Environmental Factors and Technology in Growing Plants

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Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education Inc Upper Saddle River New Jersey 07458. Pearson Prentice Hall All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America This publication is protected by. Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction storage in a. retrieval system or transmission in any form or by any means electronic mechanical photocopying recording or. likewise For information regarding permission s write to Rights and Permissions Department. Pearson Prentice Hall is a trademark of Pearson Education Inc. Pearson is a registered trademark of Pearson plc, Prentice Hall is a registered trademark of Pearson Education Inc. Pearson Education LTD Pearson Education Australia PTY Limited. Pearson Education Singapore Pte Ltd Pearson Education North Asia Ltd. Pearson Education Canada Ltd Pearson Educa ion de Mexico S A de C V. Pearson Education Japan Pearson Education Malaysia Pte Ltd. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1,ISBN 0 13 112397 1,TABLE OF CONTENTS. Section Chapter Title Page,Introduction v,Overview of the Plant Sciences. Chapter 1 Introduction to the Plant Sciences 1,Chapter 2 Plants and Society 3. Chapter 3 Plants as Industries 5,Chapter 4 The Sciences of Plants 8.
Basics of Plant Growth and Development, Chapter 5 Introduction to Plant Growth and Development 10. Chapter 6 An Overview of Photosynthesis and Respiration 12. Chapter 7 Plant Hormones 15, Chapter 8 Some Ecological Principles in Plant Growth and. Production 18, Environmental Factors that Influence Plant Growth and Crop. Production Technologies, Chapter 9 Introduction to the Role of the Environment in. Plant Growth and Development 20,Aerial Factors,Chapter 10 Overview of the Aerial Environment 22.
Chapter 11 Irradiance 24,Chapter 12 Temperature 28. Chapter 13 Atmospheric Gases 32,Chapter 14 Air Pollutants 35. Chapter 15 Mechanical Disturbances 38,Rhizopshere Factors. Chapter 16 Overview of the Rhizosphere 42,Chapter 17 Water 44. Chapter 18 Nutrients 48,Chapter 19 Soil Organisms 52.
Chapter 20 Allelochemicals 55,Introduction, The textbook Principles of Plant Science Environmental Factors and Technology. in Growing Plants provides a unique plant science text that emphasizes understanding the. role of the environment in plant growth and development instead of the more traditional. focus topics of analyzing the industries and surveying important crops By emphasizing. the scientific principles associated with the biological effects that the various. environmental factors have on plant development it is envisioned that the reader would. be better equipped to understand current and emerging technologies that modify the. environment to improve plant production, The instructor s manual to Principles of Plant Science Environmental Factors. and Technology in Growing Plants is designed to facilitate the use of the text in plant. science or horticulture courses that would be taken before a student enrolls in the. various advanced plant production courses such as agronomy crop science vegetable. crops small fruits pomology and floriculture The material may also be utilized for. plant growth and development or applied introductory plant physiology courses taught at. universities junior colleges or community colleges To assist the instructor the manual. is divided according to the chapters in the textbook Each chapter in the manual is then. divided into five sections chapter outline important concepts important terminology to. define and understand answers to end of chapter questions and additional questions. The chapter outline section provides a brief overview of the chapter The. important concepts section presents major points or issues within the chapter and the. important terminology section is a listing of terms used in the chapter that may need. further defining or explaining the definition to many of these terms may be found in the. glossary section at the end of the textbook The answers to the end of the chapter. section provides responses to the odd numbered questions at the end of the textbook. chapter and the additional questions section is a listing of supplementary questions that. could be used for further discussion or testing,CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE PLANT SCIENCES. Chapter outline,I Plants in Society,II Plants in Industries. III Plants in Science,Important Concepts, Early humans undoubtedly observed that plants were greatly affected by the.
environment It envisioned that seasonal cropping cycles serendipitous successful. plantings beneficial uses of certain plants were noted by these early ancestors and. passed on to future generations, Agriculturalists have long known the importance of the environment on plant growth. and early farmers were some of the first to manipulate or modify the growing. environment to provide a more conducive environment for plant growth. As growing plants and animals became more specialized and agriculture continued to. evolved the understanding of the role of the environment in successful food and fiber. production became more of a science Botany or the study of plants developed as. science and investigations on the taxonomy anatomy morphology physiology and. ecology of plants were institutionalized as fields of advanced study at institutions of. higher learning, The areas of plant study that placed major emphasis on the use of plants by humans. or as agricultural products or crops became known as the plant sciences The plant. sciences evolved to specialized crop commodity fields such as agronomy horticulture. and forestry and specialized cross commodity fields such as plant pathology. entomology integrated pest management,Important terminology to define and understand. plant science botany agronomy,horticulture integrative pest management forestry. cropping cycles growing environment taxonomy,morphology physiology ecology.
Answers to end of chapter questions, 1 Beneficial uses plants were noted by the early ancestors and passed on to future. generations as paintings drawings and written and oral stories. 3 Plant science is a specialized area of study of botany that emphasizes the use of. plants in agricultural applications,Additional questions. 1 What are some of the different ways that the plant sciences can be divided. 2 What does the success of most agricultural businesses depend upon. 3 What role did the land grant universities have on the developing field of the plant. CHAPTER 2 PLANTS AND SOCIETY,Chapter outline,I History of Agriculture. II The First Cultivated Plants,III Development of Agricultural Crops. IV Timeline for Domestication of Important Crops,V Contemporary Crop Improvement Programs.
