ETSI GR QSC 004 V1 1

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2 ETSI GR QSC 004 V1 1 1 2017 03,DGR QSC 004,quantum cryptography security. 650 Route des Lucioles,F 06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex FRANCE. Tel 33 4 92 94 42 00 Fax 33 4 93 65 47 16,Siret N 348 623 562 00017 NAF 742 C. Association but non lucratif enregistr e la,Sous Pr fecture de Grasse 06 N 7803 88. Important notice,The present document can be downloaded from.
http www etsi org standards search, The present document may be made available in electronic versions and or in print The content of any electronic and or. print versions of the present document shall not be modified without the prior written authorization of ETSI In case of any. existing or perceived difference in contents between such versions and or in print the only prevailing document is the. print of the Portable Document Format PDF version kept on a specific network drive within ETSI Secretariat. Users of the present document should be aware that the document may be subject to revision or change of status. Information on the current status of this and other ETSI documents is available at. https portal etsi org TB ETSIDeliverableStatus aspx. If you find errors in the present document please send your comment to one of the following services. https portal etsi org People CommiteeSupportStaff aspx. Copyright Notification, No part may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means electronic or mechanical including photocopying. and microfilm except as authorized by written permission of ETSI. The content of the PDF version shall not be modified without the written authorization of ETSI. The copyright and the foregoing restriction extend to reproduction in all media. European Telecommunications Standards Institute 2017. All rights reserved, DECTTM PLUGTESTSTM UMTSTM and the ETSI logo are Trade Marks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members. 3GPPTM and LTE are Trade Marks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and. of the 3GPP Organizational Partners, GSM and the GSM logo are Trade Marks registered and owned by the GSM Association. 3 ETSI GR QSC 004 V1 1 1 2017 03,Intellectual Property Rights 4.
Foreword 4,Modal verbs terminology 4,Introduction 4. 2 References 5,2 1 Normative references 5,2 2 Informative references 5. 3 Abbreviations 6,4 Overview of approach to threat assessment 6. 5 Assessment of Quantum Computing timetable 8,5 1 Overview 8. 5 2 QC requirements for Shor s algorithm 9,5 3 QC requirements for Grover s algorithm 9.
6 Threat assessment against aspects of QC deployments 9. 6 1 Algorithm vulnerabilities 9,6 1 1 Overview 9,6 1 2 Symmetric algorithms 10. 6 1 3 Public key cryptography 10,6 1 4 Random number generation 10. 6 2 Security Protocols 11,6 2 1 Introduction 11,6 2 2 Transport Layer Security TLS 11. 6 2 3 Internet Protocol Security IPSec Internet Key Exchange IKE 11. 6 2 4 Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Exchange S MIME 12. 6 2 5 Public Key Infrastructure PKI 12,6 2 6 Application of security protocols 12. 7 Industry specific issues 13,7 1 Banking and e commerce 13.
7 2 Intelligent Transport Systems 13,7 3 eHealth 15. 7 4 Trusted Platform Modules 17,7 5 Digital Media and Content Protection 18. 7 5 1 System overview 18, 7 5 2 Digital Transmission Licensing Authority DTLA 18. 7 5 3 Digital Living Network Alliance DLNA 18, 7 5 4 Advanced Access Content System Licensing Authority AACSLA 18. 8 Summary conclusions and recommendations 19,Annex A Authors contributors 20.
Annex B Bibliography 21,Annex C Change History 22,History 23. 4 ETSI GR QSC 004 V1 1 1 2017 03,Intellectual Property Rights. IPRs essential or potentially essential to the present document may have been declared to ETSI The information. pertaining to these essential IPRs if any is publicly available for ETSI members and non members and can be found. in ETSI SR 000 314 Intellectual Property Rights IPRs Essential or potentially Essential IPRs notified to ETSI in. respect of ETSI standards which is available from the ETSI Secretariat Latest updates are available on the ETSI Web. server https ipr etsi org, Pursuant to the ETSI IPR Policy no investigation including IPR searches has been carried out by ETSI No guarantee. can be given as to the existence of other IPRs not referenced in ETSI SR 000 314 or the updates on the ETSI Web. server which are or may be or may become essential to the present document. This Group Report GR has been produced by ETSI Industry Specification Group ISG Quantum Safe Cryptography. Modal verbs terminology, In the present document should should not may need not will will not can and cannot are to be. interpreted as described in clause 3 2 of the ETSI Drafting Rules Verbal forms for the expression of provisions. must and must not are NOT allowed in ETSI deliverables except when used in direct citation. Introduction, Quantum Computers QC represent a paradigm shift in computing and the result of having any quantum computer of.
