. Reconstruction and Development The World Bank encourages dissemination of its work and. will normally grant permission to reproduce portions of the work promptly. For permission to photocopy or reprint any part of this work please send a request with. complete information to the Copyright Clearance Center Inc 222 Rosewood Drive Danvers. MA 01923 USA telephone 978 750 8400 fax 978 750 4470 Internet www copyright com. All other queries on rights and licenses including subsidiary rights should be addressed to the. Office of the Publisher The World Bank 1818 H Street NW Washington DC 20433 USA fax. 202 522 2422 e mail pubrights worldbank org,ISBN 13 978 0 8213 8334 6. eISBN 978 0 8213 8337 7,DOI 10 1596 978 0 8213 8334 6. Cataloging in publication data has been requested,Library of Congress Control Number 2010926044. Cover photo by Dino Merotto,Cover design by Quantum Think.
Foreword xiii,Acknowledgments xvii,Abbreviations xix. Chapter 1 Introduction 1,Rising Social Demand and Sustainable. Financing 1,Main Features of Current Funding Policies. and Practices 3,Tools for Financially Sustainable Policies 6. The Implementation of Financing Reforms 9,Purpose and Organization of the Study 10.
Chapter 2 Rising Social Demand and the Challenge of. Sustainable Financing 13,Current Demand for Higher Education and. Government Funding Capacity 16,Public Resources per Student and Efforts to. Raise Quality 20,vi Contents,Projected Demand for Higher Education and. Public Financing 27,References 37, Chapter 3 Main Features of Current Funding Policies. and Practices 39,Operating Budget Allocation Practices 39.
Investment Budget Allocation Practices 47,Budget Management Practices and the Optimal. Use of Available Resources 49,Private Funding for Tertiary Education 55. Student Financial Assistance 74,Loan Programs 77,External Assistance to Higher Education 94. Foundation Support 105,External Aid for Research and Development 106. References 112, Chapter 4 Tools for Financially Sustainable Tertiary.
Education Policies 119,Improving the Management of Public. Financing 120,Managing the Trends in Student Flows 131. Developing Distance Education 136,Mobilizing Private Resources 136. Streamlining Student Support Services 144,Promoting the Private Sector 147. Rethinking Research Funding 150,Combining Tools for Financially Sustainable.
Tertiary Education Policies 151,References 153, Chapter 5 Ensuring the Successful Implementation of. Financing Reforms 157, Addressing the Political Feasibility of Reforms 158. Putting in Place Favorable Governance,Arrangements 163. Contents vii,Strengthening Planning and Management. Capacity 166,Assessing Policy Options to Anticipate Possible.
Consequences 168,References 170,3 1 Budget Allocation Practices in Mali 40. 3 2 Line Item Budgeting in Uganda 43,3 3 Normative Input based Budgeting in Nigeria 44. 3 4 Formula Funding in South Africa 46,3 5 Research Funding in Nigeria 55. 3 6 Research Funding for Agriculture 56,3 7 A Financial Revolution Makerere University. in Uganda 64, 3 8 Tuition Fees in Public Higher Education Institutions.
in Benin 66, 3 9 The Cost of Studies Abroad The Case of Mauritius 73. 3 10 The Nature of Direct and Indirect Aid to Higher. Education 97,3 11 Building ICT Capacities in Africa 100. 3 12 Support for Higher Education 101, 3 13 How Many African Students Return to Their Country. of Origin after Completing Their Studies 105,3 14 The National Research Fund and Modalities of. Funding in Mozambique 108,3 15 Methodological Note 109.