Important Concepts, About 10 000 years ago man changed from primarily gathering food to producing. food Eventually through cultivation of plants and domestication of animals. humans were able to produce sufficient food to free them from the constant search. for their next meal and humans began to live together in towns and villages. Since many of the earliest uses of agricultural plants were medicinal herbals are some. of the earliest and most important plant science manuals. A plant s center of origin is the geographical area where a species is believed to have. evolved through natural selection from its ancestors This is also the plant s center. of diversity where a pool of genes exists for use by plant breeders in crop. improvement programs, During the development of agriculture and plant domestication some plants were. domesticated earlier or easier than others were, Early plant gatherers applied self serving criteria to decide which plants to gather Of. utmost importance was size As a result of continually choosing the largest fruit of. the wild plants through the years many of the crops that under went domestication. have bigger fruits than their wild ancestors had An another criterion used by plant. gatherers was taste Many wild seeds are bitter tasting yet their fruits are sweet and. Today s plant breeding and genetic programs continue to utilize the basic concepts of. genetics and controlled plant crosses Many of today s crop improvement programs. also utilize the modern concepts of molecular genetics tissue culture and genetic. engineering,Important terminology to define and understand. domestication monasteries herbals, centers of origin artificial selection natural selection.
seed dispersal self pollinated germination,plant breeding genetics plant crosses. mass selection phenotype cross pollination,hybrid genetic engineering tissue culture. Answers to end of chapter questions, 1 Through cultivation of plants and domestication of animals humans were able to. produce sufficient food to free them from the constant search for their next meal. With the development of a dependable food source humans began to live together. and villages and towns came into existence, 3 Dispersal may occur by the plants or their seeds being blown about in the wind or. floating in the water Some plants are carried by animals by enclosing the seeds. within tasty fruit and advertising the fruit ripeness by color or smell Other plants. produced fruit that are adapted to being eaten by a particular animal Many wild. plants have specialized mechanisms that scatter seeds and generally make them. unavailable to humans, 5 These crops may have been domesticated earlier because they came from wild.
ancestors that had many characteristics that were advantageous for the process of. domestication Some of these advantages include seeds that were edible in the wild. and could be readily stored and plants that were easily grown from sowing grew. quickly were self pollinated Overall few genetic changes were required of these. crops to go from wild plants to domesticated plants. Additional questions, 1 What is a plant s center of origin and what is the importance of knowing the. center of origin, 2 What may have been the role of human latrines and garbage dumps of primitive. societies in the domestication of plants,3 What is genetic engineering. CHAPTER 3 PLANTS AS INDUSTRIES,Chapter outline, I Historical Periods of the US and the Development of Plant. related Agricultural Industries,A Colonists and Early Settlers.
B Post Civil War,C Pre World War II,D Post World War II. E Relatively Recent Times,II US Agriculture and Crop Production. III Agricultural Segments of Crop Production Industries. A Cereal or grain crops,B Forage crops,C Fiber crops. E Oilseed crops, IV Horticultural Segments of Crop Production Industries. A Vegetable crops,B Commercial Production,1 Fresh Market.
2 Processing,C Fruit and nut crops,D Nursery and greenhouse crops. E Niche crops,F Home gardens,Important Concepts, The share of consumer expenditures for food in the U S is the lowest in the world. only approximately 12 of the disposable income for an average consumer. American Colonists were largely self supporting growing vegetables for their own use. The change from hand power to horses characterized the first American agricultural. revolution, Many products that were developed prior to or during the civil war increased the. productivity of each laborer in harvesting planting and cultivating fields The. increased productivity of farm workers led to surpluses of agricultural products and. thus lower prices This affected the livelihood of many farm workers and the supply. of available labor at times exceeded the demands resulting in unemployment. Large population centers became largely dependent upon special producers for their. food supply and as a result commercial production of crops developed near. population centers, For much of the early 1900s American agricultural policy was guided by the. philosophy that society would best be served by traditional family size owner. operated farms, The improvement in technology in food handling systems including refrigeration.
developed during wartime and the changing economic structure of American. agriculture spurred by the highway expansion of the 1950s all favored those growers. who could supply the market with a large volume over a prolonged period of time. Small farms were inefficient and many either failed or enlarged to meet new. challenges, The change from horses to tractors after 1945 and the adoption of a group of. technological practices characterized the second American agricultural revolution. In the 1980s targeted marketing replaced mass marketing During the 1990s and. early 2000s more farmers began to use low input sustainable techniques to decrease. chemical applications, Total U S agricultural output increased at an average annual rate of 1 88 over the. period 1948 to 1999 In 2002 the total U S farm cash receipts for agriculture was in. excess of 217 billion Crop cash receipts accounted for in excess of 97 2 billion of. this amount, With the productivity of U S agriculture growing faster than domestic food and fiber. demand U S farmers and agricultural firms rely heavily on export markets to sustain. prices and revenues Historically the bulk commodities such as wheat rice coarse. grains oilseeds cotton and tobacco accounted for most U S agricultural exports. However in the 1990 s as population and incomes worldwide rose U S exports of. high value products i e meats poultry live animals meals oils fruits vegetables. v Introduction The textbook Principles of Plant Science Environmental Factors and Technology in Growing Plants provides a unique plant science text that emphasizes understanding the role of the environment in plant growth and development instead of the more traditional focus topics of analyzing the industries and surveying important crops

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