Evaluation of Communication Skills with Audio Visual Aids

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1 2 Communicative Language Assessment, The central theoretical concept in communicative language teaching is communicative competence and. performance Canale and Swain chose the term communicative competence to refer to the knowledge of the. rules of grammar and sociolinguistic competence or knowledge of the rules of language use 9 According to. the scholars definition an individual cannot directly measure competence because only performance is. observable Put in another way communicative testing cannot be only focused on what the student knows about. the second language and about how to use it competence but also on to what extent the student is able to. demonstrate this knowledge in a meaningful communicative situation performance 9 Consequently paper. tests which are very popular nowadays do not necessarily give valid information about the student s. communication skills in a real situation Thus it is necessary to understand the model of communicative. competence in order to develop communicative language tests which involves formulating test objectives and. dealing with the effects of the test on teaching and learning processes 10. Because communication takes place in many different contexts it is necessary to evaluate not only student s. the language knowledge but consider cognitive cultural and social goals of evaluation too Consequently it is. important to pay closer attention to the particular tasks purposes and settings 11 Thus assessment is not. limited to tests only but includes a variety of language activities that students are involved in during the English. language course, The most used activities improving students oral language performance that requires a. description discussion from the test participants are picture cued tasks responsive speaking interactive speaking. interview and extensive speaking presentation 12,1 3 Research Questions and Hypotheses. Audio visual aids motivate students to learn the foreign language they stimulate and provoke them to speak. Visuals provide an authentic situation in which language is used they reduce anxiety about making mistakes. during communication in foreign language 11 This is the reason to study the process and effectiveness of. using audio visual materials to improve English language students communicative skills as well as an. opportunity to test and evaluate the results The following questions have been addressed in the present research. 1 Do the audio visual materials help achieve higher scores in the communicative test and enhance. English language learning, 2 Do the students prefer to fulfill the tasks with or without audiovisuals. As hypotheses it was assumed that, 3 The audio visual materials help achieve higher scores in the communicative test and enhance.
English language learning, 4 The students prefer to fulfill the tasks with audiovisuals. 2 Methodology,2 1 The Sample and Setting, Twenty English language nursing students from JFM CU participated in the present study They were first. year nursing students learning English who had passed the final leaving exam in English targeted at Level B2 of. the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages CEFR 13 All students participated in the. research study during their regular class The participants were divided into two groups N1 was the sample size. of group one and N2 was the sample size of group two N1 10 N2 10. https doi org 10 15242 HEAIG H1217462 156,2 2 Communicative Language Assessment. All test participants had to accomplish the same tasks in a communicative language test which followed two. weeks after the teaching unit The following tasks were assessed. 1 A picture cued task with the composition of a series of pictures providing information relevant to the. procedure for drawing blood, 2 An interactive speaking task that involved the presentation of the dialogue between a patient and a nurse. taking a blood sample, 3 A responsive speaking task included questions and answers concerning the blood clotting process.
Grammar vocabulary comprehension fluency and pronunciation were categories used by the test. administrator for scoring of the three communicative tasks total score of 36 points Each category was evaluated. and scored separately The following table presents the categories of oral proficiency scores in testing English. for Nurses, TABLE I Categories of Oral Proficiency Scores in Testing English for Nurses. Grade Description,percentage, Fx Unable to function in the spoken language Errors in grammar are frequent and speaker cannot be understood. E Able to satisfy minimum requirements and maintain very simple face to face conversations on simple nursing. 60 65 topics Errors in grammar and pronunciation are frequent but speaker can be understood. Has speaking vocabulary sufficient to express him herself simply with language usage that is often but not always. acceptable and effective Can deal with elementary constructions accurately but does not have control of the. Can speak the language with sufficient structural accuracy and vocabulary to participate effectively in most. conversations on nursing topics Vocabulary is broad enough that he she rarely has to search for a word or an idea. Errors in pronunciation rarely disturb understanding. B Able to use the language fluently and accurately Can understand and participate in a conversation with a high. 81 90 degree of precision of vocabulary Errors in pronunciation are rare. A Grammar vocabulary and speaking proficiency are functionally equivalent to that of native speaker and reflect the. 91 100 cultural standards of the country where the language is spoken. 3 Procedure, Our present study took place in two classrooms at JFM CU in Martin Slovakia Whereas the lesson of G1. was taught and evaluated without audio visual material however G2 used pictures and audiovisuals For the. present study we chose the topic Blood that was part of our teaching curriculum Two weeks after the teaching. unit the students took the communicative language test The test administrator considered the following. categories for scoring of the tasks grammar 2 points vocabulary 2 points comprehension 2 points fluency. 2 points pronunciation 2 points and task fulfilment 2 points The results in both groups of test participants. were then compared and statistically evaluated,3 1 Picture Cued Task. The picture cued task was aimed at the elicitation of oral production through pictures The visuals were used. as a stimulus for a longer description of the procedure of drawing blood First the students were asked to put. pictures in the correct order and then according to these pictures they had to describe the procedure of drawing. blood The objectives of eliciting narrative discourse were production of a correct sentence or phrase. 3 2 Interactive Speaking, The students assignment was to prepare a dialogue between a patient and a nurse taking a blood sample At.