4 1 Ghana Education Trust Fund 123, 4 2 Emergency Universities Program in C te d Ivoire 124. 4 3 Mozambique s Competitive Fund for,Tertiary Education 128. 4 4 International Experience with Competitive Funds 129. 4 5 A Plan for Streamlining Higher Education in,C te d Ivoire 130. 4 6 Selective Admission into Higher Education 134,4 7 A Distance Education Experiment 138. 4 8 Phasing the Introduction of Cost Sharing The Case. of Tanzania 140, 4 9 Some Rules for Avoiding Budget Overruns Resulting.
from Grants or Scholarships 145,viii Contents, 4 10 An Alternative to Scholarships Abroad Building and. Offering Quality Local Education 146, 4 11 Examples of the State s Disengagement from Housing. Catering and Other Nonacademic Services Provided to. Students 148, 4 12 Development of Private Higher Education in Some. African Countries 149,5 1 Consensus Building and Cost Sharing in. Northern Mexico 160,5 2 Autonomy and Excellence at Work The National.
School of Business Administration 165,2 1 Share of Higher Education in Current Public. Expenditure on Education in African Countries 2006. or Closest Year 15, 2 2 Public Expenditure on Higher Education and the Form. of the Education Pyramid in African Countries 2006. or Closest Year 16, 2 3 Change in the Number of Higher Education Students. and Expenditure on Higher Education in Two Groups of. African Countries 1991 2006 18, 2 4 Ratio between the Change in the Number of Higher. Education Students and the Amount of Public Resources. Allocated to Current Expenditure on Higher Education. in African Countries 1991 2006 19, 2 5 Annual Current Public Expenditure per Student in.
African Countries 2006 or Closest Year 23, 2 6 Public Expenditure per Student and Ratio of the. Number of Students to the Current Level of Public,Expenditure on Higher Education in Select African. Countries 2006 24, 2 7 Student Teacher Ratio in Higher Education in Select. African Countries Public and Private Sectors,Combined 2006 or Closest Year 25. 2 8 Change in the Number of Higher Education Students. in Africa 1982 2006 and Projected through 2015 28, 2 9 Number of Students Expected in 2015 in African.
Countries on the Basis of Current Trends in Higher. Education Growth 29,Contents ix,2 10 Current Expenditure on Higher Education. and Public Expenditure Required to Expand Higher, Education in Africa at Current Rates and Unit Costs. 2004 15 31, 3 1 Share of Households in National Expenditure on. Higher Education in Select African Countries 2004,or Closest Year 57. 3 2 Average Share of Households in National Expenditure. on Education in 18 African Countries by Level of,Instruction 2004 or Closest Year 58.
3 3 Breakdown of Current Public Expenditure on Higher. Education in Select African Countries 70, 3 4 Trade off between Social and Wage Expenditure within. the Public Higher Education Budget in Select African. Countries 71, 3 5 Proportion of African Students Enrolled in Private. Institutions 35 Countries 2006 or Closest Year 75, 3 6 Distribution of Aid to Higher Education by Region. 2002 06 Average Commitments 95, 3 7 Aid to Education in Sub Saharan Africa by Level of. Education 2002 06 Average 96, 3 8 Total Aid to Africa for Higher Education Commitments.
2002 06 97, 3 9 Direct Aid to Higher Education in Select African. Countries Annual Average Commitments 2001 06 98, 3 10 Direct Aid to Higher Education per Student in Select. African Countries Annual Average Commitments,2001 06 99. 3 11 Assistance from the Partnership for Higher Education in. Africa 2000 08 106, 4 1 Estimated Number of Higher Education Students in. Mali Assuming Current Trends and Regulations in,Secondary Education 2005 16 133.
4 2 Number of Students as a Function of Length of Studies 135. 4 3 Estimated Number of Higher Education Students in. Mali Assuming Current Trends and Various Flow,Management Measures 2005 16 137. 4 4 Number of Foreign Students Studying in Morocco. and Number of Moroccan Students Studying Abroad,2003 06 146. x Contents, 2 1 Public Expenditure on Higher Education as a Percentage. of GDP by Country Group 1990 and 2006 14, 2 2 Share of Higher Education in Current Public Expenditure. on Education by Country Group 1990 and 2006 14, 2 3 Ratio between the Increase in the Number of Higher.