reasonable size and availability is that the existing hard problems upon which the asymmetric cryptography domain is. built will not be considered hard anymore The simple result is that asymmetric cryptography using Elliptic Curves or. number factorization will be invalidated Similarly there will be an impact on the security level afforded by symmetric. cryptographic schemes Much of the this is well known and documented in ETSI s White Paper i 2 and in the ETSI. Guide on the impact of quantum computing on business continuity i 4 and many other places The purpose of the. present document is to expand a little on the previous publications in this field but with a general reflection that the. concern worry regarding a quantum computing attack is not going to have the same impact across all users of quantum. vulnerable cryptography, The present document gives a very simplified consideration of the attack likelihood for when a viable QC exists and. reflects that risk against the business sectors requirements in order to know how to use cryptographic technology in the. sector This is used to assist industry in determining how long they have to respond to the availability of QC and retain. trust and security in their operations,5 ETSI GR QSC 004 V1 1 1 2017 03. The present document presents the results of a simplified threat assessment following the guidelines of ETSI. TS 102 165 1 i 3 for a number of use cases The method and key results of the analysis is described in clause 4. The present document makes a number of assumptions regarding the timescale for the deployment of viable quantum. computers however the overriding assertion is that quantum computing will become viable in due course This is. examined in more detail in clause 5, The impact of quantum computing attacks on the cryptographic deployments used in a number of existing industrial. deployment scenarios are considered in clause 7,2 References. 2 1 Normative references, Normative references are not applicable in the present document.
2 2 Informative references, References are either specific identified by date of publication and or edition number or version number or. non specific For specific references only the cited version applies For non specific references the latest version of the. referenced document including any amendments applies. NOTE While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication ETSI cannot guarantee. their long term validity, The following referenced documents are not necessary for the application of the present document but they assist the. user with regard to a particular subject area, i 1 ETSI White Paper Quantum Safe Cryptography V1 0 0 2014 10 Quantum Safe Cryptography. and Security An introduction benefits enablers and challenges ISBN 979 10 92620 03 0. i 2 Selecting Cryptographic Key Sizes Arjen K Lenstra and Eric R Verheul Journal Of Cryptology. vol 14 p 255 293 2001, i 3 ETSI TS 102 165 1 Telecommunications and Internet converged Services and Protocols for. Advanced Networking TISPAN Methods and protocols Part 1 Method and proforma for. Threat Risk Vulnerability Analysis, i 4 ETSI EG 203 310 V1 1 1 CYBER Quantum Computing Impact on security of ICT Systems.
Recommendations on Business Continuity and Algorithm Selection. i 5 ISO HL7 21731 2014 Health informatics HL7 version 3 Reference information model. i 6 Digital Living Network Alliance DNLA Guidelines. NOTE Available from http www dlna org guidelines, i 7 Advanced Access Content System AACS Introduction and Common Cryptographic Elements. NOTE Available from http www aacsla com specifications specs091 AACS Spec Common 0 91 pdf. i 8 ETSI TS 102 940 Intelligent Transport Systems ITS Security ITS communications security. architecture and security management,6 ETSI GR QSC 004 V1 1 1 2017 03. 3 Abbreviations, For the purposes of the present document the following abbreviations apply. AACS Advanced Access Control System, AACSLA Advanced Access Content System Licensing Authority. AEAD Authenticated Encryption with Associated Data. AES Advanced Encryption Standard,CA Certificate Authority.