first the exercise was practiced in the form of a pair work activity in class Later interactive speaking was. chosen as the most common oral production task for assessment A test taker and a test administrator proceeded. https doi org 10 15242 HEAIG H1217462 157, through a set of questions and directives As well as linguistic and literacy competence task comprehension. accuracy in pronunciation and fluency the parameters of sociolinguistic appropriateness and task. accomplishment were also tested 4 The interview lasted from five to ten minutes depending on the linguistic. competence as well as communication skills of the test takers. 3 3 Responsive Speaking, The task was based on a previous video watching activity practiced during the English lesson The video. How Does Blood Clot was taken from YouTube While G1 students only listened to the spoken text G2. learners watched the video with captions All questions prepared by the teacher combined testing of. grammatical and discourse competence, After the teaching unit as well as at the end of the communicative test 20 students answered the question in. the questionnaire 14,4 Results and Discussion,4 1 Two Sample T Test with Unequal Variances. In our hypotheses we presupposed that audiovisuals would enhance English language learning as well as. help achieve higher scores in the communicative language test Statistical analyses were based on a comparison. of G1 and G2 learning English with without audio visual materials For data analyses we used two sample t test. with unequal variances There was a statistically significant difference in the picture cued task p 0 0097 in. the interactive speaking task p 0 0068 and in the responsive speaking task p 0 023 Quantitative results. are presented in Table 2 showing the number of participants as well as their mean scores standard deviation. SD and standard error of the mean SEM,TABLE II Quantitative Results of the Tests.
Task Communicative test Forms,1 Picture cued G1 no audiovisuals G2 audiovisuals. Mean 6 20 8 90,SD 2 49 1 60,SEM 0 79 0 50, 2 Interactive speaking G1 no audiovisuals G2 audiovisuals. Mean 6 10 8 70,SD 1 20 2 41,SEM 0 38 0 76, 3 Responsive speaking G1 no audiovisuals G2 audiovisuals. Mean 8 70 10 90,SD 2 41 1 45,SEM 0 76 0 46,4 2 Questionnaire. At the end of the teaching unit Blood as well as the communicative language test the students were asked. to respond to an open question Did you prefer to fulfill the tasks with audio visual aids The five point Likert. scale was used to evaluate the responses 1 Strongly disagree 2 Disagree 3 No opinion 4 Agree 5. Strongly agree Since all students participated in classroom activities containing audio visual material during the. semester it was possible for them to make the comparison The answers to the open question revealed that 90. of students preferred the activities and tasks with audio visual materials reflected by an average rating of 4 51. points on the Likert scale,https doi org 10 15242 HEAIG H1217462 158.
5 Conclusion, Language competences and communication enable people to study and work not only in European states but. all over the world with English arguably the most popular global communication tool Communicative language. teaching and testing activities contribute to better development of communicative competence and performance. in nursing students and prepare them for their future professional life which begins with a job interview and. continues during their career as nurses in real communication with patients In this connection communicative. language tests require test participants to show their ability to combine language skills as in real life situations. Our study confirmed that audiovisuals contribute to better communication performance of test takers which. was measured by awarding points according to the Categories of oral proficiency scores in testing English for. Nurses and led to better scores in G2 students, As open ended tasks include some unreliability there is a problem when using the A to Fx range for scoring. Special attention was thus paid to linguistic as well as communicative criteria It is necessary to say that teachers. should prepare such types of tests to measure students real language competence and performance to make tests. more reliable,6 References, 1 J Habermas Toward a Rational Society Student Protest Science and Politics Beacon Press 1971. 2 D H Hymes On Communicative Competence in Sociolinguistics Selected Readings Ed J B Pride and J Holmes. Harmondsworth Penguin 1972 pp 269 293, 3 S J Savignon A Study of the Effect of Training in Communicative Skills as Part of a Beginning College French. Course on Student Attitude and Achievement in Linguistic and Communicative Competence Doctoral dissertation. University of Illinois Urbana Champaign 1971, 4 C J Weir 1980 2010 Testing Communicative Language Use A Brief Overview Online Available.
http www beds ac uk data assets pdf file 0011 83855 Weir LTF2010 pdf. 5 A Wright Pictures for Language Learning Cambridge Cambridge University Press 2006. 6 K S Fleckenstein Teaching Vision The importance of Imagery in Reading and Writing in Language and Image in. the Reading Writing Classroom Teaching Vision Ed K Fleckenstein I Calendrillo D Worley Mahwah NJ. Erlbaum 2002, 7 A C Saunders Graphics and How They Communicate in Visual Literacy A Spectrum of Visual Learning. Englewood Cliffs NJ Educational Technology Publications Inc 1994 pp 183 192. 8 P Felten Resource Review Visual Literacy in Change The Magazine of Higher Learning 40 6 2008 pp 60 64. Available http www changemag org Archives Back 20Issues November December 202008 abstract visual. literacy html, 9 M Canale M Swain Theoretical Bases of Communicative Approaches to Second Language Teaching and Testing. in Applied Linguistics pp 1 47 January 1980,https doi org 10 1093 applin I 1 1. 10 A Barnau Effective communication and visual aids in teaching ESP a process and outcome evaluation in Proc. Trendy v jazykov m vzd l v n v terci rn sf e v jazykov ch centrech na FF v R a SR 2 testov n a m en. jazykov ch kompetenc 2015 Available https www kal upol cz fileadmin kal dokumenty veda vyzkum trendy v. jazykovem vzdelavani ii BARNAU EDIT FINAL pdf, 11 A Barnau Vizu lna podpora ako motiva n faktor vo v u be angli tiny u tudentov o etrovate stva Visual. Support as a Motivating factor of Teaching English in Nursing Students in Ciz jazyky 2014 2015 vol 58 issue 5. 12 B D uganov Presentations of Specialized Topics as a Way of Testing Communication Skills in Testing language. Evaluation of Communication Skills with Audio Visual Aids Anna Barnau Bo ena D uganov Jessenius Faculty of Medicine Comenius University Slovakia Abstract English a global language is the most popular communication tool which is used as a lingua franca For nursing students it is necessary to have a very wide range of stimulating activities developing communicative competence and

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