Education Students and the Increase in Public Resources. Allocated to Current Expenditure on Higher Education. by Country Group 1991 and 2006 17, 2 4 Average Gross Enrollment Ratio in 31 Sub Saharan. African Countries by Level of Education 1990 2005 20. 2 5 Average Public Expenditure per Student in,18 Sub Saharan African Countries by Level. of Education 1975 1990 and 2003 21, 2 6 Annual Public Expenditure per Student by Country. Group 1990 and 2006 21,2 7 Number of Scientific Publications and Patent. Applications by Region 2002 26, 2 8 Number of Students and Average Annual Expenditure.
Required to Support the Expansion of Higher Education. in African Countries at Current Enrollment Rates and. Unit Costs 2004 15 32, 2 9 Proportion of Senior Faculty Members in Public. Higher Education Institutions in Select African Countries 34. 3 1 Methods of Allocating the Higher Education Budget in. Select African Countries 42,3 2 Budgeting Modalities 47. 3 3 Entity in Charge of Higher Education Oversight by. Language Area 52, 3 4 Types and Amounts of Tuition Fees in Public Higher. Education Institutions 60, 3 5 Financial Significance of Tuition Fees in Select Countries 67. 3 6 Composition of Higher Education Budget by Country. Group 2006 or Closest Year 69, 3 7 Share of Scholarships Abroad in Current Higher.
Education Expenditures in 19 African Countries,Most Recent Year Available 72. 3 8 Share of Own Resources in the Total Revenue of. Public Higher Education Institutions in Select African. Countries 76,Contents xi, 3 9 Student Financial Assistance Programs in African. Countries 78,3 10 Student Loan Schemes in Africa 83. 3 11 Loan Recovery in Select African Countries 90, 3 12 Indirect Aid to Higher Education in Select African. Countries Annual Average Commitments 2001 06 102, 3 13 Direct and Indirect Aid to Higher Education in Select.
African Countries Annual Average Commitments,2001 06 104. 3 14 Targets for Expenditure on Select Sectoral Priorities 107. 4 1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Funding. Mechanisms 122, 4 2 Measures for the Sustainable Financing of Higher. Education 152,5 1 Changing Approaches to Financial Control in. Madagascar 164, In 2008 the World Bank published Accelerating Catch Up Tertiary. Education for Growth in Sub Saharan Africa which spelled out the case. for more knowledge intensive growth in Africa and described the critical. role of higher education in this endeavor This report demonstrated that. the key for success in a globalized world lies increasingly in how effec. tively a country can assimilate the available knowledge and build compar. ative advantages in areas with good growth prospects and how it can. use technology to address the most pressing environmental challenges. Higher level institutions in Sub Saharan Africa that are equipped to. impart quality education and conduct relevant applied research can play. a critical role in producing workers with the skills to assimilate technol. ogy and make effective decisions that help industry to diversify into a. broader range of products Good quality and relevant higher education is. also a key to stimulating innovations in new varieties of crops new mate. rials or sources of energy that would facilitate progress toward reducing. poverty achieving food security and improving health However higher. level institutions in Sub Saharan Africa face the formidable policy chal. lenge of balancing the need to raise educational quality with increasing. social demand for access And since the task of funding these instituti. ons will become increasingly difficult in the years ahead as the youth. xiv Foreword, population continues to grow each country will have to devise a financ.
ing approach to higher education development that enables it to meet the. challenges, This report is a follow up to the 2008 study It examines current prac. tices in financing higher education in Sub Saharan Africa taking into. account the significant differences that exist among countries Drawing. on experience from around the world the report also examines the range. of policy options that could be considered in tackling the financing issue. Higher Education Institutions in Select African Countries 34 3 1 Methods of Allocating the Higher Education Budget in Select African Countries 42 3 2 Budgeting Modalities 47 3 3 Entity in Charge of Higher Education Oversight by Language Area 52 3 4 Types and Amounts of Tuition Fees in Public Higher Education Institutions 60

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