CAM Co operative Awareness Message,CIA Confidentiality Integrity Availability. DEM Event Notification Message,DH Diffie Hellman,DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration PRotocol. DLNA Digital Living Network Alliance,DSA Digital Signature Algorithm. DTCP Digital Transmission Content Protection,DTLA Digital Transmission Licensing Authority. DTS Datagram TLS,EAP Extensible Authentication Protocol.
EC Elliptic Curve,ECC Elliptic Curve Cryptography,ECDH Elliptic Curve Diffie Hellman. ECDSA Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithms,EV Extended Validation Certificate. HRNG Hardware Random Number Generator,ICT Information Communication Technology. IKE Internet Key Exchange,IP Internet Protocol,ITS Intelligent Transport System. ITS S Intelligent Transport System Station,LAN Local Area Network.
MAC Message Authentication Code,PKI Public Key Infrastructure. QC Quantum Computer or Quantum Computing,QSC Quantum Safe Cryptography. RSA Rivest Shamir Adleman,TCP Transmission control Protocol. TLS Transport Layer Security,TPM Trusted Platform Module. UDP User Datagram Protocol,VPN Virtual Private Network.
WAP Wi Fi Protected Access,XML eXtensible Markup Language. 4 Overview of approach to threat assessment, Threat assessment in most environments consider 2 metrics Likelihood of an attack and impact of the attack. Underlying these metrics are a further set of metrics addressing such issues as availability requirements i e time. needed to access the vulnerability equipment i e the complexity or cost of equipment needed to launch the attack. and so forth which are described in some detail in ETS TS 102 165 1 i 3 The calculation of risk is taken most often as. the product of likelihood and impact and categorized as high medium or low different risk management systems may. use more than 3 classifications but ETSI s approach has only considered 3 with a view to defining countermeasures. against high and medium risk vulnerabilities, The considerations behind the security of most cryptographic systems is that the security strength of an algorithm is. optimal when the only feasible attack is brute force evaluation of the key space. 7 ETSI GR QSC 004 V1 1 1 2017 03, ETSI EG 203 310 i 4 states with some editorial extensions. if the promise of quantum computing holds true then the following impacts will be immediate on the assumption that. the existence of viable quantum computing resources will be used against cryptographic deployments. Symmetric cryptographic strength will be halved e g AES with 128 bit keys giving 128 bit strength will be. reduced to 64 bit strength in other words to retain 128 bit security will require to implement 256 bit keys. Elliptic curve cryptography will offer no security. RSA based public key cryptography will offer no security. The Diffie Hellman Merkle key agreement protocol will offer no security. NOTE The common practice is to refer to the key agreement protocol developed by Messrs Diffie Hellman and. Merkle as simply the Diffie Hellman or DH protocol as the formal recognition of Merkle s role was made. after DH became the accepted term, With the advent of realizable Quantum Computers everything that has been transmitted or stored and that has been.
protected by one of the known to be vulnerable algorithms or that will ever be stored or transmitted will become. unprotected and thus vulnerable to public disclosure. The purpose of threat assessment is in part to identify where protective measures should be applied for countering the. threat The quantification of risk assists this by addressing those parts of the system most vulnerable and recommending. where countermeasures should be applied For the specific case of the impact of quantum Computing on the security of. ICT systems as addressed by ETSI EG 203 310 i 4 the broad assertion for business continuity is that systems have to. be developed and deployed to be crypto agile The intent is to ensure that processes are in place that allow algorithms. and keys to be changed across the business quickly enough to counter the viable introduction of quantum computers. The factors to be considered in assessment of the likelihood element in determining the potential of an attack are the. System knowledge, For the majority of crypto systems under consideration it should be assumed that the algorithms are. 5 ETSI GR QSC 004 V1 1 1 2017 03 1 Scope The present document presents the results of a simplified threat assessment following the guidelines of ETSI TS 102 165 1 i 3 for a number of use cases The method and key results of the analysis is described in clause 4 The present document makes a number of assumptions regarding the timescale for the deployment of viable quantum computers

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